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CALIFORNIA 
STATE LIBRARY 



Call 



N ,*c Wt) 



5007 120S1b7 

California State Library 



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OFFICIAL PAPER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 

INDEX— VOLUME 44 

JANUARY, 1930— DECEMBER, 1030 

A special Index of the Proceedings of the Thirty-second Convention of tht International Seamen's Union 
of America will be found on pages 208-211. *^fe^ * £-* r f?> * u 



Title Page 

A 

Able Seamen's Certificates....99, 110. Ill, 118, 136. 149 

Able Seamen's Discharge, Forging of an 20 

Accidental Deaths 425 

Accident and Sickness Insurance in France 37 

Accidents on Pacific Coast Ships — Bv Byron O. 

Pickard 479 

Aerial Navigation 452 

Agreements — 

Alaska Fishermen's Union with Alaska Pack- 
ers' Association 221 

Great Lakes District Unions with Cleveland 

and Buffalo Transit Co 289 

Alaska's Coal Deposits 422 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement* 221 

Alaska's Gold Output 481 

Alaska Packers' Association, Finances of 80 

Alien Seamen, Deportation of 263 

Alien Seamen's Desertion 295 

American Capital Abroad 77 

American Federation of Labor — 

Report of I. S. U. of A. Delegates to Toronto 

Convention 112 

Gompers Memorial Fund 109 

U. S. Senate Rejects Judge Parker 279 

Adjournment of Congress 350 

Labor Day Message of President "William 

Green 375 

Relief for Unemployment Outlined by Boston 

Convention 439 

The Shorter Workday* 447 

Increase in Membership 462 

Samuel Gompers Schoo' in New York City 462 

•All editorial matter is designated by an asterisk (*). 



Title 



American Merchant Marine- 
of A 



Page 

-Policy of I. S. U. 

106, 132 

Arabs on British Ships 313 

Arbitration in Australia* 8 

Arbitration in Norway* 316 

Arctic, An Island in the 385 

Argentine. Eight-Hour Workday in 272 

Asiatics, Exclusion, Etc. — 

The Seamen of Japan 3 

Problems of the Pacific, Kyoto Meeting of the 

Institute of Pacific Relations 35 

Exclude the Filipinos* 38 

Filipino Independence 50, 259 

Fooling the Passengers* (Chinese Crews) 73 

Japan Seamen's Union 3. 115. 118, 139, 252. 380 

Seamen's Social Insurance in Japan 220 

Filipino Exclusion* 221 

Filipinos in California 247 

Communism Across the Pacific* 251 

Chinese Exclusion 252 

Floating Factories of Japan 292 

Jobs for Filipino Boys* 318 

Japan ReHricts Immigration 353 

Asia and World Population 355 

Piracy in Chinese Waters 355 

Asiatic Labor Congress Postponed 368 

Bunji Suzuki, President of General Federation 

of Labor in Japan. Visits California 411 

Labor Unions in Japan 425 

Japanese Migration to Brazil 433 

Minimum Scale for Wireless Operators on 
Japanese Vessels 441 

Chinese Customs Service 441 



THE SEAMEN'S TOURNAL INDEX—VOLUME FORTV-ForR 



Title Pag* 

Chinese Imported by States Steamship Co.. of 

Portland. Oregon 443 

Atlantic. Tenth Flight Across the 454 

Attorneys, Reports of. to President Furuseth 200 

Australia, Arbitration in* 8 

Australia. Communism in* 251 

Australia. Labor Policies in 477 

Australia, Population of 422 

B 

Banking (Labor) in the United States 53 

Bird Life at Sea, Protection of 391 
Book Reviews — 

Commodore David Porter — i'.\ Archiha'.i 

Turnbull 20 

Voyages to the Fast Indies— By an unknown 



autbor 

From Sandy Hook to Sixty- Tw 
Charles Edward Russell 



21 



Degrees — By 



Falmouth for Orders — By A. J. Villiers 53 

Hours of Work on Board Ship — By Inter- 
national Labor Office 84 

Labor Banking in the United States — By De- 
partment of Economics oi Princeton Uni- 
versity 85 

Cheap and Contented Labor — By Sinclair 

Lewis 233 

The Wonders of Salvage — By David Masters 2?>3 

Up Anchor— By I). Harold Hickey 265 

Masters and Mates Manual oi Naval Archi- 
tecture — By C. C. Manning 265 

Gray Seas — By Rex Clements 297 

America's Naval Challenge — By Frederick 

Moore 2 {) 7 

Knight's Modern Seamanship — By Harry A. 

Baldridge 329 

Labor and Internationalism — By Lewis L. 

Lor win 360 

How to Commit a Murder— By Danny Ahearn 360 
A Great Sea Mystery (The Marie Celeste) — 

By J. G. Lockhart." 302 

The Art of Reading— By Henry Guppy 392 

To the South Seas — By Gifford Pinchol 425 

Men and Machines — By Stuart Cbase 456 

Equitable Society and How to Create It — By 

Warren Edwin Brokaw 485 

Mexican Labor in the United States 485 

Brazil. Japanese Migration to 432 

Brazil, The Republic of 453 

British Columbia Minimum Wage Board 463 

British Empire, Effects of Shipping on 429 

British Labor Congress 13 

British Maritime Board* 370 

British Merchant Marine. Employment of Col- 
ored Seamen in 281 

British National Maritime Board 283 

British National Union of Seamen 

101. 108. 110. 1H,. 120. 134. 150. 151 

British Sailing Ships 488 

British Seamen, Census of 17 

British Seamen's Pension Fund 473, 478 

British Trade Union Congress. Sixty-second 

Session 415. 465 

Brooklyn, Wreck of the* 474 



Title Page 

Brooklyn, Wreck of — The Story of Jorgen Greve 489 

Bubonic Plagtie 361 

Buddhism. The Holy Shrine of llti 

Business Agent. The 483 

Byrd, Admiral, Return from South Pole Expedi- 
tion* 346 



Cabins for the Crew* 219 

Calendar. Revising the 450 

C ilF'irnia. Mexicans in 447 

California's Nautical Schoolship 2'>7 

California State Federation oi Labor's Annual 

i oirvcnlion 420 

:;ia State Compensation Insurance Fund W 

Canada's Immigration Problem 227 

Canada's Merchant Marine 384 

Canada. Seamen of 108, 134 

Canada's Shipping Law- 288 

Canadian Marine Hospital 47 

Carnegie, Non-Magnetic Research Vessel De- 
stroyed by Fire 33 

Charity Through the Seamen's Church Insti- 
tute* 218, 2S5. 411 

Child Labor at Sea 25 

Child Marriages 422 

China, Communism in* 251 

Chinese — See "Asiatics." 

Citizenship — See "Immigration Naturalization." 
Coal Miner-. Five and One-Half Year Agree- 
ment 

Collisions. Editorial Comment on- See "Wrecks." 

('.dor Blindness, Tests for 

Comfort and Luxuries* 

Communists — Heresy Hunters* 

Communism Among Seamen 

Communism Across the Pacific* 

Communists, Investigation by Congressional 

Committee* 

Communists Defeated in Australia 

Company Unions, A Jolt for 

Constellations. The 

Constitution oi I. S. U. of A 

Court Decisions, Maritime, Labor, Legal Notes, 
Etc.— 

Loss of Passenger's Personal Property 

Forging an Able Seamen's Discharge 

Seamen's Priority Right to Wages 

Boss Stevedore Liable for Brutal Foreman... 

Shipowner Liable for Assault by Subordinate 

Officer 

Bonus for Staying with L'nseaworthy Shi 
Reports of Attorneys to President Andrew 

Furuseth 

Double Wages for Waiting Time 

Alaska Fishermen's Wage Claims 

Deportation of Alien Seamen 

Alien Seamen's Time of Entry... 

A Shipmaster's Responsibilities 

Alien Seamen's I )esertion 

1 )amages for Assault 

Wages After Shipwreck 

Suing in the Wrong Court 



355 

44 
6 

41 

22-r 
251 

443 
477 
315 
421 
141 



19 
20 

51 

51 

83 
83 

2 '7 
2M) 
231 
263 

2'^ 

327 
327 

359 



141194 

THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX 



-VOLUME FORTY-FOUR 



Title Page 

Law Violation by Agreement 381 

Alien Seamen's Leave to Land 391 

Seamen's Employment Risks 423 

Definition of Piracy . 455 

Pacifist Admitted to Citizenship 455 

Carrier Held Liable for Strike Damage 487 

Seamen's Assumption of Risk 487 

Credit Union, Marine, Ltd. — By Clyde W. Deal 67 

Cuba, The Seamen of 101, 115, 259 

Cuba, Trade Unionism in 323 

Cunard Steamship Company — Ninetieth Anni- 
versary 365 

Cunard Steamship Company — Pension Age Limit 472 

Cyclops, Mystery of the 393 

D-E 

Danish Sailors' and Firemen's Unions — New 

Headquarters 472 

Deaths, Accidental 425 

Diesel Engine, The 322 

Discouraged, Are You?* 253 

"Dole System," What Is the 407 

Dollar's (Mr.) Embarrassment* 9 

Ecuador's Centenary 419 

Educator Flays Specialist 21 

Elections, Here and There* 410 

Electric Merchant Fleet, American 459 

Elephants, Dead 296 

Europe, A United States of 488 

Evolution, Conscious 391 

F 

Fairfax-Pinthis Disaster* 316, 346 

Filipinos, Exclude the* 38 

Filipino Boys, jobs for* 318 

Filipino Independence 50, 259 

Filipinos in California 247 

Filipinos — See "Asiatics." 
Fisheries, Etc. — 

Fishermen's Cooperative Societies in Canadian 

Maritime Provinces 68 

Finances of Alaska Packers' Association 80 

Tree-Climbing Fishes 82 

Charters Granted to Fishermen's Unions of 
Tillamook County, Oregon and Pensacola, 

Florida : 218 

Alaska Fishermen's Agreement 221 

Fishermen's Wage Claims Against Alaska- 
Portland Packers' Association 231 

Pity the Poor Whale 259 

Floating Factories 291 

The Perils of Whaling 291 

Pacific Salmon Pack 326 

Whale Electrocution 416 

Halibut Schooner Orient Sunk After Collision 426 

Whaling Enterprises, Finances of 459 

Africa Whaling Company, Profits of 491 

Floating Factories 291 

Food Supply and Surplus Population 36 

Forced Labor, Abolition of — By Leifur Mag- 

nusson 385 

Forced Labor— By Andrew Furuseth 99, 121, 162 



Title Page 

France, Seamen's Sickness and Accident Insur- 
ance 2>7 

Freight and Surplus Tonnage* 381 

French Decoration, A New 321 

Fuhrman, Alfred, Articles by — 

Singapore and Smoke 16 

The Wonders of Delhi 48 

Tree-Climbing Fishes 82 

Tourists and Travelers 229 

The Parsee Towers of Silence 261 

Agra and the Taj Mahal 294 

The Jains of India 325 

The Holy Shrine of Buddhism 356 

The Drink Question 388 

Furuseth, Andrew, Articles by — 

A New Year's Greeting 11 

The "Yellow Dog" Contract 78 

Report to Thirty-second Convention 98 

Report on Mission to Europe 150 

Report on Forced Labor 162 

Report on International Conference on Safety 

of Life at Sea 193 

Message to Forty-fifth Anniversary of the Sail- 
ors' Union of the Pacific 223 

The Training of Merchant Marine Officers 319 

Legislative Report 343 

G 

German Ships' Officers, Training of 376 

German Seamen, Wage Scale 5 

Germany's Maritime Growth 488 

Girls on Their First Trip* 39 

Goal, Which Is Your?* 7 

Golf Course on French Liner 428 

Great Britain — See "British." 

Great Lakes — 

Review of the Year 1929 12 

The Undermanning Evil — By C. M. Goshorn 43 

Retirement of George Hansen 51 

Law Enforcement — By C. M. Goshorn 67 

Union Seamen Commended* 74 

Ford Motor Company's Freighters. 81 

Communism Among Seamen..... 225 

Concealed Opposition 319 

Great Lakes Tonnage 326 

Law Violation by Agreement 361 

Windsor Ferry Unfair 337 

Law Enforcement on the Great Lakes — By 

C. M. Goshorn 415 

LaFollette Bill Endorsed by Illinois State 

Federation of Labor 452 

Great Lakes Sailors' Protest Twelve-Hour 

Workday 471 

The Twelve-Hour Day* 477 

H 

Haiti, Democracy in 49 

Hawaii, Imports and Exports 459 

Health and Long Life 399 

Helm Orders, New 223 

Heroism or Suicide? 225 



THE SEAMEN'S [OURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-FOUR 



Title Page 

Homesteads, American 417 

Hospital, Canadian Marine 47 



Title 



Page 



Icebergs, Detecting 294 

Icebergs, The Menace of 387 

Icebergs, The Origin of 418 

Iceland, Social Life in 389 

Immigration, Naturalization, Etc. — 
See, also, "Asiatic-.'" 

( )rigin of American People 75 

Migration of Mennonites 79 

Canada's Immigration Problem 227 

Immigration and Unemployment 315 

Asia and World Population 355 

Fines for Rejected Immigrants 423 

Mexicans in California 447 

Pacifist Admitted to Citizenship 455 

Withholding Visas From Immigrants 462 

Mexican Labor in the United States 485 

Immigration Restrictions in Guatemala 497 

India, Communism In* 251 

Indian Seamen's Union 44'; 

Injunctions, The Inequity of 387 

Insurance Game, The 488 

Institute of Pacific Relations. Kyoto Meeting 35 

International Seafarers' Federation, Agreement 

with 146 

International Seamen's Union of America — 
Third Maritime Conference of the Inter- 
national Labor Office 15 

Hours of Work on Hoard Ship 84 

Proceedings of the Thirty-second Convention.. 97 

Safety of Life at Sea 100, 167, 124. 133, 192, 350 

Index to Proceedings 208 

Declaration of Policy ---For the Development 
and Support of the American Merchant 

Marine 106, 132 

The Three-Watch System 108 

Relations with Shipowners 106, 130 

Election of Officers 100, 130. 139. 140 

Constitution, as Amended 141 

Reports of Attorneys to President Furuseth. 200 
Training of Merchant Marine Officers 2<X7, 319, 351 
Third National Merchant Marine Conference 311 

Furuseth's Legislative Report 343 

National Maritime Boards of Great Britain and 

Japan 378 

Italy, The Seamen of* 348 

Italy, Trade-Unions in 93 

J-K 

Japan, Communism in* 251 

Japan, National Maritime Board of* 379 

Japanese — See "Asiatics." 

Japan Seamen's Union 3, 115, IPS, 139, 252, 390 

Johnson. Senator Hiram \\'.. Address Opposing 

Confirmation of Judge Parker 279 

Justice in North Carolina — By Norman Thomas 79 

Kara Sea Expedition, Annual 4nl 

Kyoto Meeting of the Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions 35 



Labor Banking in the United States 85 

Labor Conferences. International — see Index on 

Page 209. 

Labor Day Messages 375 

Labor Unions — See "Trade Unions." 

Ladies, Lawless 324 

La Follette, Senator, Honored 61 

Licensed Officers' Convention 76 

Lifeboatmen's Certificates 110, 130 

Lifeboats. Launching oi * 475 

Lifeboat Race, Annual, at New York 409 

I .ife, Prolonging 344 

Lloyd's Register Statistics 383, 468 

Longshore Boss Liable for Brutal Foreman 51 

Longshore Labor Conditions 457 

Longshore Work — Treaty in re Accidents 

99. 120. 124. 152 

Loyalty, Thoughts on* 251 

M 

Machine Competition 321 

Machine- Made Wealth 383 

Machine Production 296 

Man. The Future ,>i 230 

Manchuria. Problems of 36 

Manning Scale on Swedish Ships 280 

Marine Accident Causations 47 ( > 

Marine Credit Union, Ltd.— By Clyde W. Deal 67 

Marine Hospital, Canadian 47 

Marine Wreckers League, The* 9 

Maritime Conference (Third) at Geneva 15 

Maritime Board. National in Great Britain and 

Japan 283 

Marriages. Child 422 

Masefield, John. The New British Poet Laure- 
ate* 284 

Medical Care, Cost of 399 

Merchant Marine Conferences 106 

Merchant Marine Officers. Training of. .287, 319, 351 
Merchant Marine. Third National Conference at 

Washington, 1). C 311 

Mexican Immigration . 262 

Mexican Trade-Unions .. 272 

Mexicans in California . 447 
Missing Ships— See "Wrecks." 

Money Oligarchy, Our 288 

Money. Unclaimed 14 

Mooney-Billings Case — 

Mooncy's Pardon Plea Referred to Advisory 

Pardon Board 27 

California Supreme Court Denies Favorable 

Recommendation to Billings' Pardon Plea.... 354 

Governor Young Ret uses Pardon for Mooney.. 354 

Moral Is the Driving Force 445 

Musk Oxen for Alaska 486 

Mussolini Bans Poker 232 

N 

National Safety Council. Marine Section 106, \2 { ) 

Naval Conference, The — By Norman Thomas 258 

Naval Limitation Conference* 70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-FOUR 



Title Page 

Naval Treaty, The London* 348 

Nautical Schoolship, California's 267 

Naturalization — See "Immigration," etc. 

New York City, Revenues of 85 

Negro, A Manly Young* 41 

Norway, Arbitration in* 316 

Norway, National Trade-Union Center of 497 

Norway, Working Hours on Ships 345 

Norwegian Sea Training System 440 

O 

Ocean Floor, The 255 

Olander, Victor, Articles by — 

Olander Appointed Member of Board of Di- 
rectors of Chicago World's Fair of 1933 42 

Secretary-Treasurer's Report to Thirty-second 

Convention 101 

Address at Third National Merchant Marine 

Conference 311 

Olander Appointed on Drought Relief Com- 
mission 382 

Old Age Pensions 425 

Old, When Are We?* 219 

Orator}', Drowned in 414 

Output, Restriction of* 413 

P 

Pacific Coast Ships — Accidents to Seamen 479 

Pacific, Problems of the 35 

Panama Railroad Steamships 45 

Passengers, Fooling the* 72 

Peaches Left on the Trees 361 

Pennsylvania Senators* 10 

Pension for British Seamen 473, 478 

Pensions, Old Age 425 

Pilot Ladder, New 358 

Pinthis-Fairfax Disaster* 316, 346 

Piracy, A Definition of 455 

Piracy in Chinese Waters 355 

Plague, Bubonic 361 

Poet Laureate, The New British* 284 

Poetry — 

Way for a Sailor — By Jim Eagan 213-C 

Driftwood — By Don Blanding 213-C 

Diplomacy— By Bernard Shadwell 213-C 

Say Not They Die— By Dr. Miller 213-C 

Sunset — By John Striving 213-C 

Time and Eternity — By Joe Corrie 261 

Turning of the Screws — By I. A. Haarklau 326 

The Eternal Sameness 369 

Who Is a Christian— By Ella Wheeler Wilcox 390 

Valedictory — By Adam Lindsey Gordon 425 

Courage — By Ella Wheeler Wilcox 454 

Poland, Seamen of 224 

Population — See "Immigration," etc. 
Prohibition Problems, Etc. — 

The "Noble Experiment" 41 

Nature Is Incorrigible* 72 

Prohibition History 289 

Buyers of Liquor Commit No Crime 318 

The Drink Question 388 



Title Page 

Prohibition in the Courts 453 

Volstead Act Violations in the Nation's Capital 473 
Pullman Porters' Working Hours 457 



"Radicals," Alleged, in Marine Workers' League 

109, 134 

Radio, World too Small for 264 

Rehabilitation Program, The 420 

Revolutionary Doctrine* 349 

Russian Seamen, Congress of 46 

Russia, Stronger Than Fiction* 286 

Russia's Merchant Marine 293 

Russia's Five-Year Plan* 349 

Russia, Imports From 417 

Russia, Inside of* 444 



Safety of Life at Sea, International Conference 

at London 100, 107, 124, 133, 192, 350 

"Safety of Life" or What?* 6 

Sailing Around the Horn* (Swedish Bark Abra- 
ham Rydherg) 39, 312 

Sailing Ships, British 488 

Sailors' Lhiion of the Pacific — Forty-fifth Anni- 
versary 223 

Salvage Feat, A Great* (German Fleet at Scapa 

Flow) 412 

Salvage Operation, Loss of Life in 263 

Samoa, American 450 

Samoa, An Unhappy Mandate 81 

San Francisco Labor Baiter's Moan* 286 

San Francisco's Streetcar Svstem — Asleep at the 

Switch* 476 

Scab Shipping Office, The 263 

Sea, Bottom of the 255 

Sea Power, Parity of* 282 

Seamen, Communism Among 225 

Seamen, French, Accident and Sickness Insur- 
ance ^7 

Seamen of Japan, The 3 

Seamen's Church Institute — Abusing Charity*. .. 

218, 285, 411 

Seamen's Social Insurance in Japan 220 

Seamen's Journal — Report to I. S. U. of A. Con- 
vention , 104, 127 

Seamen's Journal — Statement of Ownership, 

etc 273 

Seamen's Section of International Transport 

Workers' Federation 481 

Seamen's Union of Great Britain — See "British." 

Seamen's Union of India 449 

Seamen's Union of Italy* 348 

Seamen's Union of Lithuania 281 

Seamen's Union of Norway 345 

Seamen's Union of Russia 46 

Seamen's Working Hours 84 

Sea Watches, Agitation for Three-Watch System 108 

United States Shipbuilding, Assisted 325 

Shipowners' Organization (American) Fostered 

by Law 106, 130 

Shipowners' Union, The* 412 

Ship-Mindedness, Teaching 453 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL INDEX— VOLUME FORTY-FOUR 



Title Page 

Ships, The World's Biggest 291 

Shipwreck, Lessons of a (Steamship Tahiti) 379 

Shipwrecks, See "Wrecks." 

Sickness and Accident Insurance for French Sea- 
men 37 

Silk Industry of Japan 497 

Smuggling hy Mr. Dollar* 9 

Souls of Alerchant Seamen* 40 

Soviet Union — See Russia. 

Spain, Study of Labor Afloat 280 

Standards of Living 451 

Stewards Department. Women in the* 39 

Stock Exchange, The* 22^ 

Strike Damage, Carrier Held Liable for 487 

Strike of New South Wales Coal Miners Ended.. 368 

Subsidies. Mail* 72 

Subsidies (Mail) and Wages — By George Larsen 18 

Subsidized Ships, Wages on* 314 

Subsidized Steamship Company Imports Chinese 

Seamen 442 

Suez Canal Traffic 337 

Sugar Trust, A Jolt for 482 

Suicide or Heroism? 225 

Suzuki, Bunji, President of General Federation of 
Labor of Japan, Addressed Sailors' Meeting 

at San Francisco 410 

Swedish Ships, Manning Scale on 281 

T 

Trade-Unions, American — See "American Fed- 
eration of Labor." 

Trade-Union Cards at the South Pole 346, 430 

Trade-Union Congress, British 13 

Transport Workers Federation, International 481 

Turtle Islands Awarded to United States 45 

Twenty-five Years Ago — Reprints from the Col- 
umns of the Coast Seamen's Journal 78, 257. 353 

Typographical Union, a Proud Record 292 

U 

Unemployment — A Challenge 65 

Unemployment 263 

Unemployment. Action on* 283 

Unemployment and the Future* 347 

Unemployment Insurance — What Is the "Dole 

System"? 407 

Unemployment, World-Wide* 415 

Unemployment, Relief for. Program Adopted 

at A. F. of L. Convention 439 

Unemployment, Not a Passing g v i] 495 

Union Dues, Collecting 42 

Union Seamen Commended* 74 

U. S. Citizen-hip — See "Immigration, Naturaliza- 
tion," etc. 



Title 

U. S. in World Court 

U. S. Mail Service Incomparable. 

U. S. Navy Telephone 

U. S. of Europe, The 

U. S. Rehabilitation Program 

U S. Senate Rejects Parker 



Page 

.. 45 
.. 430 

355 
.. 228 

420 
.. 279 



Shipping Board, Operating Loss 54 

U S. Steamboat Inspection, Increase of Per- 
sonnel 363 

U S. Shipowners' Organization Fostered by 

Law 106, 130 

Shipping Board Vessels 4S5 

U. S. Steamboat Inspection Service. Additional 

Inspectors 363 

U S. Supreme Court, Loading the* 253 

U S. Supreme Court. Hoover's Second Choice* 2S4 

U. S. Supreme Court. The* 444 

Unrest Is Mental* 475 

W 

Wage Reductions 478 

Wages and Mail Subsidies — By George Larsen.. 18 
Wages in the United States -Historical Facts... 215 

Wages. Leveling* ~\ 

War in the Pacific 230 

War, The Aftermath of. 324 

Watch System. The Three 108 

Whale, Pity the Poor 250 

Whaling, The Perils of ; 291 

Wireless Operators on Japanese Vessels, Mini- 
mum Scale 441 

Women in the Steward- Department* 39 

Workday — Twelve Hour Day and Seven Day 

Week in Steel Industry..." ". 91 

World. This Restless* 476 

World War Records. A Resurrection of 4SQ 

Wrecks and Collisions— Fditorial Comment on 

Admiral Benson 86. 235 

Brooklyn 474, 489 

Carnegie 33 

Cyclops, Mystery of the 393 

Fairfax 408 

Pinthis 408 

San Juan 23 

S. C. T. Dodd 23 

Tahiti 370 



Yacht Races— The Sport of Millionaires* 413 

Yachting. Notes on .457. 45S 

"Yellow Dog" Contract, The 78 

"Yellow Dog" Contract Is Friendless 291 



LIFORNIA 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

^•iiriiic^imriFMii/r^TrirMiTiiTTC^iiiiiiiiii: r^riiiriiriiiirjiiiiMii]iMrDiMMiiiiri]c^i]iiiiMiMic3iMiriC3iTiiiMMirir^iiMiiMii]ic^iii.Tiiitiiir3riiiiiiiiMicr^ifiiiiiiiiMC3ii»»iiiiiiiic:3ifiiit r^iiMifiuiiic^iMiiriiitucziTiM'^ 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea Power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Contents 

THE SEAMEN OF JAPAN 3 

NEWS AND COMMENT CONCERNING SEAMEN THE WORLD OVER 5 

EDITORIALS: 

"COMFORTS AND LUXURIES" 6 

"SAFETY OF LIFE," OR WHAT? 6 

ARBITRATION IN AUSTRALIA 8 

THE MARINE WRECKERS' LEAGUE 9 

MR. DOLLAR'S EMBARRASSMENT 9 

PENNSYLVANIA'S SENATORS 10 

A NEW YEAR GREETING TO ALL SEAMEN 11 

By Andrew Furuseth 

ON THE GREAT LAKES 12 

THE BRITISH TRADE-UNION CONGRESS 13 

UNITED STATES NATURALIZATION REPORT 14 

THE GENEVA MARITIME CONFERENCE 15 

SINGAPORE AND SMOKE 16 

CENSUS OF BRITISH SEAMEN 17 

WAGES AND MAIL SUBSIDIES 18 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES , 19 

BOOK REVIEWS 20 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 22,23,24,25 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 26,27,28 



VOL. XLIV, No. 1 
WHOLE NO. 1992 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
January 1, 1930 



5muuiuuiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiu!iiiiiiiiiii[]iimiiimiuim 



International Seamen's Union of America 



Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 



FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

Wz Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258 
Branches 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

66 Orange Street. Phone Dexter 8090 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

26 South Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. IKiUdSitX, Agent 

131 Walnut Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, lid E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910 

NORFOLK, Va DAN [NGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6045 

GALVESTON, Texas ALEX VI "RASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street. Phone 2215 
PORT ARTHUR, Texas JAMES O'SHEA, Agent 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa R. DAVIS, Agent 

126 Pine Street. Phone Lombard 7425 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 South Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

WT „^ « 54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

„ 206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Texas K. H. MEYER, Agent 

131 Prootor Street. Phone 2181 

MOB JPA A l* WILLIAM ROSS. Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 
ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 
_ Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)....JAMES ALLEN, Agent 
~~„ J 1 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

™>~, T ^^ 288 state Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

„ _ 375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE, Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

VT ^ n7 , rtT „ 1704 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Texas ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR. Texas ARNST LARSEN, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Acting Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827 

Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4539 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR 
EMPLOYEES' UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

ALGIERS, La LESLIE S. DUPLAN, Secretary 

701 Park Boulevard. Phone Walnut 4449 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 810% North Clark Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Seneca 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich GEORGE HANSEN, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

ED HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches 

CLEVELAND, Ohio JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHARLES DRYER, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich JAMES HAYMAN, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Randolph 0044 

CHICAGO, 111 LEONARD CARTER, Agent 

122 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

35 West Eagle Street. Telephone Seneca 0896 
Branches 

CHICAGO. Ill S. R. LITTLE, Agent 

30 No. Wells Street. Phone Dearborn 0892 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal ~ 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65. Telephone Ell}ot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash JOHN FEIDGE, Agent 

307 South F Street 
P. O. Box 280. Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN OLSEN. Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 South Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68. Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JERRY CLARK, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 336 
(Continued on Page 29) 



January, 1930 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

THE SEAMEN OF JAPAN 




HE high sea, unlike the land, cannot be 
appropriated, but remains the common 
property of the family of nations. In 
the North Sea, for example, the fishing 
grounds are by mutual consent the re- 
sort of fishermen from many nations. The 
same rule applies to merchant shipping en- 
gaged in international trade. The old, as well 
as the new trade routes across the Seven Seas 
are open to all. To maintain and improve 
their respective ratio (1) in the highly com- 
petitive international fisheries, and (2) in car- 
rying commerce over the world's sea lanes, 
has ever been the declared purpose of all real 
statesmen. 

In this great field of endeavor, the Japanese 
have shown extraordinary adaptability and 
success. Japan as an island nation is by the 
very nature of things a sea-minded nation. 
Statistics tell us that the Japanese empire is 
composed of nearly 500 islands. Japan proper, 
exclusive of newly acquired lands, such as 
Formosa, Korea, etc., has approximately the 
same area as California. On this limited area 
are crowded together 64,000,000 people. View- 
ing this matter from her demonstrated ability 
to supply the people with food, Japan ranks 
first in the world. To be sure, Japan could not 
maintain her population on a meat diet. The 
people of Japan are accustomed to eat fish 
instead of meat. Fortunately, the waters in 
and about Japan are blessed with a plentiful 
amount and variety of fish. Hence, in the nat- 
ural course of events, a substantial percentage 
of the young men of Japan receive an invalu- 
able training in the ever growing deep sea 
fishing fleet. Japan, perhaps alone among the 
great nations of the world, could replace and 
re-man the personnel of her merchant marine 
over and over again with capable young sea- 
men — men who have acquired their sea-legs 
while serving in the fishing fleet. 

The general standard of living of the work- 
ing people of Japan has made some advances 
during recent years, but is still far below the 
prevailing standards in America, Canada and 
Australia. Trade-unionism among the indus- 
trial workers is still in its infancy, but has al- 
ready improved living conditions very ma- 
terially. The totally unorganized agricultural 



workers, on the other hand, are leading a truly 
deplorable existence. 

The seamen of Japan had only purely local 
organizations prior to 1921. A year earlier, 
while attending the International Seamen's 
Conference at Genoa, Italy, several representa- 
tives of the local Japanese Seamen's Unions 
had been in contact with the representatives 
of European and American Seamen's Unions. 
Upon their return to Japan they pointed to the 
absolute necessity of a nation-wide union of 
seamen. Accordingly, on May 7, 1921, the 
existing local unions of seamen organized the 
Japan Seamen's Union. The system and form 
of nation-wide organization, adopted in 1921, 
was patterned after the American and British 
Seamen's Unions, with some modifications to 
fit Japanese traditions and usages. 

Only seamen "possessing statutory mariner's 
certificate issued by competent authorities" 
are eligible to membership. In Japan, this 
covers virtually everyone aboard ship, except 
the licensed officers. The membership of the 
Union has increased steadily throughout the 
eight years of its existence and is today close 
to 80,000. 

The headquarters of the Union are at Kobe. 
A magnificent modern three-story stone build- 
ing is occupied entirely by the Union and its 
various departments. The building is owned 
by the Union, having been purchased a few 
years ago for Yen 170,000 ($85,000). The 
Union has thirteen branches, situated in the 
principal ports of Japan. In four of these 
branches, namely, at Yokohama, Tobata, 
Osaka and Hakodate, the Union also owns the 
buildings which house the respective branch 
offices. The value of all the real property 
owned by the Union is estimated at Yen 250,- 
000 ($125,000). In addition, the Union has in 
several banks deposits aggregating Yen 285,- 
000 ($142,500). 

The Union has acquired fourteen motor 
boats to facilitate business and keep in contact 
with members when ships are anchored in the 
respective harbors. 

The executive officers are elected for a term 
of three years at the regular annual meeting 
held on May 7 — the birthday of the Union. 
Between annual meetings the business of the 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1930 



Union is entrusted to the executives, who, 
with the advice and consent of an executive 
Council of forty-three, carry on the general 
policy determined upon at the annual meet- 
ings. The Council of Executives holds meet- 
ings whenever occasion requires. Altogether, 
the Union employs ninety-seven full-time sal- 
aried officers, of which twenty-six are at the 
headquarters. The salaries of the officers 
range from Yen 40 ($20) paid to the Appren- 
tice Clerk, up to Yen 300 ($150) paid to the 
President. 

The Initiation Fee has been kept at the very 
low rate of one Yen. Monthly dues are also 
one Yen (50 cents). The Union has kept up 
a constant campaign for improving the wages 
and living conditions of the members. There 
are still about 30,000 eligible men outside of 
the Union and persistent efforts are being 
made to bring these men within the fold of 
the organization. Virtually all the ships op- 
erated by the larger steamship companies are 
thoroughly unionized. The 30,000 non-union 
men are employed mainly on vessels under 
1000 tons. 

Wages have almost doubled since the seamen 
of Japan recognized the wisdom of organizing 
on a national basis. The highest wages are 
paid in the trans-Pacific trade. Able seamen 
in that run receive Yen 60 ($30) per month. 
Compared with the wages of workers ashore 
and even with the salaries of Japanese Gov- 
ernment employees, the seamen of Japan rate 
very much higher in the scale of average wages 
than the seamen of any other country. For 
instance, police officers in Tokyo begin with 
a monthly salary of Yen 45. In addition, they 
receive a certain allowance for their uniform, 
but none whatever for board and lodging. 

The organized shipowners of Japan, realiz- 
ing that nothing is to be gained by constant 
friction, agreed a few years ago to take part in 
the formation of a National Maritime Concilia- 
tion Board. This board, known as the Kaiji 
Kyodo Kai, has functioned very satisfactorily 
to all concerned. It has twelve members, six 
from the Japan Shipowners Association, and 
six from the organized personnel — three each 
from the Japan Seamen's Union and the Mer- 
cantile Marine Officers' Association. The board 
regularly considers matters "regarding condi- 
tions of seamen's employment" and seeks to 



prevent or arbitrate disputes between shipown- 
ers and seamen. The board also, in accordance 
with the draft convention of the International 
Labor Office, conducts Seamen's Employment 
exchanges. The Government makes an annual 
grant of Yen 100,000 ($50,000) to cover the 
expense of operation of these agencies. All 
other expenses of the National Maritime Con- 
ciliation Board are borne in equal shares by 
the shipowners and seamen's groups. 

While the board is quite successful in ad- 
justing disputes and maintaining industrial 
harmony in the operation of Japan's Merchant 
Marine, there have been occasions when the 
Seamen's Union felt compelled to resort to the 
strike. The last strike took place from June 
4 to 9, 1928. It was called to establish mini- 
mum conditions on freighters and did riot af- 
fect passenger liners. This strike ended with 
a complete victory for the seamen. A volume 
of 402 pages, giving all the graphic details of 
that short struggle has been published by the 
Union for circulation among the members. 

The Japan Seamen's Union issues a preten- 
tious monthly magazine from the headquar- 
ters at Kobe. Only 8,000 copies are printed, 
but these are distributed to the ships on the 
basis of one magazine for each ten members. 

At the present time the Japan Seamen's 
Union is deeply concerned over the practical 
dissolution of the two Chinese Seamen's Unions 
at Hongkong and Shanghai. These two Chinese 
organizations had served as a bulwark against 
wage reductions on ships in the Asiatic coast- 
wise trade. Now that the seemingly endless 
internal strife in China has crushed those 
Unions, no one can predict what may happen 
to Chinese seamen's wages. Organization 
among Indian seamen is still at a very low 
stage and the Executive Council of the Japan 
Seamen's Union is planning to render aid in 
any organizing campaign that may be evolved 
for the benefit of Chinese as well as Indian 
seamen. A Pan-Asiatic Labor Congress is 
scheduled to be held in April or May of 1930, 
either in Bombay or in Madras, India. Such 
a conference is enthusiastically supported by 
the Seamen of Japan in the hope, no doubt, 
that it may initiate or at least approve a sys- 
tematic organizing campaign among the sea- 
men of China and India. 

The Japan Seamen's Union is also sponsor- 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



ing an improvement in the legal status of sick 
and injured seamen. Bills covering these prob- 
lems will be championed in Parliament by 
Bunji Suzuki, who is a member of the lower 
house and President of the General Federa- 
tion of Labor of Japan. 

Altogether, the seafarers of Japan are to be 
congratulated for perfecting such a strong 
and well functioning organization. No work- 
ers anywhere are more ambitious than the 
workers of Japan. But ambition has not turned 
their heads. They have made comparatively 
few mistakes during the first eight years of 
the Union's existence. And, inasmuch as the 
first decade is usually the most difficult period 
in the life of a labor organization, there is 
every reason to belieVe that the Japan Sea- 
men's Union will continue to achieve practi- 
cal results through the old reliable remedy — 
collective self-help, which is known all over 
the world as trade-unionism ! 



The information contained in this article was 
obtained by the Journal's editor during his re- 
cent visit to Japan. President K. Hamada and 
Secretary-Treasurer M. Yonikubo, the two 
principal officers of the Japan Seamen's Union, 
were away from the Union headquarters on 
official business. Both were attending the Sea- 
men's Conference held at Geneva under the 
auspices of the International Labor Office. 
However, the acting President, Mr. Choyei 
Horinchi, who is Vice-President of the Union, 
and Mr. T. Akasaki, chief of the Union's or- 
ganizing department, received the Journal's 
editor in the most courteous and fraternal 
spirit. Both of these men and other officers at 
Headquarters and at the branches visited were 
more than pleased to supply any and all in- 
formation desired. 



The Todd Unit System of Pulverized Coal 
Burning fitted in the Shipping Board freighter 
West Alsek showed, during her second round 
voyage to British ports in the service of the 
Oriole Lines, additional fuel savings as com- 
pared with her maiden voyage. All of the 
coal-burning equipment performed in such a 
satisfactory manner under adverse weather 
conditions as to prove the installation to be 
thoroughly reliable under seagoing conditions. 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



At the meeting of South Norway shipown- 
ers recently held at Christianssand, Mr. W. 
Dahl-Hansen made an interesting comment on 
the strong footing which the shipping industry 
has had on the south coast of Norway for 
centuries. He cited as an illustration the small 
town of Farsund, which is the largest shipping 
community in the world, having regard to the 
relation between the tonnage of its fleet and 
the number of inhabitants, there being regis- 
tered at that place 57 tons gross per inhabitant. 
Next comes Tonsberg, with 33 tons per inhab- 
itant; Haguesund with 16.6, Bergen with 7.7, 
and Oslo with 3.6 tons per inhabitant. Taking 
the entire coast between Flekkefjord and Risor 
as a whole, there is an average of 6 tons gross 
per inhabitant. A total of 112 ocean-going ves- 
sels have these towns as their home ports, and 
provide employment for 2750 seamen. 

A new scale of wages has been officially 
promulgated for German vessels, to run for 
two years. The new scale represents an ad- 
vance upon the former. The monthly rates 
applicable to deep-sea voyages for officers and 
in all trades for crews, follow (in marks) : 
First Officer, 380; second, 310; third, 235; 
fourth, 170; Chief Engineer, 570; second, 380; 
third, 310; fourth, 235; Boatswain or Carpen- 
ter, 158; second Boatswain, second Carpenter, 
141; Quartermaster, 141; A.B., 132; O.S., 63; 
Junior, 42; Boy, 30; Donkeyman, 122/152; 
Greaser, Chief Stoker, 152; Stoker, 143; Trim- 
mer, 122. In all German boats of more than 
2,000 tons gr. the eight-hour day is in force, and 
on boats of more than 1,000 tons gr. as to the 
engineer's force only. In Baltic and North Sea 
traders of more than 1,600 tons gr. the three- 
watch system is compulsory. The earnings of 
the men are considerably increased by over- 
time. The monthly wage scale for captains of 
German steamers and motorvessels, has been 
fixed as follows : 690 mk. in the long and 
medium trades, 600 mk. in the North Sea and 
Baltic trade, 500 mk. on vessels of 101/400 
tons gr., 690 mk. on sailing-vessels above 1,000 
tons, 600 mk. on sailers of 501/1000 tons, and 
500 mk. on sailers of 126/500 tons. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURN 



AL 



J inuary, 1930 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK PLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

Wz Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

525 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURN A L 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



anuarv 1, 1930 



"COMFORTS AND LUXURIES" 



A correspondent has called the Journal's 
attention to some foolish twaddle about booze 
on Atlantic liners written by one Edward 
Doherty and published in a recent issue of the 
weekly magazine Liberty. 

Mr. Doherty's knowledge of the booze ques- 
tion seems to be very extensive. At any rate 
he freely brags about drinking numerous but- 
tles of various intoxicating liquids. Then, just 
to strengthen his points on booze, the boozy 
author rings in these choice paragraphs : 

We had a marvelous chance after the war. We had 
power and prestige and money and ships. America 
could easily have made herself mistress of the seas. 
But she didn't. 

She passed laws compelling American shipowners 
to provide expensive comforts and luxuries for the 
sailors. This gave Americans a higher overhead than 
foreigners faced. 

The great self-styled authority on liquor 
neglects to give details on the expensive com- 
forts and luxuries which Uncle Sam has pro- 
vided for the sailors. Neither does he furnish 



statistics on that awful overhead expense. 

If American ships provide comforts and lux- 
uries not enjoyed by the seamen of other na- 
tions the Journal would be happy, indeed, and 
gladly acknowledge such a desirable state of 
affairs. However, as is well known t<> all prac- 
tical men, the sailors' comforts and luxuries 
exist only in Mr. Doherty's more or less be- 
sotted imagination. Parrot-like, he simply re- 
peats the fairy tales produced by clever writers 
who are paid to make a case for the poi >r, strug- 
gling American shipowner, because the latter 
cannot possibly give his sailors three meals a 
day unless Uncle Sam increases the extremely 
liberal Postal subsidy already paid to Ameri- 
can ships. 

The story about America's lost chance after 
the war is funnier still than the sailors' lux- 
ury tale. Before the war American ship- car- 
ried about 10 per cent of the total value of 
U. S. imports and exports. During the- last 
fiscal year, as reviewed by the Secretary of 
Commerce. American ships carried exactly 
One-third, (33 1 3 per cent) of the total value of 
the commodities transported by water. More- 
over, the share of American ships in the trans- 
portation of cargo to and from foreign coun- 
tries, as measured by weight, is considerably 
higher than that as measured by value, be- 
ing approximately one-half in the case of im- 
ports and one-third for exports. 

Really, entirely aside from the amusing 
luxury fiction of Mr. Doherty, it is to be de- 
plored that a magazine of so large a circula- 
tion, as is claimed by Liberty, should print such 
utterly nonsensical stuff when the plain facts 
are available in any reference librarv. 



"SAFETY OF LIFE" Ok WHAT? 

The October issue of the Journal contained 
Victor A. Olander's comprehensive analysis of 
the proposed treaty drafted at the Interna- 
tional Conference on Safety of Life at Sea. 
held in London during May. 1929. 

President Furuseth of the International 
Seamen's Union of America has now prepared 
a memorandum, for the use of United State- 
Senators, in opposition to ratification of the 
treaty. 

Andrew Furuseth maintains that if the Sen- 
ate of the United States should ratify said 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



treaty practically all the beneficent features 
of the Seamen's Act will shortly pass away. 
By the terms of the treaty, all application of 
the law to foreign ships in harbors of the 
United States will be abolished, and it would 
be entirely too much to expect that the beds, 
blankets, mess gear, mess room, together with 
all other advantages that the seamen obtain 
from the Seamen's Act, would not be abolished 
as construing handicaps upon the American 
Merchant Marine. Under the circumstances, 
the people, Government officials and courts 
could easily be persuaded by the shipowners 
that this law, when it applies to American 
ships only, will be a handicap beyond endur- 
ance, and while these features of the law 
might not be specifically repealed by the adop- 
tion of the Treaty, the condition produced 
would inevitably lead to that result. 

The forthcoming convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, to meet 
at Washington, D. C, beginning on January 
13, will give this all-important subject the 
necessary attention. In the meantime, the 
American Federation of Labor convention, at 
the instance of the delegates from the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, has adopted 
the following self-explanatory resolution with- 
out a dissenting vote : 

Whereas, The future growth and development of 
the American Merchant Marine depends upon its 
ability to successfully compete with the merchant ma- 
rines of other nations; and 

Whereas, The attempts made in past decades to 
equalize the cost of operation as between American 
and foreign ships by reducing the standards on Amer- 
ican vessels to low levels based upon conditions pre- 
vailing in the ports of other nations resulted, first, in 
practically wiping out the American personnel and, 
second, in driving American ships from the overseas 
trade and limiting their operations almost exclusively 
to the American coastwise trade, from which foreign 
ships are barred by law; and 

Whereas, In the passage of the Seamen's Act, 
Congress adopted the policy of seeking to equalize 
competitive conditions in the overseas trade by apply- 
ing American standards to all vessels sailing out of 
American ports; and 

Whereas, Insofar as this policy of enforcing Amer- 
ican standards in American ports has been carried 
out by the Government of the United States, the effect 
has been to raise the standards on foreign vessels 
trading to American harbors and thus to create a 
condition favorable to the operation of American 
ships; and 

Whereas, This experience proves beyond a doubt 
that in the interest of the American Merchant Marine, 
it is essential that Congress retain full control over 
conditions under which ships are permitted to sail 
out of ports of the United States, it being obvious that 
it is fully as necessary to apply Amercan regulations 
to foreign ships doing business in American harbors 
as it is to apply American regulations to foreign mer- 



chants doing business in American cities; therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, That the American Federation of Labor 
does hereby urge the President and Senate of the 
United States to refrain from entering upon any 
treaty or covenant of any sort with any foreign na- 
tion or nations, the effect of which would be to sur- 
render the right of Congress to enact laws to deter- 
mine the conditions under which vessels, foreign as 
well as American, are to be permitted to operate out 
of American ports, or which would have the effect of 
nullifying any of the existing laws of the United 
States governing the operation of merchant vessels. 



WHICH IS YOUR GOAL? 



You may probably have heard this story : 
A man was shipwrecked in mid-ocean. As he 
struggled to keep afloat he vowed that he 
would be content if he could only find a piece 
of wood to keep him afloat. He found a piece 
of wood but still had to exert himself to some 
extent to keep from sinking. If he could only 
find a life belt he would be extremely happy. 
He found a life belt. But then he wanted to 
get his body out of the water; that would be 
heaven. He found a raft. It kept him out of 
the water; but he wanted so much to lie down, 
and if he could only find a boat, there was 
nothing else in the world he would ask for. 
He found the boat. But then he wanted dry 
clothing; then he wanted food ; then he wanted 
warmth ; then he wanted a comfortable bed. 
A steamer came along and he got all these ; 
but he had had so much of the sea that he 
couldn't think of being happy until he reached 
land. Even then he wasn't content. 

A good many of us are like that, aren't we? 
Perhaps, however, it is well that this is so. 
There are two brands of discontent : The 
brand that merely fosters greed and snarling 
and back-biting, and the brand that inspires 
greater and greater effort to reach the desired 
goal. 

Which is your goal? 



Nothing will ever be attempted if all pos- 
sible objections must be overcome. — Dr. John- 
son. 



Practice in the open what you preach in the 
meeting hall, and employ only people enjoying 
union conditions when making purchases. 



The Journal extends to its readers ashore 
and afloat the very best wishes for a Happy 
New Year! 



8 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNA 



January, 1930 



ARBITRATION IN AUSTRALIA 



That the people of Australia are not pre- 
pared to relinquish compulsory arbitration of 
industrial disputes was clearly demonstrated 
by the recent Federal election returns. 

The Federal election became necessary when 
the Bruce-Page Nationalist government suf- 
fered defeat by a test vote in Parliament. 

As is well known Australians have their 
own conception of what should be the Govern- 
ment's role in an industrial dispute. Most 
Englishmen, like most United States citizens, 
shy away from the idea that the State should 
fix wages. But that idea has been the very 
cornerstone of Australia's labor policy. In 
trying to enforce these concepts a major issue 
had arisen : Shall the power of enforcement 
rest with the several states or with the central 
Dominion authority? Back in the early '90s 
the Australian states set up their enforcement 
machinery. It functioned unhindered until the 
Dominion Arbitration Court Act was passed 
in 1904. Ever since there have been incessant 
conflicts. It is notorious that the powers of 
the Dominion Court under the Australian Con- 
stitution are not sufficiently broad to allow it 
to function efficiently. On the other hand, the 
Dominion Court's powers have often been suf- 
ficient to paralyze state arbitration courts. 

Successive governments have been trying 
since 1911 to get Australia's constitution 
amended to give the Dominion Arbitration 
Court really sweeping and effective powers. 
On four different occasions the state legis- 
latures have refused to pass such an amend- 
ment. Finally, former Prime Minister Bruce 
announced a totally new and startling policy. 

In effect he declared that since the Dominion 
Government could not get effective power by 
constitutional amendment it must largely 
withdraw from attempting to arbitrate labor 
disputes and leave that duty to the states. A 
measure called the Commonwealth Arbitration 
Abolition Bill was drafted. That was the bill 
under consideration by Parliament when the 
Bruce-Page Government was defeated. 

At the general election on October 12, the 
Australian Labor Party staged a strong "come- 
back." There were several minor issues but 
the principal point of discussion in the election 



campaign hinged upon a continuance of com- 
pulsory arbitration by the Federal Government 
and impartial enforcement of that law. 

During the short but bitter campaign which 
preceded the election. Bruce and his asso- 
ciates were bitterly attacked for their alleged 
partisan enforcement of the compulsory arbi- 
tration law. It was stated that the penalty 
features of the law were used only against the 
workers and never against the employers. In 
particular, the name of John Brown, coal mine 
operator, was freely used and the charge was 
made that the Government had withdrawn the 
prosecution against said Brown, although he 
clearly broke the law of the land by a lockout 
of his miners. Spokesmen for the Bruce-Page 
Government stated that there was nothing to 
prevent the workers from prosecuting John 
Brown. This, the Labor members of Parlia- 
ment declared, was conclusive proof that the 
Government was interested in enforcing the 
penalty features against workers only. Em- 
ployers could violate the compulsory arbitra- 
tion law without fear of prosecution by the 
Nationalist Government. When, however, the 
worker dared to quit his job, the Nationalist 
Government instantly set the wheels in motion 
to secure a conviction. In such cases, it was 
said, the Government did not wait for any pri- 
vate individual to prosecute. The police were 
set among the workers to see what they could 
pick up in order that the prosecution may be 
launched. 

When, however, the offense was committed 
by the employer the workers were told that 
they may prosecute if they so desired. 

The substantial victory of the Labor Party 
indicates, first— that compulsory arbitration 
has not lost popular favor in Australia and, 
second — that the charge- of partisan law en- 
forcement were effective in turning public 
opinion against the Bruce-Page Government. 

Labor is again on top in the Australian Fed- 
eral Parliament. Truly the world is moving 
forward. With a Labor Prime Minister at the 
head of the British Empire and with a Labor 
Prime Minister at the head of the Common- 
wealth of Australia there is every reason for 
the workers of the English speaking world to 
look up with hope and confidence toward a 
better and brighter future. 



8 



January. 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



THE MARINE WRECKERS' LEAGUE 



Notwithstanding industrial depression and 
unemployment, the year 1929 has conclu- 
sively demonstrated that the organized seamen ' 
of America are not at all disposed to embrace 
doctrines of the new self-styled saviors who 
call themselves "marine workers." 

Ten years ago quite a few seamen were 
enchanted with the siren song of the 
I. W. W. In fact, at one stage the world revo- 
lutionists, who then masqueraded as I. W. W. 
leaders, boldly predicted the "capture" of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific. As the seamen 
know, those dreams came to naught. The 
I. W. W. leaders and their principal henchmen 
have vanished. Some are lookout men for 
gambling halls and others are playing the 
wrecking game in other parts — Always serv- 
ing the same boss. 

They are gone but not forgotten ! 
I. W. W.'ism of ten years ago served one 
single purpose. It caused a split in the ranks 
and thus enabled the organized shipowners to 
cut wages and abolish overtime pay for over- 
time work. 

During 1929 a brand new breed of saviors 
has made its appearance. In San Francisco a 
few strangers, reported to be renegade I. W. 
W.'s, have been trying to organize a Marine 
Workers' League, to be composed of sailors, 
longshoremen and anyone else who can be 
induced to join the League for a reasonable 
fee. These enterprising gentlemen are not res- 
idents of San Francisco, nor are they known 
to anyone on the water front. They have 
descended upon us from nowhere, but, while 
their antecedents are unknown, it is positively 
known that they are not without funds. It 
requires real money to hire a hall and, in San 
Francisco, the printers always insist upon cash 
in advance when total strangers in the com- 
munity place a fair-sized order for communist 
literature. 

So the question which puzzles the average 
man is (1) from whence did these saviors 
come, and (2) who supplied them with funds? 
It is rumored that the Red International of 
Moscow is supplying the cash. This theory is 
in harmony with Mr. Foster's specific direc- 
tions that the seamen must become the world's 
red propaganda carriers. 



It has also been said that our visitors are 
pure philanthropists who, having inherited a 
large fortune, are spending their own good 
money to guide the deluded "marine workers" 
toward the promised land. 

There are still other, more skeptical, ex- 
pressions to the effect that these mysterious 
self-proclaimed redeemers are, in truth, and in 
fact, subsidized by certain reactionary employ- 
ers who are greatly dissatisfied with the new 
five-year working agreement recently nego- 
tiated by the Longshoremen's Association of 
San Francisco. This agreement provides for 
the employment of union men and specifies 
rates for straight time and overtime work — 
higher than in any port of the United States. 

Again, it is said that certain shipowners are 
more than pleased with the arrival of the ex- 
I. W. W.'s because it has furnished them with 
an alibi for issuing new instructions that all 
seamen must be shipped in the notorious scab 
office on Mission Street. Masters and mates 
prefer to hire men on the docks, but the union- 
crushers object to this arrangement because 
it gives experienced union members a very 
considerable advantage over inexperienced 
non-union men. 

After all, it does not make much difference 
whether these creatures are willing or unwill- 
ing tools of the employers. It is quite certain 
that the only possible result of their red propa- 
ganda is to hamper and destroy, if possible, 
the effectiveness of existing organizations of 
seamen and longshoremen. This is precisely 
the aim and object of the anti-union employers. 
The picture must be perfectly clear to every 
man who does his own thinking. The so-called 
Marine Workers' League is an ambitious 
wrecking outfit. The fanciful "League" has no 
members, but its malodorous leaders are 
endeavoring to render some service to the 
unknown boss who pays the bills. 



MR. DOLLAR'S EMBARRASSMENT 



R. Stanley Dollar, head of the Dollar Steam- 
ship Company, forgot that he was not on one 
of his own boats when he sailed into New York 
harbor from Europe on the steamer Leviathan, 
operated by the United States Lines. 

Hawk-eyed agents of Uncle Sam were 
watching for smugglers. They found much 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. L930 



dutiable stuff in the baggage of the embar- 
rassed Mr. Dollar that he neglected to mention 
when the customs officials squinted around, as 
they are expected to do. 

Mr. Dollar was ordered to pay the duty and 
also a stiff fine for his oversight. The transac- 
tion netted Uncle Sam $11,489.26, and the 
vessel owner's bankroll was shy just that 
amount when he walked off the dock. 

The Dollar company operates a dozen 
American ships in the trans-Pacific and round- 
the-world trade. Practically one-half of the 
crew of every Dollar ship, exclusive of the 
licensed personnel, are Chinese. If Mr. Dollar 
had traveled on one of his own ships he would 
have had a first-class alibi. These ships are 
notorious smugglers of Chinese and opium. 
The crew is always blamed. Chinese seamen 
never squeal. 

Eleven ships of this line that entered the 
port of San Francisco between January 10, 
1923, and August 30, 1928, were lined a total 
of $380,401.56 for smuggling narcotics. The 
heaviest fine — $146,650 — was assessed against 
the President Taft on July 14, 1927. Govern- 
ment officials seized 890 tins of opium. The 
Chinese crew, as usual, were blamed — but they 
are still employed. These vessels seem to have 
good friends in the Treasury Department at 
Washington, as the fines were "adjusted" and 
but $7683 was paid. If fines have been levied 
against the Dollar line by customs officials at 
other ports they have not been published. 

Mr. Dollar's unworthy and unsuccessful 
personal attempt at smuggling has brought 
forth some very pungent comments in Ameri- 
can shipping journals. The editor of "X ami- 
cus, " published in New York, hits the nail on 
the head in this pointed paragraph : 

Nothing that has occurred in recent years is so 
humiliating to the shipping industry as the action 
that the Customs found it necessary to take against 
R. Stanley Dollar. For years shipping companies 
have asked to be relieved of the penalties imposed 
upon them when smuggling is carried on by members 
of the crew, and now that an official of an important 
shipping company drawing large Government sub- 
sidies has been caught in the act, it is feared that the 
reaction may prove fatal, insofar as the relief of penal- 
ties for smuggling is concerned. 

For a quiet, dignified, but all-embracing 
wallop we will have to admit that our contem- 
porary's literary gem cannot be improved 
upon. Shipowners who set an example as 



smugglers should not expect the Government 
to waive penalties when the untutored Chinese 
crews follow the example of the big chief. 



PENNSYLVANIA'S SENAT< >RS 



After nearly three years of investigation and 
delay, the United States Senate has at last re- 
fused to seat William S. Vare, of Pennsylvania. 
Refusal to seat Vare was based upon corrup- 
tion and fraud practiced at his election. 

Fifty-eight Senators declared by their votes 
that Yare was not entitled to membership. 

The following voted in favor of Yare : 

Senators Bingham, Gillett, Goldsborough, Gould, 
Greene, Hale, Hastings, Hatfield, Kean, Keyes, Moses, 
Oddie, Phipps, Pine, Reed, Schall, Shortridge of 
California, Smoot, Townsend, Walcott, Waterman, 
Watson. Of those paired, the following announced 
that they were in favor of seating Yare: Senators 
Blease, Fess, Smith and Steck. 

Once more the American people are indebted 
to Senator Geo. W. Norris for his able and 
untiring efforts in behalf of clean government 
and the public good. He led the debate against 
Yare with an exhaustive analysis and a mas- 
terly presentation of the evidence and the 
issues involved. "It was," declared Senator 
Norris. "an election that reeked with dishon- 
esty and corruption all the way through." 

A few days following the Senate'- refusal 
to seat Vare, the Governor of Pennsylvania 
appointed a notorious tariff lobbyist and cham- 
pion collector of campaign funds for the Re- 
publican party. 

It is a sad commentary on our brand of gov- 
ernment that such a man should become United 
States Senator. But it is good to know that 
eampaign contributions are now openly recog- 
nized and flaunted where the people can see 
them. It is, by the way, not the business of 
the United States Senate to keep Mr. Grundy 
out of his Senatorial seat. That is rather the 
business of the people of Pennsylvania. They 
can and should unseat him at the next election. 
Progressives cannot afford to have the Senate 
establish a precedent of throwing out members 
for any causes other than clearly recognizable 
fraud or corruption in the election. The prece- 
dent would be decidedly dangerous to democ- 
racy and liberty and may some time rise to 
plague a progressive Senator who is unpopular 
with a conservative majority. 



10 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



A NEW YEAR GREETING TO ALL 
SEAMEN 



By Andrew Furuseth 



When in olden times men met to greet the 
new year, it was not a simple- greeting : Happy 
New Year ! They knew that to pursue happi- 
ness is a right that depends upon one's self. 
Rights are maintained and happiness is pur- 
sued by men, who in a struggle depend on 
themselves first and on others next. To do 
this one must be prepared to go forward with- 
out counting those that follow. It means also 
that men must use sense in selecting their com- 
pany, that they must know how to distinguish 
friends from foes, regardless of their smooth 
words and sweet promises. It meant that they 
met and promised themselves that during the 
year they would accomplish certain acts of dar- 
ing — acts that were understood to be difficult 
and dangerous. In the pursuit of the purpose 
difficulties were stimulating and dangers in- 
vited. They had promised to themselves and 
to others to accomplish special things, because 
they loved to accomplish them, and their hap- 
piness, their joy was in the effort. 

Some, who call themselves your friends, 
promise you that they will "get you the wages 
of 1920," "regain for you the shipping and 
working conditions and rules of 1920" and 
"abolish the Fink-halls." 

These men would never have promised those 
things but for the fact that they know that you 
look with sorrow upon your loss. They know 
that you in your own minds look back upon 
the conditions of 1920 as the best you ever 
had, that you would like to forget the ten 
bitter years and to get together to fight for the 
best you know how to regain what you have 
lost. 

As men with sense and memory you will 
first ask: Who are these men? What were 
the promises made in 1920? 

They are the same men who in 1920 told 
you that the working and the shipping rules 
obtained by the Union were in shipowners' 
interests ; that the wages were insufficient ; 
that no wages could be sufficient ; that you 
must take charge of the vessels and share the 
earnings of the vessels between you; that you 



worked too hard and too long ; that nothing 
except the revolution would set things right 
and that you were just the men to do this. 
They are the kind of men who took the money 
of certain shipowners to scatter that kind of 
nonsense among you. They told you that the 
Seamen's Bill was the seamen's pill, a pill to 
put you to sleep ; that the Union was your 
worst enemy, and that it must be destroyed 
and a new Union organized; that such Union 
must be made up of all the men who are going 
to sea or who may want to go to sea; that such 
Union made up of longshoremen, sailors, fire- 
men, cooks, waiters, officers and masters was 
the right and the only right kind of Union. 

They were silent about the fact that such 
Unions are governed by an Executive Board, 
that the membership has nothing to say about 
its management except to vote for officers, when 
they could, such votes to be counted or not, 
as the board might think proper. The mem- 
bership are there to pay, to obey, to go to 
prison or to take whatever else might befall. 
The men whose sweet voices you now hear 
are substantially the same men, and they have 
the same ideas as they had then or pretended 
to have then, the men with the same palm itch- 
ing for the same kind of money that they re- 
ceived then, the men who are lying now as 
they did then, playing the same role of Judas 
to you that they did then. 

I believe that you are now too wise to listen, 
but if you are not, then surely the seamen will 
pretty soon be back where we were before 
the Union was organized. 

The shipping was then through the boarding 
master and men went where he sent them. 
The working day was as many hours as the 
master of the ship might direct. The working 
week was seven days, if it so pleased the mas- 
ter or owner. The wages were what the board- 
ing master and the owner thought fit to pay 
and the most of that went to the boarding 
master, the master of the vessel or the owner. 
The food was what they were willing to give. 
The seaman was beaten like a rebellious dog 
and there was no redress. He was injured at 
his work, through the mismanagement of the 
officers, and there were no damages to be re- 
covered. If he ran away from the hellship he 
was arrested, kept in prison and sent back on 
board the ship, if he was wanted and could be 



11 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1930 



dutiable stuff in the baggage of the embar- 
rassed Mr. Dollar that he neglected to mention 
when the customs officials squinted around, as 
they are expected to do. 

Mr. Dollar was ordered to pay the duty and 
also a stiff fine for his oversight. The transac- 
tion netted Uncle Sam $11,489.26, and the 
vessel owner's bankroll was shy just that 
amount when he walked off the dock. 

The Dollar company operates a dozen 
American ships in the trans-Pacific and round- 
the-world trade. Practically one-half of the 
crew of every Dollar ship, exclusive of the 
licensed personnel, are Chinese. If Mr. Dollar 
had traveled on one of his own ships he would 
have had a first-class alibi. These ships are 
notorious smugglers of Chinese and opium. 
The crew is always blamed. Chinese seamen 
never squeal. 

Eleven ships of this line that entered the 
port of San Francisco between January 10, 
1923, and August 30, 1928. were lined a total 
of $380,401.56 for smuggling narcotics. The 
heaviest fine — $146,650 — was assessed against 
the President Taft on July 14, 1927. Govern- 
ment officials seized 890 tins of opium. The 
Chinese crew, as usual, were blamed — but they 
are still employed. These vessels seem to have 
good friends in the Treasury Department at 
Washington, as the fines were "adjusted" and 
but $7683 was paid. If fines have been levied 
against the Dollar line by customs official- at 
other ports they have not been published. 

Mr. Dollar's unworthy and unsuccessful 
personal attempt at smuggling has brought 
forth some very pungent comments in Ameri- 
can shipping journals. The editor of "Xauti- 
cus," published in New York, hits the nail on 
the head in this pointed paragraph : 

Nothing that has occurred in recent years is so 
humiliating to the shipping industry as the action 
that the Customs found it necessary to take against 
R. Stanley Dollar. For years shipping companies 
have asked to be relieved of the penalties imposed 
upon them when smuggling is carried on by members 
of the crew, and now that an official of an important 
shipping company drawing large Government sub- 
sidies has been caught in the act, it is feared that the 
reaction may prove fatal, insofar as the relief of penal- 
ties for smuggling is concerned. 

For a quiet, dignified, but all-embracing 
wallop we will have to admit that our contem- 
porary's literary gem cannot be improved 
upon. Shipowners who set an example as 



smugglers should not expect the Government 
to waive penalties when the untutored Chinese 
crews follow the example of the big chief. 



PENNSYLVANIA'S SENATORS 



After nearly three years of investigation and 
delay, the United States Senate has at last re- 
fused to seat William S. Vare, of Pennsylvania. 
Refusal to seat Vare was based upon corrup- 
tion and fraud practiced at his election. 

Fifty-eight Senators declared by their votes 
that Vare was not entitled to membership. 

The following voted in favor of Vare : 

Senators Bingham, Gillett, Goldsborough, Gould, 
Greene, Hale, Hastings, Hatfield, Kean, Keyes, Mosi I, 
Oddie, Phipps, Pine, Reed, Schall, Shortridge of 
California, Smoot, Townsend, Walcott, Waterman, 
Watson. Of those paired, the following announced 
that they were in favor of seating Vare: Senators 
Blease, Fess, Smith and Steck. 

Once more the American people are indebted 
to Senator Geo. W. Norris for his able and 
untiring efforts in behalf of clean government 
and the public good. He led the debate against 
Vare with an exhaustive analysis and a mas- 
terly presentation of the evidence and the 
issues involved. "It was," declared Senator 
Norris, "an election that reeked with dishon- 
esty and corruption all the way through." 

A few days following the Senate's refusal 
to -cat Vare, the Governor of Pennsylvania 
appointed a notorious tariff lobbyist and cham- 
pion collector of campaign fund- for the Re- 
publican party. 

It is a sad commentary on our brand of gov- 
ernment that such a man should become United 
States Senator. But it is good to know that 
campaign contributions are now openly recog- 
nized and flaunted where the people can see 
them. It is, by the way, not the business of 
the United States Senate to keep Mr. Grundy 
out of his Senatorial seat. That is rather the 
business of the people of Pennsylvania. They 
can and should unseat him at the next election. 
Progressives cannot afford to have the Senate 
establish a precedent of throwing out members 
for any causes other than clearly recognizable 
fraud or corruption in the election. The prece- 
dent would be decidedly dangerous to democ- 
racy and liberty and may some time rise to 
plague a progressive Senator who is unpopular 
with a conservative majority. 



10 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



A NEW YEAR GREETING TO ALL 
SEAMEN 



By Andrew Furuseth 



When in olden times men met to greet the 
new year, it was not a simple greeting : Happy 
New Year ! They knew that to pursue happi- 
ness is a right that depends upon one's self. 
Rights are maintained and happiness is pur- 
sued by men, who in a struggle depend on 
themselves first and on others next. To do 
this one must be prepared to go forward with- 
out counting those that follow. It means also 
that men must use sense in selecting their com- 
pany, that they must know how to distinguish 
friends from foes, regardless of their smooth 
words and sweet promises. It meant that they 
met and promised themselves that during the 
year they would accomplish certain acts of dar- 
ing — acts that were understood to be difficult 
and dangerous. In the pursuit of the purpose 
difficulties were stimulating and dangers in- 
vited. They had promised to themselves and 
to others to accomplish special things, because 
they loved to accomplish them, and their hap- 
piness, their joy was in the effort. 

Some, who call themselves your friends, 
promise you that they will "get you the wages 
of 1920," "regain for you the shipping and 
working conditions and rules of 1920" and 
"abolish the Fink-halls." 

These men would never have promised those 
things but for the fact that they know that you 
look with sorrow upon your loss. They know 
that you in your own minds look back upon 
the conditions of 1920 as the best you ever 
had, that you would like to forget the ten 
bitter years and to get together to fight for the 
best you know how to regain what you have 
lost. 

As men with sense and memory you will 
first ask : Who are these men ? What were 
the promises made in 1920? 

They are the same men who in 1920 told 
you that the working and the shipping rules 
obtained by the Union were in shipowners' 
interests ; that the wages were insufficient ; 
that no wages could be sufficient ; that you 
must take charge of the vessels and share the 
earnings of the vessels between you ; that you 



worked too hard and too long; that nothing 
except the revolution would set things right 
and that you were just the men to do this. 
They are the kind of men who took the money 
of certain shipowners to scatter that kind of 
nonsense among you. They told you that the 
Seamen's Bill was the seamen's pill, a pill to 
put you to sleep ; that the Union was your 
worst enemy, and that it must be destroyed 
and a new Union organized ; that such Union 
must be made up of all the men who are going 
to sea or who may want to go to sea; that such 
Union made up of longshoremen, sailors, fire- 
men, cooks, waiters, officers and masters was 
the right and the only right kind of Union. 

They were silent about the fact that such 
Unions are governed by an Executive Board, 
that the membership has nothing to say about 
its management except to vote for officers, when 
they could, such votes to be counted or not, 
as the board might think proper. The mem- 
bership are there to pay, to obey, to go to 
prison or to take whatever else might befall. 
The men whose sweet voices you now hear 
are substantially the same men, and they have 
the same ideas as they had then or pretended 
to have then, the men with the same palm itch- 
ing for the same kind of money that they re- 
ceived then, the men who are lying now as 
they did then, playing the same role of Judas 
to you that they did then. 

I believe that you are now too wise to listen, 
but if you are not, then surely the seamen will 
pretty soon be back where we were before 
the Union was organized. 

The shipping was then through the boarding 
master and men went where he sent them. 
The working day was as many hours as the 
master of the ship might direct. The working 
week was seven days, if it so pleased the mas- 
ter or owner. The wages were what the board- 
ing master and the owner thought fit to pay 
and the most of that went to the boarding 
master, the master of the vessel or the owner. 
The food was what they were willing to give. 
The seaman was beaten like a rebellious dog 
and there was no redress. He was injured at 
his work, through the mismanagement of the 
officers, and there were no damages to be re- 
covered. If he ran away from the hellship he 
was arrested, kept in prison and sent back on 
board the ship, if he was wanted and could be 



11 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1930 



found ; if found later he was sent to prison for 
deserting. Such and more of it was the condi- 
tion. If you do not believe it, ask the old men 
among you. They have lived through it and 
they know. Some of you will say that the 
times have changed the condition. If so, why 
is it not changed in some other countries? And 
why are the owners seeking to have the Union 
abolished and the laws repealed? Why do they 
work internationally at Geneva to restore the 
old condition? Why do they work at Wash- 
ington to repeal or amend the laws so that 
they may do with you what they will? Why 
did they pay the hired liar in the past? Why 
do they pay him and encourage him now? 

The International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica was not organized to bring about a revolu- 
tion of human society by force. It was organ- 
ized to improve the seamen's condition by 
such direct action as they could properly use 
and to change the laws so that they could live 
like human beings. 

Through unity of purpose, through the cour- 
age and persistence of the men who went to 
sea, the deplorable conditions, existing prior 
to organization, had been abolished or changed 
to what they were in 1920. The results ob- 
tained were not all that we wanted, the wages 
were not what was needed to marry and care 
for a family — to live like other men. The 
hired liar came among us and they have re- 
duced it to what you see and feel today. 

But the laws have not been repealed, amended 
or even set aside, except as the men, who have 
been sailing, have tolerated or helped to bring 
it about by listening to the hired liar and by 
staying out of the Union, ceasing to attend 
meetings and otherwise assisting the bad ship- 
owners to accomplish their purposes. 

If you really want to recover the wages and 
condition, including the abolition of the scab- 
halls, that is comparatively easy: 

Come into the Union, attend the meetings, 
take a real interest on land and on board the 
vessels, and in one year we shall have the 
wages and condition of 1920 restored. That 
was the means we used to create that condi- 
tion, and it will be easier now with the laws 
changed ; but we did not think it enough then, 
nor do we think it enough now. 

We shall then go forward, until all seamen 
are free men, all salt water imposters, all 



smugglers, other quasi-criminals and hired liars 
are excluded or converted, until we all are real 
seamen or learning to be, and until the seamen 
have reconquered their proper place among 
men. 

Many among us are pledged to this strug- 
gle; some took it as a Xew Year pledge long 
ago, and we have renewed it with each recur- 
ring new year. We want you to join in this 
pledge, at this new year, to take it and to joy- 
ously live up to it. It is in this hope and in 
this sense that I wish you a Happy New Year. 
A New Year in which you exhibit the hope, 
fortitude, courage, persistence needed, and 
which are the qualifications of a real man — a 
real seaman. 

Again a Happy Xew Year. Such is the wish 
to you all from yours, fraternally, 

ANDREW FURUSETH. 



ON THE GREAT LAKES 



Reports from the Great Lakes indicate that 
although a record-breaking volume of freight 
was moved during 1929, employment condi- 
tions have been generally poor and a number 
of vessels were laid up early in the fall. 

Wrecks on the Great Lakes resulted in the 
loss of 108 lives, the past season having wit- 
nessed the greatest losses since the disaster of 
1913. Not only did the Great Reaper levy a 
neavy toll on the rank and file; untimely death 
also claimed Thomas Conway, Vice-President 
of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica, and for many years the executive officer 
and recognized leader of the Great Lakes 
Marine Firemen. 

In an effort to promote organization five 
bulletins were issued by the Great Lakes Dis- 
trict Unions and mailed to crews of Lake Car- 
riers' Association vessels and to other non- 
union ships. Printed circulars supplied by the 
International office were also mailed to the 
same vessels. In addition to this, three special 
letters were mailed to men on automobile-car- 
rying steamers trading out of Detroit. 
' Radio talks were broadcast from Station 
WCFL, at Chicago, twice each week dur- 
ing the summer and once each week during the 
fall up to November 1, by Treasurer Goshorn 
(Continued on Page 29) 



12 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



BRITISH LABOR CONGRESS 



The recent Sixty-first Annual British Trades 
Union Congress was attended by 595 dele- 
gates. The number of organizations affiliated 
to the Congress was 162, including those that 
did and those that did not send delegates. 
Those that sent delegates had approximately 
3,673,000 members. Those that did not, had a 
membership of about 59,000. 

The principal business of the Congress was 
the consideration of the General Council's 
comprehensive report, running into over 200 
pages and covering their work during the past 
twelve months ; also the agenda containing 
resolutions, with amendments, on various ques- 
tions, which had been submitted by the trade 
unions affiliated. 

The continuance of conferences with the 
organized employers was challenged by the 
following resolution submitted by the National 
Amalgamated Furnishing Trades Association 
and the Amalgamated Engineering Union : 

"That this Congress receives the report of 
the Mond-Turner Conferences as information, 
but declares its opposition to the false cry of 
industrial peace and to the policy of collabora- 
tion with the enemies of labor, who are vigor- 
ously and ruthlessly attacking the standard of 
living of the working class at the very time 
they are conferring with the General Council, 
and instructs the Council to put an end to such 
conferences forthwith, as they are a serious 
menace to the interests of the working class 
movement." 

After debate the General Council's policy 
for continuing the conferences was endorsed. 

Three resolutions and five amendments had 
been submitted dealing with unemployment 
insurance. These were reduced to one com- 
posite resolution, which urged the Govern- 
ment to extend the scope of unemployment 
insurance so as to include out-workers and 
home-workers; that it should be made com- 
pulsory upon employers to notify vacancies 
to the Employment Exchanges ; that mainte- 
nance should be guaranteed where work can- 
not be obtained ; and that the payment of 
State unemployed benefits by trade unions de- 
siring to do so should be allowed. The resolu- 
tion was carried. 

The Miners' Federation submitted a resolu- 



tion seeking for the appointment of a com- 
mittee to deal with trade union reorganization 
in the principal industries on the basis of one 
union for each industry. The resolution was 
defeated by 1,933,000 votes to 1,668,000. 

The following resolution dealing with rela- 
tions with Russia was passed : 

"That this British Trades Union Congress, 
representing approximately 4,000,000 organ- 
ized workers, views with anxiety the trade de- 
pression in the staple industries of the nation, 
and having regard to the vast potentialities 
for trade between this country and Russia, 
urges upon His Majesty's Government to take 
immediate steps to secure the resumption of 
diplomatic relations between Russia and this 
country, believing that such action would stim- 
ulate trade and thus secure the placing of 
orders in this country for the products of those 
industries, thereby alleviating unemployment. 

"Further, that the Trade Facilities Act 
should be re-enacted and extended to British- 
Russian trade." 

A resolution calling upon the Parliamentary 
Labor party to press forward the 48-hour bill 
for distributive workers and to make repre- 
sentations to the Government to incorporate all 
other sections of workers, including agricul- 
tural workers, in a bill formulated on the lines 
of the Washington Hours Convention, was 
carried. 

A resolution calling upon the labor move- 
ment to use its powers to secure payment for 
all statutory and customary holidays and two 
weeks' annual holiday was carried. 

A comprehensive resolution was carried 
calling upon the whole labor movement to use 
its power to demolish slums and erect new 
houses, which should have complete lavatory 
accommodation, bathroom, and all modern con- 
veniences and amenities. 

A resolution instructing the General Council 
to urge upon the Government the necessity for 
a complete investigation into conditions of em- 
ployment of seamen, and that the Government 
should support an international convention for 
the eight-hour day for seamen, was carried. 

The Transport and General Workers' Union 
submitted a resolution which sought for a dec- 
laration from Congress that the present state 
of the transport services was unsatisfactory, 
and urged that representations be made to the 



13 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Ministry of Transport for complete reorganiza- 
tion. 

A resolution passed at the previous congress 
had recommended an inquiry upon this subject, 
and the investigation which followed "left no 
doubt that the Communist International, the 
Red International of Labor Unions, the Com- 
munist Party of Great Britain, and the Na- 
tional Minority movement had deliberately 
exercised a disruptive influence." Other sub- 
sidiary movements shown to be active in the 
same direction were the National Unemployed 
Workers' Committee movement and the Inter- 
national Class War Prisoners' Aid. Mr. Cit- 
rine, supporting this section of the report, de- 
clared that as a matter of fact, the British T. 
U. C. movement "had been amazingly patient 
and tolerant in its attitude to these disruptive 
elements.'" "In America and on the Continent," 
he added, "they gaze with astonishment at 
what they term our credulity." Mr. Citrine 
maintained that not a single line of the section 
of the report dealing with this disruptive work 
could be disproved. The section was approved 
by a very large majority. 

The members of the General Council were 
all re-elected with the exception of three who 
have become members of the Government, i. e., 
J. H. Thomas, Ben Turner and Margaret Bond- 
field, whose places are taken by C. T. Cramp, 
(National Union of Railwaymen) A. Shaw 
(textile workers) and Miss A. Loughlin 
(women workers). 



U. S. NATURALIZATION REPORT 



UNCLAIMED MONEY 



When you put money in the bank don't 
forget about it. This warning isn't as unneces- 
sary as it sounds, for according to a report 
filed with Governor Young of California by 
the state bank commissioner's office, a total 
of $845,236 remains unclaimed by depositors 
in the banks of California. The Hibernia Sav- 
ings and Loan Society of San Francisco has 
the greatest number of these unclaimed ac- 
counts, totaling in excess of $87,000. The 
largest unclaimed deposit in this bank is $8,896 
credited to Walter J. Bourke, apparently a 
seaman serving aboard the riverboat T. C. 
Walker. He deposited $4,057 on August 13, 
1908, and since then it has earned interest 
amounting to $4,838. 



During the 1929 fiscal year, American citi- 
zenship was conferred on 224,728 aliens in 
more than 2,000 federal and state courts hav- 
ing jurisdiction in naturalization matters, 
according to the annual report of Raymond F. 
Crist, Commissioner of Naturalization, to the 
Secretary of Labor. Italian subjects led all 
others with 44,843 having taken out final 
naturalization papers, it is indicated. Other 
countries making large contributions to the 
year's record were Poland, with 31.801; Rus- 
sia, 18,291; Germany, 16,700, and Ireland, 
13,162. The total for the entire British Empire 
was 41,014. a table shows. Repatriated Ameri- 
cans to the extent of 4143 are included in the 
year's total. 

Only 664 natives of Xew World countries, 
aside from the 8,223 from Canada, were natur- 
alized during the year, Mexicans leading with 
164, the tables indicate. 

Declarations for the year totaled 280.645, 
and petitions 254,799. The latter figure is a 
new record for any year under the present law. 
There were 720 military petitions, and 531 mili- 
tary certificates were issued. 

The $1,080,161.50 in receipts of naturaliza- 
tion fees during the fiscal year is the largest 
amount ever received during any one fiscal 
year under the present law, the report says. 

The report outlines the procedure regarding 
the acquisition of citizenship under the natur- 
alization laws of the country as changed by 
the act of March 2, 1929. It also takes up legal 
activities that concerned the naturalization 
law during the past fiscal year, and it contains 
comments on the Cable Act of September 22, 
1922, as well as comments of a general nature. 
Recommendations and excerpts from the re- 
port, just made public by the Department of 
Labor, follow in full text: 

During the fiscal year 255,519 petitions for 
citizenship were filed in the 247 United States 
courts and 1,979 state courts exercising nat- 
uralization jurisdiction. Of this number 720 
were filed by veterans of the World War and 
254,799 by civilians. This is the largest num- 
ber of petitions for citizenship filed by civilians 
in any one fiscal year since the enactment of 
the present naturalization law in 1906. The 



14 



unary. 1930 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 






ing of this large number of petitions for citi- 
nship required the examination by the field 
rvice of not less than 766.557 individual 
tennine the fitness of the petitioners for 

:ip. 
The receipts of naturalization fees : (1 33.- 
1.50 during : - the lar. 

lount received in any one fiscal year under 
e present naturalization law. The total re- 

from a*., rces for yearn 

,086.575-20 and include - nal- 

;s and forfeitures receipts from miscellar. 
urce- " " -- aturalization 

rough the Department of Justice, 
ts during - 11.88 in 

-- 
areau in the administration of the naturaliza- 
>n law. 



'-.- 



THE GENEVA CONFERENCE 

~ : r. 5 



The third maritime conference of the Inter- 

itional Labor Office, which assembled at 

ctober 10-26. 1929* took further 

towards s g international agree- 

n problems which have thus far baffled 
iv adjustment. 

The firsts question of hours of 

l board ship; namely, the eight-hour 
n agreement on the eight-hour day failed by 

:e in the seamen's conference at Genoa 
A sort of conciliation procedure, pre- 
ded c the Director of the International 

abor Oflice in 1921. proved abortive. The 
int maritime commission which has been in 
□stenee since that day has wrestled with 
le problem withov But now at the 

lird session of the maritime conference, agree- 
ent has been arrived at with respect to the 

rinciples to be made the subject of in- 
liry among the governments. The obje 
> get a treaty legalizing and internationaliz- 
ig the three-watch system in 1931. 
The second problem dealt with by the mari- 
me conference was that on methods of "care 
id cure" on board ship, including prov 
>r medical attention in case of injury, i. 
r death, and health insurance for seamen, 
"he governments will be consulted on these 
arious points with a view to determining the 



:ty of the shipowner, and the 
of benefits to be paid the seaman. The scheme 

injur ss and death, covering seamen on 

- • - - 
- 
craft Only injury or illness inter.tionalry 
:uld be exempted. The assistance 
contemplated includes medical care and main- 
ant of liah : s hipowner 
and period of benefits would vary according 
r.sured by national law against 
accident or sic! parate but m 

ai principles for a system of health 

vere laid dc not to jeopar- 

but rather to strengthen, 

include accident compensation on board ship 
- 

m of promotion of seamen's welfare 
in pc utlined by the Conference and 

will be the subject either of a treaty or recom- 
mendation in 1931. These me r the 
protection in port involve cooperation 
- 

planned that the International Labor 
Office will be a sort of clearing house of infor- 
mation and coordination of these agencies. 

"y and sanitarily; elim- 
ination of crimps, sha: and other 
human par faring men. There will 

: 
tions in port and hospital facilities designed 
to be opened to e man of ± ■ ■ 

and clime. Another resolution w 

inking :: viri r'.irr.ir.it ::r. :: ~ ?~:'i'.± : z'r.t 
duplication involved in carr men's 

: ±tz:'. :ert:r.:i:t5 15 ~-±'.'. 15 ti = = t:rtj 

The question of more careful certification 
of navigating ofcc::- : ships was brought 
:e:;r± :..= I:::±rr.2t:;rai Lit: 7 Z :7.:±7±7.c± :r. 
:::•.•: v.:rr.:e ::' ir. i:::i±r.: '.:::. ::;urre: : 

known as the Lo: It was a collision 

: 
■. ::::err.i: :" -. . :: 
time between France and Turkey which were 
ultimately solved in the World Court 
kr.:-v z'r. t :Zzi:±- ttr'tat: :; z'r.t r.arr.e ::' 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



"Vestris" in this country. The governments 
will be consulted with a view to the possibility 
of adopting a draft convention in 1931. 

This was, after all, a preliminary conference, 
the results of which will not become apparent 
until 1931. Nonetheless, it was a stormy con- 
ference and came near being wrecked when 
the shipowners raised objections as to its rep- 
resentative character. 

Thirty-four countries were represented, with 
267 members in attendance, including the tech- 
nical delegates without power to vote. Norway 
was the only maritime country affiliated with 
the I. L. O., entirely unrepresented. But the 
shipowners of Great Britain had refused to act 
upon the invitation of the British Government 
to make nominations of shipowners' repre- 
sentatives. The shipowners' group also raised 
objections to the delegate which the British 
Trade Union Congress appointed to represent 
the seamen. Reciting the fact of the non- 
representation of Norway, and the absence of 
the British shipowners, the shipowners' group 
in the Conference laid down an ultimatum 
that they would not discuss the matter before 
the Conference until the method of appointing 
delegates to special maritime conferences was 
regulated, as they insisted, in such a way as to 
insure that the two private groups (shipowners 
and seamen) should definitely be represented 
by those coming from the respective maritime 
organizations. The matter was debated at 
length with the result that the government 
and workers' delegates voted, with two excep- 
tions, solidly against the shipowners' group. 
The two government delegates from Finland 
and Sweden divided their vote. The result was 
64 to 24 votes against the employers' position. 
But the next day a resolution was passed by 
the Conference asking the governments to 
examine the difficulties raised with respect to 
group representation at special maritime con- 
ferences. This was passed 54 to 19. The 
impasse momentarily created at this Confer- 
ence was thus avoided. In one instance the 
solidarity of the employers' group was broken 
when the French representative voted for the 
report on the eight-hour day following the lead 
of the Government delegate from France, 
where seamen have an eight-hour day. 

Before closing, the Conference directed that 
the International Labor Office should include 



in its survey of labor conditions in the Orient 
the special problems of seamen; should look 
into the question of hours of work in inland 
navigation, conditions of work in air naviga- 
tion; equality of treatment of seamen of all 
classes and races; and should make a special 
follow-up study of the application of the seven 
Draft Conventions and four Recommendations 
already passed by previous maritime confer- 
ences of the International Labor Office. 



SINGAPORE AND SMOKE 
( By Alfred Fuhrman > 

Singapore, one degree north of the Equator, 
the capital of the Straits Settlements, is one 
of the most important of British possessions, 
and the key to the Far East. A Malay Sultan 
made a present of the island, on which it is 
located, early in the nineteenth century, to Sir 
Stamford Raffles, in the employ of the East 
India Company, and he in turn gave it to his 
company, and thus it became British. 

It is the rendezvous for all traders and 
British forces, the gateway to Asia, and it is a 
free port, and therefore the paradise of all 
t<>]. crs. Every drink on earth can be purchased 
here, in bulk, wholesale or retail, at ridicu- 
lously low prices. If this were generally 
known in America, it would cause an exodus of 
all wet prohibitionists to this part of the 
world. 

While the traveler has no particular craving 
for the stuff, yet he gladly poured a libation, 
of which good old Scotch and excellent Dutch 
gin served as base ingredients, to the manes of 
wise old Raffles, to whom world wanderers 
owe another blessing, namely, the enjoyment 
of decent cigars. 

The city being a free port, good, smokable 
cigars, Dutch Java and Sumatra brands, as 
well as Filipinos, can be had at nominal prices. 
As the smoke question is the most important 
matter that can possibly affect a traveler in 
foreign lands, it is of course always the first 
to be investigated as soon as a new country is 
reached. A traveler can overlook bad food, 
vilely prepared, can even plod along patiently 
and cheerfully like a camel without any liquor, 
but smoke is essential to his welfare. He can- 
not very well do without it. This of course 



In 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



refers to a man's smoke, not to that abomina- 
tion, the coffin nails, a by-product of the late 
war, the universal use of which at present is a 
portent of evil and sign of degeneracy of he- 
males. 

He who does not smoke refuses himself the 
softest consolation in grief or trouble, and the 
best and most delightful companion in soli- 
tude. A non-smoker is almost bound to be a 
misanthrope ; he cannot very well be a humani- 
tarian, and that must be the reason why it has 
been said that the man who smokes thinks 
like a sage and acts 'like a Samaritan. The 
clouds of smoke all other clouds dispel, and 
fill the devotee with good will toward all man- 
kind. And if one has burnt incense at the 
shrine of Lady Nicotine for over three score 
years, commencing at the ripe age of three, he 
ought to know what he is talking about. 

It is now 49 years since the traveler was 
last in Singapore. In those far-off days-, even 
that vile Chinese shag tobacco called "monkey 
hair," was greatly relished after a long voyage 
around Cape of Good Hope on short rations. 
But with the years he acquired a more dis- 
criminatory taste, and he soon agreed with all 
connoisseurs that 

True lovers of the weed admire by far 
The naked beauty, namely, the cigar. 

Now, as heretofore pointed out, Holland is 
the best European country for cigars. The 
next best is Austria. In Austria tobacco is a 
state monopoly, the same as in France and 
Italy. The Austrian experts make, however, 
a delicious blend from Bulgarian, Turkish and 
American leaves, and by reason of state mo- 
nopoly manufacture a uniform article. A cigar 
bought in any Austrian village has the same 
blend and flavor as one purchased in Vienna. 
Such a uniformity does not exist in any other 
country. Italian cigars are simply abominable ; 
one has to rely there on imported Dutch and 
Austrian, and the same applies to Greece, 
Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, Ceylon and India. 
There is therefore a long cigar desert ahead of 
a world traveler after crossing the Alps, and 
until he reaches Singapore. This is a serious 
matter when one has been accustomed to con- 
sume from ten to fifteen per day, and one is 
ofttimes compelled to fall back on the old 
standbys, the pipes. But the end of all smoke 
trouble is in sight. Now is the time to load up, 



and by putting another cargo on board at 
Hongkong, and taking chances in smuggling 
them through the customs of cigarless China 
and Japan, it ought to suffice until Hawaii is 
reached, where the unsurpassable Havanas can 
be enjoyed again. 

The Singapore pineapples almost equal in 
deliciousness those of the island of Mauritius, 
considered the best of all. They are likewise 
on a par with the best of Hawaii, and far bet- 
ter than the Mexican pines. 

Singapore is one of the best cities in the 
tropics. Its average seasonal rainfall is 180 
inches, so that when it does rain it comes 
down in sheets and buckets. There is of course 
perennial greenery. One of the strange prod- 
ucts of this country is the bloody tree. It 
bleeds red when cut ; its sap looks like thick, 
rich blood. Many of these trees with rich fol- 
iage line the houses of the well-to-do along the 
beach shore. 

Another strange feature is the Singapore 
traffic policeman, standing in the center of the 
main thoroughfare and directing and regulat- 
ing traffic with supplementary wings, attached 
to his arms, therefore called the angel cop. No 
other traffic cop in any other city uses such a 
contrivance. 



CENSUS OF BRITISH SEAMEN 



A census of seamen in the British Merchant 
Marine who were employed on March 31, 1928, 
has been taken, and the results are analyzed in 
detail in the Board of Trade Journal. 

The particulars given in said journal do not 
show the total number of persons following 
the sea service, but only those actually em- 
ployed on the specified day on sea-trading ves- 
sels (i.e., sea-going vessels other than yachts 
and fishing vessels) registered under Part I of 
the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, in Great 
Britain and Northern Ireland, in the Isle of 
Man, and in the Channel Islands. 

The following table shows the numbers of 
the crews recorded in each department at the 
census dates in 1927 and in 1928. The "deck" 
department includes navigating officers, able 
seamen, and all other persons whose duties re- 
late directly to the navigation of the ship. 
Wireless operators are also included in the 
numbers in this group, and, in the case of ves u 



17 



18 THE SEAMEN 

sels carrying cattle and other animals as cargo, 
the men attending to such animals. The "en- 
gine room" department includes engineer of- 
ficers, firemen, greasers, and all others em- 
ployed in attendance on the main and auxiliary 
machinery. Refrigerating engineers and elec- 
tricians are also included. The "steward's" 
department includes stewards, cooks, and all 
others employed in attending on the passen- 
gers or crew. All clerical staff are included in 
this group, together with pursers, doctors, etc. : 

Employed in Sea-Trading Vessels. 

Stewards All 

Kn^ine and Depart- 

Deck. Room Others. ments. 
Employed .March 31, 
1927: 

British 53,51 ^ 12,823 36,045 132,384 

Foreign 4,690 7,829 3,560 16,079 

Lascar 16,107 22,564 13,391 :.2,062 

Total 74,313 73,216 52,996 200,525 

Employed March 31, 
1928: 

British 52,440 42,417 37,520 132,377 

Foreign 4,237 7,766 3,288 15,291 

Lascar 16,181 22,106 14,158 52,445 

Total 72,858 72,289 54,966 200,113 

The number employed in the steward's de- 
partment is, of course, enormously greater in 
passenger vessels than in other vessels. For 
all classes of vessels, the number employed 
March 31, 1928, per 100,000 tons gross of ship- 
ping was 1255, of whom 457 were in the deck 
department, 453 in the engine room depart- 
ment, and 345 in the steward's department. 
For passenger vessels, however, the total num- 
ber employed per 100,000 tons gross was 1883, 
and the numbers in the respective departments 
were 464, 529 and 890; whereas for other ves- 
sels the total figure was 1007, and the figures 
for the three departments 454, 423 and 130, re- 
spectively. In other words, the catering, etc., 
staff of all the passenger vessels enumerated 
was, on the average, nearly seven times as 
large as that required for non-passenger-car- 
rying vessels, and the total crew required to 
run a passenger vessel averaged about 80 per 
cent greater than a cargo vessel of similar size. 

The following table shows the age distribu- 
tion of the British seamen, other than Lascars, 
on sea-going vessels on March 31, 1928, dis- 
tinguishing the departments in which they 
were employed : 

Stewards All 

Engine and Dcpart- 

A?o Group. Deck. Room. Others. ments. 

Under 18 years 3,693 5 2,052 5,760 

18 to 24 years 13,499 6,344 10,017 29,860 

25 to 34 years 14.730 14,644 10.76:', 40,137 

35 to 49 years 12,477 14,530 10,305 37,312 

50 years and over 6,204 5,207 3,200 14,611 

Ages not stated 1,837 1,687 1,183 4,707 

Total 52,440 42,417 37,520 132,377 

18 



S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



WAGES AND MAIL SUBSIDIES 
(Contributed by George Larsen) 



The Pacific Coast District Unions of the 
I. S. U. of A. have on several occasions in the 
recent past urged upon the Dollar Steamship 
Company the need for an increase in wages 
and proper working conditions to the Un- 
licensed personnel in all its vessels if they 
expect to have them manned by the more 
skilled and efficient seamen. The answer has 
usually been that they would look into the 
matter and give it serious consideration. The 
information has now been received that wages 
for carpenters and boatswains in all Dollar 
vessels have been raised $10 a month, making 
it $90 and $85, respectively, for these jobs. 
Eventually, it i- said, the wages of carpenters 
and boatswains are to be increased to $100. 
Unconfirmed information has also been re- 
ceived to the efTect that sailors and firemen are 
to receive wage increases. Just what these 
increases will amount to is not quite clear at 
present. 

It is obvious, of course, that were it not for 
the activities of the organizations connected 
with the International Union and the insist- 
ence and perseverance of the District Union- 
pressing these matters, nothing whatsoever 
would have been done by the Dollar Company 
with respect to increasing wages. It is also 
pointed out that the Union's demands are not 
limited to wages. In fact, the need for im- 
proved working conditions has been stressed 
a- being paramount to wages. While in some 
respects there have been marked improvements 
in the working conditions in many of the ships, 
including some of the Dollar liners, the all- 
important issue of overtime pay for overtime 
work has met with consistent refusal by ship- 
owners operating vessels in the offshore trade, 
only a few with honorable exceptions, as for 
instance, the three steamships in the San 
Francisco-Sydney run. 

The cry of the owner in the past has been 
that he could not afford it due to low freight 
and high expenses. The unions have never 
conceded that argument as a valid reason. 
However, be that as it may, it surely cannot 
be made the excuse today, when almosl 
without exception privately owned American 
vessels are receiving compensation for the car- 
(Continued on Page 29) 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



Personal Property of Passengers. — The rul- 
ing in the case of Dickinson v. Munson Steam- 
ship Line (The Munargo, 33 Fed. 2d, 329,) 
shows that a passenger must keep careful 
guard of his personal property and baggage 
when traveling by sea. The District Court 
(E. D. N. Y.) held in that case that there was 
no liability on the part of the steamship line 
for loss of a passenger's wrist watch, the pas- 
senger having placed her watch on the dresser 
in her stateroom next to an open window ad- 
joining the promenade deck "right outside 
where people walked." The theory underlying 
the decision was that the opportunity for the 
theft resulted solely from the passenger's neg- 
ligence. The facts showed that anybody could 
have reached his hand through the open win- 
dow (not a port hole) and taken the watch 
from off the top of the dresser. The passenger 
was careless and her negligence caused the 
opportunity for the theft. The opinion of 
Judge Inch distinguishes the present case from 
Holmes v. North German Lloyd, 184 N. Y. 
820, in which it was held that "as to baggage 
of a passenger delivered to its exclusive pos- 
session, the carrier assumes the full liability 
of a common carrier and is an insurer. But as 
to baggage which remains, to some extent at 
least, in the personal custody of the passenger, 
a different rule exists, and the carrier is liable 
only for negligence." In the case at bar all the 
circumstances surrounding the loss were shown 
and they pointed solely to the carelessness of 
the owner. 

Liability for Removal of Wreck. — A suit in- 
volving the liability of an owner for the cost 
of removing a wreck has been decided by the 
U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals (3d cir.), in 
City of Newark v. Wm. M. Mills et al. (No. 
3992). The City of Newark for a considera- 
tion furnished the shipowners storage space at 
Port Newark for their fleet of excursion boats 
during the winter of 1926-27. Eight boats were 
brought in and tied up at the dock. One night 
the South Shore suddenly began to fill and the 
next morning she sank without any known rea- 
son, blocking the head of the channel and pre- 
venting the use of the dock by other craft. 
The city called upon the Mills Bros, to raise 
and move the boat. Thev refused and formallv 



abandoned her. The city then raised and 
moved the wreck at their cost, and brought suit 
for $21,200 in the Essex County Circuit Court 
to recover the expense of raising and moving 
the wreck. The Mills Bros., as former owners 
of the South Shore, filed a petition in the U. S. 
District Court (N. J.) for limitation of liability 
for damages and loss consequent upon the sink- 
ing of the steamer. The District Court re- 
strained the city from further proceeding in 
the State action, and after stipulation for the 
value of the steamer and her pending freight 
in the sum of $1, the trial court found that the 
sinking of the South Shore was not caused by 
design or neglect of the petitioners and did not 
occur with their privity or knowledge, and held 
them relieved of all liability arising from the 
sinking of the boat. The Circuit Court of Ap- 
peals affirmed the judgment on the grounds 
that (a) the contract contained no obligation 
to raise any boat that should sink; and (2) 
that in the absence of such an engagement the 
owners were entitled to limit their liability 
against the claim for raising the boat. 

Unlawful Imprisonment. — James Lamey has 
been awarded a judgment against the United 
Fruit Company, operators of the steamship 
Esparta, for false imprisonment. Lamey was 
a workaway and was placed in irons in San 
Francisco Harbor for four and a half hours, 
having been previously in irons for about four 
days for refusing to paint the firemen's mess 
room. His cause of action in this instance was 
confined to the San Francisco imprisonment. 
Judge St. Sure held the imprisonment was un- 
lawful. 

Ships on Marine Railway. — Injuries sus- 
tained by workmen engaged in repairing a 
commissioned vessel placed on a marine way 
in the State of Washington are governed by 
the Federal Longshoremen's and Harbor 
Workers' Act and not by the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act of Washington, according to an 
opinion of Harry Ellsworth Foster, assistant 
attorney general of the State. The Federal 
Act covers injuries sustained by employees 
working on a vessel in a dry dock, the opinion 
states, and work performed on a ship on a 
marine railway is essentially the same. The 
opinion quotes the U. S. Employees' Commis- 
sion (Opinion No. 1, 1927) to the effect that 
a marine railway is a dry dock within the con- 



10 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1M3D 



templation of the act, and that men so em- 
ployed are under the Federal Compensation 
Act. In Opinion No. 2, 1927, the commission 
determined that men employed in the construc- 
tion of a staging around the outside of a vessel 
under repair on a marine railway were em- 
ployed upon a dry dock within the contempla- 
tion of the Longshoremen's and Harbor Work- 
ers' Compensation Act, and consequent^ en- 
titled to compensation under that act. 

Forging An Able Seaman's Discharge. — 
Norman Hoffman was tried in Philadelphia on 
December 10 before Federal Judge Thompson. 
He was convicted and sentenced to 30 days 
in jail for forging public documents. Section 
29 of the Criminal Code provides that a per- 
son convicted of such an offense shall be fined 
not more than one thousand dollars and im- 
prisoned not more than ten years. The Statute 
provides no minimum penalty. 

The penalty imposed is, of course, consid- 
ered by the Judge as being just a warning. 
In future convictions the penalty will, with- 
out question, be higher. Section 30 of the 
Criminal Code provides that any person who 
shall have in his possession any false, altered 
or forged document shall be fined not more 
than $500, or imprisoned not more than five 
years, or both. The International Seamen's 
Union of America has called the matter of 
conviction and penalty, together with these 
two Sections, to the attention of the Com- 
missioner of Navigation, with the request that 
a warning be sent out. 



Political liberty is a mockery without eco- 
nomic liberty. No man is in any sense free, 
either in politics, religion, or science, as long 
as he is in enforced dependence upon some 
other man for the opportunity to earn his 
livelihood. No individual or political rights are 
secured without security and equality of eco- 
nomic opportunity. Equality before law and 
institutions must be based upon equality of 
opportunity and access to the resources which 
nature, our common mother, gave to all people 
in common. If the state permits a few men to 
own the earth, then these few own the rights, 
liberties, and well-being of the people who 
must live upon the earth. — Professor G. D. 
Herron. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

COMMODORE DAVID PORTER— 1780-1843. By 
Archibald D. Turnbull. Publishers, The Century 
Company, New York. Price, $3.50. 

To the modern educator who says discipline 
is not necessarily a character builder, the tale 
of Commodore David Porter is a contradic- 
tion from beginning to end ! To be sure, 
David Porter was of good sea-going, fight- 
ing stock to start with. His father and 
uncle both held commands against the British 
in the early Colonial days, but for a boy of 
seventeen to escape from the pressgang on a 
British frigate which had dragged him off a 
Baltimore schooner engaged in the West 
Indies trade, and to have swum to safety to a 
Danish brig anchored in the stream, under 
cover of night, shows a fiery spirit and indom- 
itable courage only developed through experi- 
ences well learned. 

No dull landsman's job could satisfy this 
boy after his experiences in the merchant ser- 
vice running the British blockade, so he joined 
the navy and stowed his few clothes wherever 
he was told, in the smallest space between the 
decks, using as a pillow a reefer blocked up by 
a ditty box that held his most intimate treas- 
ures! When the young David ventured to 
mention to the captain that "constant disci- 
pline was bad for his youthful ardor, the cap- 
tain rumbled: "My boy, if I can help it, you 
shall never leave the Navy! Swear at you? 
Damn it, sir, every time I do that — up you go 
a round in the ladder of promotion! As for 
the first lieutenant's blowing you up every 
day — why, sir, 'tis because he loves you and 
would not suffer you to grow a conceited 
young coxcomb. Go for'anl and let us have 
no more whining!" What could a midshipman 
do but swallow hard, salute and go forward? 

Thus he started out, and later fought the 
Barbary pirates under Bainbridge ami was 
twice imprisoned in the dungeons of Tripoli. 
When the War of 1812 came, he had his 
chance to make his mark, for alone and single- 
handed, in his ship, the Essex, he harried 
the British and rounded the Horn and struck 
terror to their shipping up and down the 
Pacific. 

His exploits remind one of the romantic 
Count von Luckner of World War fame, for 
Commodore Porter cruised around in a single 



20 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



21 



ship destroying enemy shipping and taking 
prize after prize, exhibiting seamanship that 
showed him to be a great sailor and a staunch 
American. 

The author tells the tale as only one who 
knows the sea and a fight can tell it. — Ekel. 



VOYAGES TO THE EAST INDIES. By an un- 
known author for the Seafarers' Library. Pub- 
lishers, Cassel & Co., Ltd., London, England. 
Price 10s., 6d., net. 
The voyagers, who took notes of their ad- 
ventures, were Christopher Fryke and Chris- 
topher Schweitzer, the former a surgeon and 
the other a clerk in the service of the Dutch 
East India Company. Their visits to the East, 
1680-86 and 1675-83, were made when the ac- 
tivities of the company were at their height. 
The introduction preceding the voyages, which 
extends to close upon 40 pages, is by Mr. C. 
Ernest Fayle, whose observations upon the 
maritime history of the period and Dutch en- 
terprise beyond the cape should be carefully 
read before perusing the entrancing story of 
the authors. Besides a graphic account of the 
countries visited— South Africa, India, Ceylon, 
Java and Japan — and their peoples as they ap- 
peared to travelers who could not venture far 
from the coasts, we have vivid pictures of life 
in the armed merchantmen which maintained 
and extended Dutch influence in the commerce 
of the East. Soldiers and sailors for the com- 
pany's service were recruited in very question- 
able style, and during the voyage discipline 
was strict to harshness, and the victualling far 
below the comfort standard. The rope's end 
was ever in evidence, and the use of the knife 
in a quarrel was punished by the offender 
being fastened to the mast by the cruel method 
of thrusting his weapon through his hand. 
Any man who struck the ship's provost when 
ashore lost his hand, while if the offense were 
committed on board the culprit was keel- 
hauled. So jealous was the company of its 
trading monopolies that smuggling by the 
employees was a capital offense. Sickness in 
these overcrowded vessels exacted a heavy toll 
from crew and soldiers alike, and altogether 
the perils and trials of the voyage were such 
that many of the latter preferred to lengthen 
their service rather than brave the return jour- 
ney. The discomfort of life ashore must have 
been very trying, for the jungle, with its wild 



beasts, invaded the ports ; of snakes there were 
legion (some of them, we are told, with a head 
at either end!), and no man went abroad with- 
out a good knife to cut in two the serpents 
which would "clap themselves round about 
him and squeeze him, so that he cannot breathe 
and falls clown dead." Bisection seems to have 
been a sure remedy, for it "makes them let go 
their hold quickly." Even in Ceylon the 
"hundred feet, or Cente Pe as the Portuguese 
call it, is about half a yard long," and "red 
ants rid the house of other vermin, as rats, 
mice and serpents." We can, however, over- 
look the inaccuracy of the natural history in 
admiration of the clear insight which the 
writers give us of the working of the auto- 
cratic East India Company, the operation of 
its fleets, their conflicts with the English and 
the harsh and unscrupulous methods employed 
in developing its sphere of monopoly. Its 
treatment of the Javanese and other native 
races, though it may have secured Java, assur- 
edly helped the English indirectly and seems 
to have furthered British interests in India 
and Cevlon. 



EDUCATOR FLAYS "SPECIALIST" 



If the demand for "specialization" continues, 
men will be forced to adopt a sign language to 
make themselves understood, said Dr. Nicholas 
Murray Butler, president Columbia University, 
in an address to the freshman class of that in- 
stitution. 

Dr. Butler declared that the cry for special- 
ists is a force that is breaking the world in 
fragments, unintelligible to one another. He 
also scored the cry for "facts," which, he de- 
clared, was the most useless thing in the world. 

"It does not make any difference whether 
William the Conqueror fought the Battle of 
Hastings in 1066 or 6610," he said. "But what 
does matter is the causes which were at work 
to bring about migrations to England from 
northern Europe, overthrow dynasties and so 
bring that battle about. Not facts, but factors, 
are what count in the scheme of knowledge. 
Interpretation is philosophy. 

"The man who understands is not narrow. 
The hope of civilization is men who through 
interpretation are able to see, and having seen, 
are able to lead, direct and organize new forces 
which are constantly confronting us." 



21 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Final figures on the British Columbia salmon 
pack for 1929, as compiled by the Dominion 
Department of Marine and Fisheries, show an 
appreciable decrease as compared with 1928. 
In 1929 a total of 1,389,476 cases was packed, 
the figures for 1928 being 2,034,629 cases. 

A. H. Bull Steamship Company of New 
York has been awarded by the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue a refund amounting to about 
$28,000 and has been given a credit of $251,696 
in the course of an adjustment of its tax liabil- 
ity for the years 1917, 1920, and 1921. 

During the six months ended June 30, 1929, 
a total of 7,424,450 pounds of canned salmon 
was exported from San Francisco as compared 
with 4,438,837 pounds for the same period of 
1928. Of this amount more than 5,000,000 
pounds went to the United Kingdom and 
1,000,000 pounds to Australia. 

The United Fruit Company, Boston, is 
reported to have purchased the Cuyamel Fruit 
Company, New Orleans. The United Fruit 
Company has assets of some $225,500,000, and 
operates ninety-seven ships. Cuyamel has 
assets of $26,000,000 and operates eleven ships, 
chiefly to Honduras and Nicaragua, being the 
second fruit company in importance. 

The 2000-ton wooden clipper ship Benjamin 
F. Packard was sold at public auction in New 
York, the purchaser being Flayderman & 
Kaufman, antique dealers of New York and 
Boston. They paid $1000. The famous old 
clipper ship has been aground for some time 
off the Manhasset Bay Yacht Club, a deserted 
and sorry remnant of the one-time fine sailing 
ship. She was launched at Bath, Me., in 1883. 

Dollar Lines Financing. — The Corporation 
Commissioner of California has authorized the 
Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc., Ltd., to issue 
42,000 shares of its stock for Stanley Dollar, 
J. Harold Dollar and Herbert Fleishhacker in 
exchange for 30,000 shares of American For- 
eign S.S. Company, a holding company for the 
liners President Johnson (ex Manchuria) and 
Mongolia, which will be renamed President 
Fillmore. The appraised value of these ships 
is given at $975,000. 



A loan of $442,312 has been granted by the 
Shipping Board to the American Tankers 
Corporation, for use in converting the ex- 
Panama collier Ulysses to an oil tanker. The 
amount is 75 per cent of the cost of conver- 
sion, with interest payable at minimum gov- 
ernment rates as provided in the Merchant 
Marine Act of 1928. The ship will be converted 
at the Fore River plant of the Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corporation, and upon completion 
will have a capacity of about 100,000 barrels. 

Announcement was made by H. L. Hunter, 
San Francisco agent of the Kingsley Naviga- 
tion Company, of the purchase of three craft 
from the Canadian National Steamships to be 
added to the Kingsley Line's ( California-British 
Columbia service. The vessels are the Cana- 
dian Coaster, Canadian Observer and Cana- 
dian Rover, which at present are being oper- 
ated on a similar run by the Canadian National 
Steamships, for which Dodwell & Company 
are California agents. 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of 
Commerce, announces the transfer of the fol- 
lowing United States vessels to foreign regis- 
try: Calicorock (s.s.), 2379 tons gross, 1447 
net, built at Toledo, O., in 1918, to German; 
Glendola (s.s.), 2246 tons gross, 1348 net, built 
at Portland, Ore., in 1919, to Norwegian; 
Joseph Dollar (sp.), ex Shurbek (Ger.), 2407 
tons gross, 2262 net, built at Glasgow in 1902. 
to Chinese, and Eleanor Taylor (schr.), 601 
tons reg., built at Brunswick, Ga., in 1919, t" 
liritish. 

The Grace Line's new turbo-electric liner 
Santa Clara, the first passenger ship exclu- 
sively for foreign trade to be contracted for 
under the terms of the Merchant Marine Act 
of 1928, has been launched at Camden. N. |. 
The Santa Clara is the fifth ship to be built by 
the Grace Line since 1927, and will be deliv- 
ered to her owners in the spring of 1930 for 
the fortnightly express service to Peru and 
Chile via Panama Canal. The other new ships 
of the group are the Santa Maria, Santa Bar- 
bara, Santa Inez and Santa Rita. The new ship 
is 504.8x64x37.5 feet, with a displacement of 
16,000 tons. She is designed to maintain a 
speed of eighteen knots and to carry 170 first- 
class passengers and 5900 tons of cargo. All of 
her staterooms are outside rooms .and are fur- 
nished on modern lines. 



22 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



The Cunard flyer Mauretania will make a 
special sailing to Havana from New York, 
February 12, and assurances have been given 
by the Cuban government that the harbor will 
be dredged to permit the liner to enter in per- 
fect safety. The Cubans are naturally proud 
of the visit to be made by the famous ship, 
but in view of the attitude taken by the Ship- 
ping Board last year, when it allocated the 
President Roosevelt to the Ward Line as a 
fighting ship against the Caronia, it will be 
interesting to watch what steps the Board will 
take to offset the voyage of the Mauretania. 
The only available craft for the purpose would 
be the new 10,000-ton cruisers, but it is doubt- 
ful whether Mr. Hoover, as Commander-in- 
Chief of the United States Navy, would ac- 
quiesce. 

The yacht Carnegie, of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution, which was destroyed by explosion and 
fire at Apia Harbor, Samoa, was a remarkable 
vessel. She was built in 1909 for the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie 
Institution. She started on her last cruise for 
a three-year voyage from Washington in the 
spring of 1928. All the materials entering into 
her construction were nonmagnetic. She was 
155.6 feet in length, with a displacement of 568 
tons. For propulsion during calms, she was 
equipped with a small nonmagnetic four-cyl- 
inder engine. The fastenings consisted of 
locust treenails, copper and tobin-bronze bolts, 
and composition spikes, all through bolts being- 
riveted over rings, both inside and outside. All 
metal deck fittings and the metal work on the 
spars and rigging were of bronze, copper and 
gunmetal. The purpose of the unusual con- 
struction was to prevent the distortion of the 
precision instruments for magnetic measure- 
ments on board the vessel. The Carnegie made 
several trips around the world since she first 
was commissioned in 1909. On this current 
voyage particular attention was paid to deep 
sea researches. Besides her crew she carried 
seventeen scientists. 

Blame for the fatal crash between the tanker 
S. C. T. Dodd and the steamship San Juan, 
which cost the lives of seventy-five persons, 
has been placed squarely on the Standard Oil 
tanker. The charge that the Dodd had crossed 
the bows of the San Juan, thereby causing the 



collision, was made in a decision given by 
John K. Bulger, Federal supervising inspector 
of steamboats. The ruling was made in sus- 
taining in part the appeal of Robert Papen- 
fuss, third officer of the San Juan, whose 
license had been revoked by Local Inspectors 
Frank Turner and Joseph Dolan. Bulger 
reduced Papenfuss' suspension of license from 
two years and eight months to one year. Bul- 
ger's decision also said he had found that 
blame should be laid more on Otto V. Saun- 
ders, third officer of the Dodd, and on Captain 
Hugo Bleumchen, master of the tanker. 
Bleumchen was cleared of all blame by the local 
inspectors. "I am of the opinion," Captain 
Bulger's decision states, "that the accident 
was caused by the negligence of Otto V. Saun- 
ders in running full speed in the fog and for 
leaving the bridge without any licensed officer 
being on it. This he did when he called the 
master at 11 :45." A contributing cause of the 
collision, according to Bulger, was "the failure 
of Captain Bleumchen to go on the bridge 
when he was called at 11:45 p. m., instead of 
waiting until 11:51 5^2, or one-half minute 
before the collision occurred." 

The new Todd graving dock has been offi- 
cially opened at the Robins plant (Erie Basin, 
Brooklyn), of the Todd Shipyards Corporation 
by Borough President James J. Byrne. As 
soon as the flooding of the dock was com- 
pleted the steamship Southern Cross of the 
Munson Line was eased over the keel blocks 
and in less than two hours was ready for 
inspection. The completion and opening of a 
private graving dock is a rare event in New 
York Harbor, this being the first in more than 
sixty years. The new dock is the largest pri- 
vate modern dry dock on the Atlantic sea- 
board. It is the largest dry dock in the port 
of New York, being nearly fifty feet longer 
than the largest dock at the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard. Its completion provides the port with 
facilities for the handling of vessels that in the 
past have had to be docked in Boston or Nor- 
folk. With an over-all length of 750 feet, a 
width at the height of the keel blocks of ninety 
feet and a top width of 120 feet, the new struc- 
ture is provided with an outer gate seat and 
an inner gate seat and can accommodate two 
vessels at one time. 



23 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



A speed of 40.2 knots was attained by the 
French destroyer Verdun during her full- 
power trials, thus constituting a world record. 
The previous highest speed (39.85 knots) was 
reached early this year by another French 
destroyer of the same type, the Valmy. 

The Russian Soviet delegation in Italy has 
placed with the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino 
an order for three 2000-ton passenger and 
cargo steamers 213 feet in length. The order 
is valued at about 17,000,000 lire. The vessels 
will be engined with Lentz steam engines to 
be built in Trieste. 

It is reported from Cardiff that the Italian 
State Railways have agreed to purchase an- 
nually 1,000,000 tons of British coal. It is ex- 
pected that deliveries will be made in Italian 
ships, a feature which recent Italian contracts 
have included. The Italian State Railways 
were once purchasers of Welsh coal to the 
tune of 3,000,000 tons a year, but virtually 
closed their Cardiff office when the Dawes 
agreement came into force five years ago. 

An amalgamation has been arranged of the 
three largest shipbuilding companies in Nor 
way, namely, Akers Mekaniske Vaerksted, 
Nylands Mekaniske Vaerksted and Frederik- 
stads Mekaniske Vaerksted. The three com- 
panies now employ about 3000 hands. The 
amalgamated undertaking will constitute the 
biggest industrial works in Norway, and prob- 
ably will concentrate on an island in the east- 
ern part of Oslofjord and near the town. 

Gotaverken, the premier shipbuilding com- 
pany in Sweden, reports a net profit of 1,580.- 
000 kr. for the year ending June 30 last, com- 
pared with one of 1,120,000 kr. for the previous 
year. The directors propose an unchanged 
dividend of 8 per cent, absorbing 704,000 kr. ; 
700,000 kr. is assigned to the reserve fund, 
200,000 kr. to the workers' welfare funds and 
713,000 kr. is carried forward. During the year 
the shipyard has completed work to the total 
value of 33,900,000 kr. 

The Tasmanian government has decided to 
go completely out of the shipowning business. 



Four years ago two interstate steamers were 
sold, leaving two small island steamers which 
are now to be sold. The losses on the two 
steamers have ranged from £13,000 to £17,000 
per annum. The agreement under which the 
ships have been sold provides for a specified 
service to the islands on payment of a subsidy 
of £4000 per annum. 

The Hamburg- American Line announces 
that, after the conversion of the four steamers 
of the Albert Ballin class, the S.S. Thuringia 
and Westphalia will be withdrawn from the 
North Atlantic service next spring and placed 
in the passenger and cargo service to East 
Coast South America under the names of Gen- 
eral San Martin and General Artigas. The 
S.S. Bayern, Baden and Wurttemberg on this 
run are being equipped with auxiliary turbines 
of the Bauer Wach system to increase their 
speed. 

It is reported that the natives of the island 
of Minicoy in the Indian Ocean, where the 
German S.S. Hochst stranded last September 
and became a total loss, have not only 
stripped the vessel, but also made away with 
her cargo of tin valued at $1,200,000. It is 
added that the natives have refused all offers 
made to them by the Salvage Association to 
reveal the disposition of the loot and all 
Eastern ports are being watched in case the 
natives should load the tin in sailing vessels 
and try to dispose of it in small parcels. 

Two flotilla leaders for the Greek navy are 
to be built by the Italian firm Odero. The ves- 
sels are to have a displacement of 1450 tons, 
and a speed of 39.5 knots, on a four-hour full- 
power trial. They will cost £255,000 each if 
four twelve-centimeter guns are mounted 
singly, and are retubable abroad; or £267,000 
if the guns are mounted in pairs as in Italian 
flotilla leaders. Six British, three French, and 
three Italian firms tendered for the contract. 
The first vessel is to be delivered in twenty 
months, and the second in twenty-two months. 

It is now officially confirmed that work has 
been suspended at Belfast on the construction 
of the 60,000-ton White Star liner for the 
Southampton-New York service, pending de- 
termination of the best type of prime mover 
for the turbo-electric generators, and probably 
with a view to modifying the ship's form in the 
light of the performances of the Bremen. In 



24 



January, 1930 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



the meantime priority will be given to the 
construction of a 27,000-ton sister ship to the 
Brittanic, which was recently launched for 
the Liverpool-New York service. 

More than twenty motor tankers have been 
ordered by Norwegians on the Northeast Coast 
of England and a couple more on the Clyde. 
This avalanche of tonnage has naturally caused 
some feeling of uneasiness in some quarters 
lest the tanker market should undergo a severe 
reaction and involve the owners concerned into 
operating losses. However, the feeling in Nor- 
way is that the terms offered by the English 
builders were so liberal that Norway will not 
be drained of capital by reason of this con- 
struction and delivery, and that in the event 
of a slump in the tanker market the new ves- 
sels will be more likely to find employment 
than obsolete foreign ones. 

Some time ago the British Government an- 
nounced its intention of putting up Port Edgar 
for sale — the harbor space being no longer 
needed by the Admiralty. A proposal is now 
on foot to convert this into a fishing port to 
supersede Newhaven, an old and historic fish- 
ing center near Edinburgh. "Our Lady's Port 
of Grace," as Newhaven was called, originated 
in the reign of James IV and has long been 
associated with its picturesque fisherwives 
who still wear a distinctive costume. The 
Newhaven fishing traders of today are said to 
regard the Port Edgar project with approval, 
for the old port is no longer capable of ex- 
pansion. Port Edgar offers accommodation 
for 500 trawlers, as compared with about 80 
at Newhaven. 

Sir Joseph W. Isherwood, Bart., who has 
recently returned from Russia, and who is 
chairman of the Anglo-Russian Committee 
which sent a British trade delegation to Rus- 
sia some months ago, is quoted by the Liver- 
pool Journal of Commerce as authority for the 
statement that the Russian government wants 
to spend about £20,000,000 on new ships, and 
would rather place these orders in British yards 
than elsewhere. The situation can only be sat- 
isfactorily developed if the necessary securities 
for the payment of £20,000,000 sterling for 
new tonnage in the next five years are forth- 
coming. At present the Soviet Union owns a 
fleet (steamers, motorships and sailing vessels) 
of 379 ships, with a total gross tonnage of 440,- 

25 



506. It wishes to increase this to at least pre- 
war figures, and even more. 

The Spanish government has appointed a 
commission to study the geological formation 
at the Straits of Gibraltar with a view to 
selecting the most suitable location on the 
Spanish coast for making tunnel soundings. 
This committee recommends that a sounding 
be made at a point seven kilometers from 
Tarifa (Province of Cadiz), the nearest point 
to the place selected as offering the best possi- 
bilities for constructing a tunnel. If it should 
later be discovered that the geological forma- 
tion does not permit the perforation of the 
tunnel at that point, the sounding will still 
serve the purpose of throwing light on the sub- 
terranean currents of water which flow 
through the Straits, and will furnish valuable 
information in regard to the geological forma- 
tion of an area heretofore unexplored. 

The wood S.S. Arcturus, which was used by 
Professor William Beebe in his oceanographic 
expedition to the Sargasso Sea, Caribbean and 
West Coast of South America, and has been 
laid up in the Hudson River, off Alpine, N. J., 
for the past four years, has just been purchased 
by Abilio Monteiro de Macedo, President of 
the Cape Verde Islands and West Africa Trad- 
ing Corporation. She will run between New 
Bedford and the Cape Verde Islands in the 
fall and spring and between the islands and the 
African coast during the winter months, and 
will be transferred to Portuguese registry. 
The Arcturus was built for the Shipping Board 
at Bellingham, Wash., in 1919, as the Clio. 
After a year of operation by the Board she was 
sold to the Union Sulphur Company, which 
used her in the sulphur trade for several years. 
She was loaned to Professor Beebe and fitted 
out for the Sargasso Sea expedition at a cost 
of about $80,000. She has a number of first-class 
staterooms and plenty of third-class passenger 
accommodations in deckhouses forward and 
below deck. The voyage from New Bedford 
to St. Vincent, C. V., is expected to be made 
in twelve to fifteen days. Heretofore the 
islanders going back and forth across the At- 
lantic have had either to go via Lisbon or to 
go in schooners, making the voyage in 25 to 30 
days. The Arcturus will make calls at all of 
the islands, thus obviating the necessity of 
transshipping at St. Vincent. 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNA 



January, 1930 



LABOR NEWS 



A lower retirement age for Federal employ- 
ees, with optional retirement at the age of 60 
after long service, is recommended in the an- 
nual report of the Civil Service Commission. 

Thomas A. Edison sees no reason for hand 
work in garment making, predicting a machine 
that will gobble in cloth at one end, turning 
out finished suits at the other end, which 
should give garment workers something to 
think about. 

Stockholders in various Standard Oil com- 
panies are not worried over unemployment and 
wages. Their cash dividends for the last three 
months totaled $75,063,856. This is an increase 
of $9,836,875 over the third quarter of 1929. 
The total cash payments for the entire year are 
$269,645,927. 

Here's how the Cutter Manufacturing Com- 
pany "economizes" at the expense of the work- 
ers : The company had three sweepers in the 
card room, who were receiving from $10 to 
$11 a week. The management took two of the 
sweepers off and cut the pay of the worker 
remaining 10 per cent. 

As an outgrowth of the sentencing of two 
editors of the Cleveland Press, a Scripps- 
Howard paper, a bill has been brought before 
Congress providing that a judge who alleges a 
contempt against his court may not himself 
hear the contempt case. Several Senators are 
pushing that bill and many newspaper editors 
are backing it with vigor. 

Business men of Des Moines, Iowa, have 
joined with organized labor in protesting 
against the Rock Island Railroad's employment 
of low-waged Mexican workers on a $5,000,000 
construction job in this city. This railroad op- 
erates on an anti-union basis. The Mexicans 
are housed in box cars, furnished by the com- 
pany, and are paid from 12 to 15 cents an hour. 

Ben B. Lindsey, beloved as the former judge 
of the famous Denver Juvenile Court, was 
disbarred on December 9 from the practice of 
law in Colorado by the State Supreme Court on 
charges of accepting money from a prominent 
New York and Denver society woman for legal 



services while he was on the bench. On being 
told of the decision, Judge Lindsey declared 
he was the victim of political persecution. 

"Lawyers are not needed by applicants for 
the California old-age pension, which becomes 
effective the first of the year," said Miss Esther 
de Turbeville, of the State Welfare Depart- 
ment. "It is not necessary to employ a lawyer 
or even to pay a notary's fee, as county clerks 
are qualified to take a sworn statement," said 
Miss de Turbeville. "In fact it is preferable 
that the entire transaction be handled by 
county officers." 

If ever government investigation of foreign 
propaganda in America is in order it is that 
investigation of Fascist activities in the United 
States for which Dr. Charles Fama of New 
York has asked. Usually we tear such investi- 
gations as tending to limit rather than ad- 
vance civil liberties. But Mr. Marcus Duffield 
in the November issue of Harper's magazine 
gives strong evidence that Mussolini's Ameri- 
can Empire is no joke. He even manages to 
collect his tax on bachelors from young Ital- 
ians in America! 

Compensation totaling $32,000,000 was paid 
employees in Xew York for injuries sustained 
in employment during the year ended June 30, 
1929, a statement just issued by the New York 
State Department of Labor discloses. The 
number of industrial accidents for which com- 
pensation was paid during the year was 100,462. 
More than one-third of these compensated ac- 
cidents were caused in handling objects or us- 
ing hand tools, according to the announcement. 
and nearly $8,000,000 compensation was paid 
for these injuries. 

Henry Ford raised wages "as a stimulus to 
wages and general business." The advance, it 
is estimated, will total $19,500,000 annually in 
his plants throughout the United States and 
$1,000,000 in Canada. The minimum wage of 
$6 a day is increased to $7, and workers paid 
more than $7 are advanced 5 per cent. Ford- 
statement showed that 24,320 men would be 
affected by the $1 increase and 113,643 em- 
ployees would benefit by the 5 per cent raise. 
The auto manufacturer denied that the wage 
raise would result in higher auto prices. 

California believes in home care for children. 
A decided decrease since 1913 in the popula- 
tion of institutions for dependent children has 



26 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURN 



AL 



17 



been brought about by the increased use of 
financial aid to children in their own homes, 
foster-home care, and adoption, according to 
the first biennial report of the department of 
social welfare of the State. About seven- 
eighths of the children now in institutions have 
one or both parents living; most of the or- 
phans have been placed for adoption. The hope 
in the case of children with one or more parents 
is, of course, that the family life may be re- 
established. 

Trade unionists are being deluged with pleas 
for financial aid by the International Labor 
Defense, whose headquarters are 80 East Elev- 
enth Street, New York City. The International 
Labor Defense is a group of "borers-from- 
within" who seek funds from trade unions they 
would destroy. Organized labor should give 
the widest publicity to these "red" money-get- 
ters whose sob publicity conceals their purpose. 
Communists are also behind the Trade Union 
Unity League, the National Textile Workers 
and the National Mine Workers. These "pa- 
per" organizations continually appeal for funds 
from trade unions. 

Governor Young of California has referred 
Mooney's pardon plea to the Advisory Pardon 
Board for investigation and recommendation. 
The governor said he is not attempting to shift 
responsibility. "Although it has been the an- 
nounced policy," he said, "of the governor's 
office to submit to this board all prison cases 
which are regarded as sufficiently deserving 
to merit careful consideration, I have hitherto 
not done so in this instance, hoping that I 
might reach a definite conclusion in my own 
mind and thus avoid taking any action which 
might tend to delay a final decision." Governor 
Young is the first State Executive who ha*s 
seriously considered the pardon plea. 

Will J. French, director of California Depart- 
ment of Industrial Relations, goes back to the 
time of Moses to justify this State's campaign 
for accident prevention and collection of wages. 
"Deuteronomy, the Fifth Book of Moses, gives 
emphatic approval to these two activities of 
our department," said Mr. French. "Safety 
first is called for in chapter 22, verse 8 : 'When 
thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt 
make a battlement for thy roof, that thou 
bring not blood upon thine house, if any man 
fall from thence.' Chapter 24, verse 15, makes 



this call for wage payments, rather than at- 
tempt to wrong the worker : 'At his day thou 
shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun 
go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth 
his heart upon it.' " 

The U. S. Senate has called on the Depart- 
ment of Justice to explain a contract with the 
State of Georgia that permits the leasing of 
Federal colored prisoners to that State for road 
construction. The resolution was introduced 
by Senator Wagner. The contract was signed 
by Sanford Bates, superintendent of Federal 
prisons, who insists that this is a remedy for 
idleness and overcrowding. Senators Wagner, 
Borah and Hawes are especially vigorous in 
protesting against the contract. The latter de- 
clared that if the contract is carried to its 
logical end "the Federal Government will pack 
the jails with offenders against the dry laws 
and then hand the prisoners over to the States 
to do work that free labor would otherwise 
perform." The contract is a defiance of Section 
708 of the Code of Laws of the United States, 
which makes it illegal for a Federal official or 
agent to contract out the labor of Federal pris- 
oners. Penalties as high as three years in jail 
and a $1,000 fine is provided fpr violation of 
this act. 

President Hoover has wrecked two infant in- 
dustries — professional patriotism and noisy 
Communism. The leaders of these groups play 
one against the other, with much profit to both. 
Professional patriots get the money from timid 
folk who believe our weather-beaten, storm- 
tossed democracy will be wrecked some dark 
night. The "reds" play the other end of the 
game by calling on workers to establish a new 
social, economic, political and moral system. 
One crowd capitalizes fear; the other, hope. 
Both camps are in mourning since the Presi- 
dent refused to be frightened at a demonstra- 
tion before the White Llouse by a handful of 
hysterical young Communists who staged one 
of their periodical parades and banner wavings. 
Last week the Communists were hustled to 
jail, as usual, when they appeared. Things 
were movin' fine for the revolution, as hunger 
strikes and defiance of courts loomed. But the 
revolution collapsed. The "reds" were given 
the gate when the President's secretary issued 
a statement in which the revolutors were ad- 
vised to go home to their parents. 



27 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January. 1930 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



Fair wages will prevail on the $50,000,000 
Canadian National Railroad terminals to be 
constructed in Montreal. Sir Henry Thornton, 
president of the government-owned system, 
gave this assurance to the local Building 
Trades Council. 

Wage increases for conductors, brakemen, 
yardmen and switchtenders employed on the 
Canadian Pacific and Canadian National rail- 
ways (western division) were unanimously 
agreed to by a board of conciliation that has 
filed its findings with the Dominion govern- 
ment. The report, if accepted, will bring west- 
ern Canadian rates up to eastern Canadian 
standards. 

More than 300 farmers in the state of Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, are now growing wheat, and this 
year's crop will be a bumper one of 1,500,000 
kilograms (approximately 3.000,000 pounds), 
according to estimates, as compared to last 
year's 50,000, when Sao Paulo first began to 
take interest in the cultivation of wheat. In 
addition to wheat, oranges constitute one of 
the new products tried out by enterprising 
agriculturists, and this year's crop is estimated 
at 600,000 boxes, as compared to 130,000 in 
1928. 

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Coun- 
cil, the British Empire's highest court of ap- 
peal, has ruled that women are eligible for 
seats in the Dominion of Canada Senate. 
In delivering the ruling, the Lord Chancellor 
declared that "the exclusion of women from 
public office is a relic of days more barbarous 
than ours. It must be remembered the neces- 
sity of the time often forced on man customs 
which in later years were unnecessary." The 
judgment may have an indirect effect on the 
eligibility of women throughout the British 
Empire. 

It is officially announced from London that, 
with the concurrence of the Canadian govern- 
ment, arrangements have been made for the 
training of 3000 single men, between the ages 
of 19 and 35, in farm work in Great Britain, 
during the fall and winter months, with the 
view to placing them in farm employment in 
Canada next spring. The duration of the 



courses will be tw r elve weeks or more, during 
which, aside from maintenance, the trainees 
will be paid 97 cents per week pocket money, 
plus 24 cents for each completed week of train- 
ing on leaving the training center. 

A sum of £82,621,517, it is estimated, has 
been paid out during recent years by the Brit- 
ish government as subsidies for housing 
schemes in England, Wales and Scotland. 
Members of building societies in Great Britain 
now total no less than 2,000,000 people, over 
270,000 of whom have joined during the last 
twelve months. The assets of the combined 
societies amount to £268,000,000, and the 
a gg re gate receipts for the year are £117,000,- 
000. The average cost of each of the 174,000 
houses built under the 1919 Housing Act is 
£1080, and, according to the official figures 
published by the Ministry of Health, the total 
cost was £190,000,000. The Exchequer is to 
continue paying the subsidies in respect of the 
houses built under this act until 1935. The 
maximum cost to the nation is estimated at 
about £400,000,000 distributed over the next 
fifty years, at the end of which the loans for 
the housing project established in 1918 will 
have been paid off. 

In view of the growing shortage of labor, 
French building contractors recently sent mis- 
sions to several of the countries of Europe, and 
established a recruiting organization which is 
already in operation in Spain and Portugal, 
and which is to extend its activities in Central 
Europe. The organization in question, which 
was set up with the support of the National 
Federation of Builders and Public Works 
Contractors, the Industrial Federation of 
Builders' Merchants and the Union of Public 
Works Contractors, is named the Corporate 
Association for the Immigration of Labor for 
Building, Public Works, and Builders' Ma- 
terials. The essential purpose of the organiza- 
tion is to meet the shortage of French labor by 
seeking out and recruiting abroad skilled work- 
ers and their assistants for the building trades, 
and especially for the purpose of carrying out 
works for the state, the departments and the 
local authorities, and the execution of the pro- 
gram of the Housing Acts. The association 
will distribute workers thus recruited among 
those of its members who submit applications 
for labor. 



28 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



ON THE GREAT LAKES 

(Continued from Page 12) 



of the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes. News 
items sent to about forty newspapers resulted 
in some favorable publicity for the Union. 

Able seamen certificates issued by U. S. 
Local Inspectors on the Great Lakes for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1929, totaled 1,281 
as compared with 1,174 in the preceding year 
and 1,717 for the year ending June 30, 1927. 
The percentages of rejections for the three 
years were 12 per cent for 1929, 12 per cent 
for 1928, and 9 per cent for 1927. 

During the year it has become painfully 
evident that Collectors of Customs on the 
Great Lakes give little or no attention to the 
enforcement of the Seamen's Act. Treasurer 
Goshhorn recently sent a letter to each of them 
asking how often they had caused a muster 
of crews on their own motion. The replies thus 
far received indicate no such musters have ever 
been held. 

The Steamboat Inspection Service also 
recorded lack of interest in law enforcement. 
The U. S. Supervising Inspector at Cleveland 
issued a peculiar letter, dated Nov. 18, to the 
Collector of Customs at Chicago, Duluth and 
Buffalo, stating he had investigated complaints 
of violation of the nine-hour clause of Sec. 2 
of the Seamen's Act on the steamers Chicago 
and A. Scandrette, that the officers had ad- 
mitted such violation, but had claimed it to be 
necessary "by reason of the condition of the 
package freight trade." If this law can be 
flagrantly violated by reason of a "condition" 
then Congress ought to know about it. Steps 
have been taken to call this strange situation 
to the higher authorities. 

As a whole, working conditions on ships that 
ply the Great Lakes are anything but satisfac- 
tory. We leave it to our discerning readers 
to imagine how bad the situation would be but 
for the constant energetic work of the three 
Great Lakes District Unions of Seamen! 



WAGES AND MAIL SUBSIDIES 

(Continued from Page 18) 

rying of mail, amounting to hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars in the course of a year's time. 
Were the truth known, it would undoubtedly 



be found that these compensations for carrying 
mail exceed the total wage costs of operation. 
In one company alone, operating a fleet of 
vessels in a certain trade, each vessel receives 
for a trip occupying a little more than three 
months the staggering sum of $70,000 com- 
pensation for the carrying of mail. Comparing 
these huge earnings of the American shipown- 
ers to the meager earnings of the personnel, 
we shall be duly grateful when the Dollar 
Company comes through with the increase in 
wages. Yet, we shall be unable to conceal our 
innermost thoughts that the raise was overdue ! 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash...„ Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 
P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

ROBERT BRAUER, Agent. Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42 

CHARLES F. HAMMARIN, Agent 
Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore 2 Astor Street 

PAUL GERHARDT, Agent 
P. O. Box 138. Phone 147 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 281 

CARL S. PRUETT, Secretary 



COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore...- _ F. REIMANN, Secretary 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Cal WILLIAM KAY, Secretary 

2441 K Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 
AND VtCINITY 

CORDOVA, Alaska P. O. Box 597 

N. SWANSON, Secretary 



MONTEREY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 
Headquarters 

MONTEREY, Cal 508 Abrego Street 

O. VENTIMIGLIO, Secretary 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore E. H. DYE, Secretary-Treasurer 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
P. O. Box 65 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

P. B. GILL, Secretary. Phone Elliot 6752 
branches 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

J. M. MORRISON, Agent 
Phone Black 241 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box A17 

PETE SWANSON, Agent 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAX FRANCISCO, Cal Room "J," Ferry Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary. Telephone Davenport 7928 



29 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO 

FOOT OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



CARL SCHERMER CO. 

Union Label House 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING— FURNISHINGS 

HATS and SHOES 

Pay Checks Cashed 

715 First Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



NEILS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGTHT ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
TAXI 

CALL GASPEE 5000 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



Teacher: "Mary, why doesn't the 
lamb follow you to school nowa- 
days?" 

Mary: "What, at fifty miles an 
hour?" 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
AT 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone DAvenport 537 



THE 

James H. Barry Co, 

The Star Press 

Printing 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



MAIN 8000 



GEO. LONEY, Tailor 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

112 South 10th Street 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Sold 
"I am an advertisement canvasser. 
Have you any small wants I can 

advertise?" 

"Certainly not. My servant should 
not have admitted you. I have told 
him repeatedly that I do not see 
canvassers." 

"Then dismiss him and advert Ue 
in our paper for a more obedient 
one." — Faun, Vienna. 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Sayer's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
DAvenport 3863 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Phone DAvenport 0505 With Morgen's 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 
125 MARKET STREET 

No relation to Joe Harris 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS. SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts. 

Hats. Oil Clothing 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe 

302 So. F Street, Aberdeen, Wash. 

On the Water Front 



"There's a girl who holds her 

licker well," he thought, as he 

watched the office girl stamp en- 
velopes. — Boston I'.eanpot. 



THE ROYAL CIGAR STORE 

DOLLMAN Be GOMMERSON 

Cards, Cigars, Tobaccos, 

Fountain Lunch 

500 EAST HERON STREET 

PHONE 452 ABERDEEN, WASH. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



"Will any members of the crew 
of the steamship Sahale that know 
ahout Benjamin Lovette, who was 
drowned at Hamburg, Germany, 

during September, 1027. please call 
or communicate with Silas B. Axtell. 
attorney for the relatives of Benja- 
min Lovette, 11 Moore Strr<-t, New 
York City." 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Members of the crew <>f the 
"Coeileda," who have a claim pend- 
ing in my office for wages, over- 
time and also for the shortage of 
food, against tin- steamship "Coei- 
leda," please call or communicate 
with me. Thi> case is going to be 
reached for trial during January, 
1930. Silas B. Axtell. 11 Moore 
Street, New York City. X. Y. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will Charles A. Johnston, whose 
case I am handling against the 
Shipping Board, please get in touch 
with me at once. Sol C. Berenholtz, 
806 Equitable Building, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 



3d 



January, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



Professional Cards 



Telephone SUtter 6900 

Notary Public-Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

101 Market St. San Francisco 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

531 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 
SAN FRANCISCO 
Phone DOuglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers* Association No. 49 
611 Russ BIdg. Tel. DOuglas 1058 

San Francisco, California 



S. T. HOGEVOLL 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

909 Pacific Building 
821 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 
FERRY BLDG.. SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will Charles Jorgenson who has 
a claim pending- in my office against 
the steamship Steel Navigator, 
please call or communicate with 
this office at once? Your case has 
been reversed on appeal and your 
presence at the new trial is neces- 
sary. Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 



WANTED 

Men on all classes of ships. We 
pay 20 per cent cash on an invest- 
ment of only $5. The opportunity 
is here to invest as much as you 
wish. The 20 per cent is for mem- 
bers only. 

Address: Fore and Aft, P. O. Box 
311, Reno, Nevada 



<< 



Exclusive But Not Expensive" 

Fine Clothes Since 1898! 



ALWAYS 
FAIR 



BOSS 



UNION 
TAILOR 



FURNISHES THIS LABEL 



We use the only 

Label recognized by 

the A. F. O. L. 




In fairness to 

yourself accept 

no other. 



BEAUTIFUL NEW STORE 1034 MARKET ST. Gr b 1Sck A 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

26 CALIFORNIA ST., NEAR DAVIS 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone DOuglas 4874 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags. 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry 

Phone KEarny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near TOWNSEND 

San Francisco 



Announcement 

to 

Seamen 



FREDERICK R. GRAVES 

has removed his 

office to 

44 Whitehall Street 

New York City 



Telephone No. 
Bowling Green 1886 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



TWO STORES 

GEO. A. PRICE 

Leading Maritime Haberdasher 

THE BEST OF 

Everything for the man that 

Goes to Sea 
BETTER GOODS FOR LESS 
"BOSS OF THE ROAD" 

80 Embarcadero 19 Embarcadero 

San Francisco 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvonport 0594 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 

QUICK SERVICE 
San Francisco California 



She: How does the water get 
into a water melon?" 

He: "They plant it in the spring." 



When in San Francisco 
Do Not Fail to Visit the 

MOHAWK 
RESTAURANT 

109 Steuart Street 

Near Mission 

JACK (FAT) CLARK, Manager 



31 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and Is now 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well Informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




INFORMATION WANTED 

Anyone knowing the whereabouts 
of Ernest Shultz of Ventspils Lat- 
via, last heard of from New York 
City in 1914, kindly communicate 
with his sister, Matilde Shultz Val- 
demaras iela No. .33 Dsll5a Riga 
Latvia, or with Agent, Seamen's 
Union, 206 Julia Street, New Or- 
leans, La. 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Joseph Watts, Luis Pellin, Wil- 
liam H. Clark, Charles J. Thomp- 
son, Julio Munizaga, Casinero Gla- 
vaisich and Joseph Tore, please call 
or communicate at once with your 
attorney, undersigned, as your cases 
have been settled. Frederick R. 
Graves, 44 Whitehall Street, Xnv 
York City. New York. 



'White Palace Shoe Store 

34 MARKET STREET, ft* MZfrM? Fri 




JOE WEISS, Prop. 

We have a large stock of Union-made 
shoes for your approval. Take your 
choice and get ten shines free for every 
pair purchased from us, costing over $5. 



If Your Teeth Hurt 

See a Parker Dentist! 

Hundreds of seafaring men have found Parker Dentists 
reasonable in price and strong on service and fine dental 
work. There's an office in every Pacific seaport. 
PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST USING 

E. R. PARKER SYSTEM 

San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 109% 
E. Ocean Blvd.; San Pedro, 706 Palos Verdes; San 
Francisco, 1012 Market St., 767 Market St., 1802 
Geary St.; Los Angeles, 550 So. Broadway, 104% W. 
7th St., 432 So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F. St.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington 
and Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103% Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and Commer- 
cial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 Hastings St. E.: 
Boston, Mass., 581 Washington St. 




A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 

SUTTER 8000 



Why Court Adjourned 
Two lawyers in court were en- 
paged in a heated quarrel. Hotter 
and hotter it waxed. "You're the 
biggest ass in this room!" cried 
one. 

"Order! Order!" called the judge, 
"you forgot that I am here!" 



Qualified Expert 

'Know anything about cars?" 
"Been mixed up with 'em a bit." 
"Mechanic?" 

"\<>, pedestrian." — Sydney Bul- 
letin. 



KODAKS 

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SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



32 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 

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1 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea Power is in the seamen. Vessels are the 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nation 

Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 0ur\^ft>\to : Justice b 




PROBLEMS OF THE PACIFIC 

NEWS AND COMMENT CONCERNING SEA 

EDITORIALS: 

EXCLUDE THE FILIPINOS 38 

GIRLS ON THEIR FIRST TRIP 39 

SAILING AROUND THE HORN 39 

SOULS OF MERCHANT SEAMEN 40 

HERESY HUNTERS 41 

THE "NOBLE EXPERIMENT" 41 

COLLECTING UNION DUES 42 

THE UNDERMANNING EVIL 43 

TEST FOR COLOR BLINDNESS 44 

THE UNITED STATES STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE... 45 

THE PANAMA RAILROAD STEAMSHIP LINE 45 

CONGRESS OF RUSSIAN SEAMEN 46 

THE CANADIAN MARINE HOSPITAL SERVICE 47 

THE WONDERS OF DELHI 48 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 51 

BOOK REVIEWS 52 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 54, 55, 56, 57 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 58, 59, 60 



VOL. XLIV, No. 2 
WHOLE NO. 1993 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
February 1, 1930 



^^tlltlC3lllllIi:illlC31lllllIIIIIlC:3lttlllllll)l C3II t lltllllllC^llIlllllllllC^IIIilllMllir ^f IllilMIIIIC2llllllllllllCJIIIlllltlllIC3:III1IIC3lllllllliailE31|i tllf illllC2llllll*IIIIIC211lltf I1III1C3IIIJ111IIIIIC3 It II tt'CSIIIIIII 1 1 IllC^llf IIIJT^ 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 



VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary -Treasurer 
623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258 
Branches 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

66 Orange Street. Phone Dexter 8090 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

26 South Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

131 Walnut Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5910 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MOBILE, Ala ...WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Texas ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street. Phone 2215 
PORT ARTHUR, Texas JAMES O'SHEA, Agent 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y 70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa R. DAVIS, Agent 

209 Pine Street. Phone Lombard 7425 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

735 South Broadway. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 

NEW ORLEANS, La.„ CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Tex ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Texas K. H. MEYER, Agent 

131 Prootor Street. Phone 2181 

MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR 
EMPLOYEES' UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

ALGIERS, La LESLIE S. DUPLAN, Secretary 

701 Park Boulevard. Phone Walnut 4449 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch)....JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE, Md FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1704 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va.„ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Texas „ ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Texas ARNST LARSEN, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Acting Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827 

Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4539 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 810% North Clark Street 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Washington 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich CARL WICKARD, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

ED HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches 

CLEVELAND, Ohio JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue. W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHARLES DRYER, Agent 

162 Reed StreeL Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich JAMES HAYMAN, Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Randolph 0044 

CHICAGO, 111 LEONARD CARTER, Agent 

122 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2152 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. 9ECORD, Secretary 

35 West Eagle Street. Telephone Seneca 0896 
Branches 

CHICAGO, 111 S. R. LITTLE, Agent 

30 No. Wells Street. Phone Dearborn 0892 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65. Telephone Elljot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash JOHN FEIDGE, Agent 

307 South F Street 
P. O. Box 280. Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 South Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68. Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC. 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

58 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 3699 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JERRY CLARK, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal WILLIAM SHERIDAN. Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phon« 336 
(Continued on Fast- 89) 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



35 



PROBLEMS OF THE PACIFIC 




lOLLOWING its two previous meet- 
ings in Honolulu, in 1925 and 1927, the 
third session of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations was held in Kyoto, Japan, 
from October 28 to November 9, 1929. 
The editor of the Journal wrote a lengthy 
article for the American Federationist wherein 
the deliberations of the Kyoto meeting are 
summarized and appraised from the labor 
viewpoint. Following are excerpts from said 
article : 

The Institute's first conference, frankly experi- 
mental in character, took place in Honolulu in the 
month of July, 1925. It represented an effort on the 
part of unofficial individuals from several countries 
around the Pacific to consider together some of the 
major problems of the area — problems arising from 
the close cultural contacts, political relationships and 
economic rivalries which have arisen in the Pacific. 
It was believed that if difficulties could be brought 
out into the open and examined with entire frankness 
by men and women of different racial or national 
backgrounds, much that was obscure could be made 
clear and misunderstandings might tend to resolve 
themselves. 

At the third session, for the first time, the entire 
Pacific world was represented, including all the 
peoples in or facing the Pacific Ocean, and all the 
countries exercising sovereignty therein. The only 
limitation to this statement is that it assumes the 
Mexican observer to have been, if not the represent- 
ative, at least the forerunner of the Pacific peoples 
of Latin America. Members, or observers, were pres- 
ent from Australia, Canada, China, France, Great 
Britain, Japan, Korea, the League of Nations, the 
International Labor Office, Mexico, the Netherlands, 
New Zealand, Soviet Russia, the United States of 
America and the Philippines. The total attendance 
at Kyoto, including members, observers, families and 
secretaries, was 341. There were 200 delegates from 
member groups, who with the ten observers, and the 
Central Secretariat of eight, made 218 actual partici- 
pants in the Conference, distributed as follows: 
Australia 11, Canada 29, China 31, France 1, Great 
Britain 15, Japan 48, Korea 7, League of Nations 2, 
International Labor Office 3, Mexico 1, the Nether- 
lands 1, New Zealand 6, Soviet Russia 2, United 
States 45, Central Secretariat 8. 

The occupational distribution of the membership 
was quite as wide as the geographic one. Of the 
members, 33 were women. The largest single group 
was 72 "professors," of whom 12 were college presi- 
dents. The technical experts of the Conference came 
largely, but not entirely, from this group. "Publicist" 
best characterizes 25, including ex-ambassadors, 
social workers and many other non-occupational 
activities. There were 18 journalists, including repre- 
sentatives of every important press association in 
the world and the editors or publishers of the princi- 
pal newspapers in Japan. Religious workers num- 
bered 17, lawyers and physicians 7. An effort had 
been made to include labor representatives in all the 
principal national groups but without success. Only 
four trade-unionists were in attendance at the Kyoto 
meeting. This group included in addition to the 
writer, Tom Moore, President of the Trades and 
Labor Congress of Canada; Bunji Suzuki, President 
of the General Federation of Labor in Japan, and 



Malcolm McDonald, Labor member of British House 
of Commons and son of the present Prime Minister. 

The Conference commenced with a public session 
at which Chairman Nitobe delivered a thought-pro- 
voking opening address. Messages of greeting and 
interest were read from the Prime Minister or Chief 
of State of each of the member countries. The chair- 
man of the Australian group, Dr. Eggleston, read a 
cabled message from the new Labor Prime Minister 
of Australia and added a touch of humor to the situa- 
tion by stating that he had a similar message in 
his pocket from the former Prime Minister who had, 
however, been deposed through a political exigency, 
since his (Dr. Eggleston's) departure from Australia. 
At an evening session the same day, brief abstracts 
of their "opening statements" were given by the 
chairmen of the member groups and the full printed 
statements were distributed. 

The active work of the Conference began the next 
day in the Miyako Hotel, Kyoto. The members were 
divided into "round tables" for the discussion of 
questions in the agenda. These were held each morn- 
ing of the session for two weeks. Evening meetings 
of the entire conference were also held every day. 
The afternoons were given to committee and group 
meetings, to sightseeing, and to a series of entertain- 
ments arranged for by the Japanese Council of the 
Institute. All the members were "required" to read 
numerous mimeographed papers, pamphlets and other 
printed matter containing researches and opinions. In 
the language of a British member, this literature "fell 
like a torrential rain" throughout the two weeks of 
the Conference. 

The first three days were devoted to the impact 
of Occidental and Oriental culture, under the title 
of "The Machine Age and Traditional Culture." The 
effect of the machine age on the decay of traditional 
cultures in architecture, manners and the fine arts 
was discussed with consideration of the ideals to be 
aimed at in these three fields of culture, and also in 
social and ethical ideas, marriage and the family, 
and religion. During the discussion of this interestng 
but relatively non-controversial subject, the members 
also became familiar with the technique of the Con- 
ference, and established a basis of personal acquaint- 
ance for the more difficult questions to follow. 

Some of the arguments on the contact of machine 
civilization and traditional cultures were most note- 
worthy. According to Professor Shotwell of Columbia 
University, machine civilization is conducive to the 
popularization of all arts and consequently helpful 
to their development. Arts should not be a monopoly 
by the privileged classes but should be made popular 
by the growth of science. The popularization and 
universalization of arts will itself aid permanent world 
peace. Whether the advance of science will be de- 
structive to all arts or whether it will serve to promote 
them is dependent on the discretion of the men hand- 
ling machine civilization, and it is a mistake to con- 
tend that one interferes with the other. 

The next three days of the conference were some- 
what more strenuous with round tables on China's 
Foreign Concessions and Extraterritoriality. 

China is still afflicted with too many treaties, gen- 
erally forced upon that strife-torn country by design- 
ing diplomats working in behalf of their respective 
selfish governments. By virtue of these treaties more 
than a dozen nations still enjoy Extraterritorial rights 
in China. In other words, the subjects or citizens of 
these favored nations enjoy various special privileges 
which have been shamefully abused from time to 
time. 

It is only natural that China has long been desirous 
of doing away with these special privileges of for- 



36 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



eigners and it was made quite evident during the 
Conference that America and the Powers of Europe 
have become more and more sympathetic with her 
persistent claims. In consequence, the attitude of 
China in treating with these affairs was more moder- 
ate. Defeated as China was in the movement for the 
immediate abrogation of Extraterritoriality, her 
ardent spokesmen listened to various opinions advo- 
cating gradual abrogation. There are no less than 
six plans for a solution of the problem, but it seems 
impossible to induce the conflicting interests to agree 
on any one plan. 

With respect to foreign concessions it was evident 
that China would endeavor to work out a feasible- 
plan just as soon as the deplorable internecine war- 
fare would permit the Government to do so. The best- 
informed speakers were rather reluctant to make 
statements which would wound the sensibilities of 
their Chinese colleagues. For instance, it would have 
been rude to suggest that China is passing through 
another of those periodical cataclysms of which her 
history records many and which have lasted not for 
decades but for generations and even centuries. 
Politeness required a tacit acceptance of the national- 
ist statement that the period of turmoil is all but 
over; that China is to have a capable central govern- 
ment henceforth; and that the problem is simply 
one of getting over the transition stage. 

A brief discussion on finance, however, brought 
the Conference up against some unpleasant realities 
concerning the condition in China. The Chinese 
opening statement expressed confidence that the cur- 
rent budget could be balanced, but admitted that for 
the establishment of a stable and efficient Government 
foreign loans are necessary. This led to the question 
of what security could be offered, and the deplorable 
state of China's internal affairs was thus made evi- 
dent. No one could suggest any acceptable security. 

The Problems of Manchuria 

Three days were reserved for round tables on Man- 
churia. One round table was devoted to North Man- 
churia and the present issues between China and 
Russia over the Chinese Eastern Railroad. The other 
sessions concentrated on South Manchuria and the 
problems presented by the economic interests of 
Japan and the great population movement of Chinese 
immigrants, into a territory under Chinese sov- 
ereignty, but in some portions and aspects under 
Japanese administration. 

Back of the rather heated discussions over Man- 
churia was Japan's ambition and dire need for indus- 
trial and commercial expansion. Manchuria, with 
twenty-eight million people in its three provinces, is 
not yet annexed. It is still a part of China with an 
area larger than Texas, considerably larger than the 
entire Japanese Empire, including recent annexations 
such as Formosa, Korea, Sakhalin and all adjacent 
islands. Following Russia's defeat in 1904-1905, Japan 
seized the southern portion of the Manchurian Rail- 
road. The Russians, however, retained control of 
the northern part of the main line. When Commu- 
nists overthrew the Czar, the Chinese government 
reclaimed its lost territory and disarmed the Russian 
guards in control. Later an agreement was reached 
between the Soviet and the national government of 
China, but the Chinese claim that the Communists 
violated that agreement. 

The Chinese-Eastern railroad was built with foreign 
capital, mostly French. These bonds have been repu- 
diated by the Soviet. Involved in the dispute are for- 
eign debtors, international diplomacy, national aspira- 
tions, world markets and other economic factors. 

The strong national feeling that has been developed 
in China calls for a return of the portions of Man- 
churia which were ceded to Russia when the Chinese- 
Eastern Railroad was built. An equally strong 
national feeling in Russia calls for retention of the 



railroad that Russia may have a warm-water port and 
free access to the seas. 

Unfortunately it was not possible to discuss the 
merits of Sino-Russian relation because Russia's 
representatives were only observers who did not care 
to speak. In other words, the absence of Russian 
delegates prevented the operation of one of the princi- 
pal functions of the Conference — the promotion of 
friendly approach between representatives of states at 
loggerheads — and it cannot be said that the session 
contributed anything to the improvement of Sino- 
Russian relations. 

Things were different when it came to a discussion 
of Sino-Japanese relations. 

The railroad connecting the Japanese government- 
owned line in Korea with Mukden was built after 
Japan had taken over the main Russian line to Port 
Arthur. The question is, when, if ever, will China get 
them back? The Chinese had come to the Conference 
frankly intending to put Japan "on the carpet" before 
the world, present the official Chinese side of the 
various issues between the two nations and convince 
the world of Japan's injustice. The Japanese were 
equally determined not to yield an inch from the 
official position of their Government. 

As the Conference progressed the Chinese found 
that no one accepted their position unreservedly and 
they were forced to moderate it. The Japanese then 
followed suit and abandoned their stand-pat attitude. 
From then on both delegations actually listened to 
what the other had to say and wondered if there 
might not be something to the other side after all. 
This, it must be borne in mind, was at a Conference 
which many Japanese had questioned the advisability 
of holding at all for fear of possible ill feeling over 
too frank discussions of Sino-Japanese problems. 
Such a friendly atmosphere as developed during the 
closing days of the Conference with the consequent 
willingness of both groups to listen to the other and 
discuss the other's views was an unquestionable 
achievement. The Institute as such, under its policy, 
reached no conclusion and made no recommendation, 
but it is understood that constructive plans for fur- 
ther investigation of the subject were agreed to by 
Chinese and Japanese members of the Institute. 
Those men represented the public opinion of today 
and the official opinion of tomorrow. 

Food Supply and Surplus Population 

The question of food supply and surplus population, 
discussed at previous sessions of the Institute, were 
again given earnest attention. The American and 
Japanese representatives were frank in setting forth 
their respective claims and opinions relating to the 
immigration problem, while arguments condemning 
artificial barriers injurious to the freedom of obtaining 
necessary raw material provoked serious thought. 

The trend of discussion on the subject of food and 
population was varied according to the problems of 
the different countries concerned. Thus, it was shown, 
the British Dominions invariably wanted a growth 
of their population but only a growth of a selected 
nature such as not to impair their standard of living. 
American members confessed that their country had 
reluctantly adopted the same policy as the British 
Dominions but not until very considerable immigra- 
tion had created serious and as yet unsolved problems. 

The Japanese members speaking on this subject 
explained that the ruling class of olden times favored 
a stationary population. Later general opinion ap- 
proved a big population for military, industrial and 
political causes. Recently the tide has changed again. 
Today, the general impression is that a restricted 
population is better for the countrv. Birth control is 
also coming to the fore and an instance of an estab- 
lishment of a birth-control clinic was cited, but this 
movement, it was said, represented only a radical 
(Continued on Page 50) 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



37 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



German customs officers found, behind 
the ceiling of the crew's quarters, some to- 
bacco which a sailor intended to smuggle. The 
customs held the shipowner liable to a fine, as 
the man had tried to smuggle while in the 
shipowner's service, a case for which ship- 
owners are liable according to the German 
rule. The Superior Financial Court was ap- 
pealed to, and its decision was that the rule 
applies only when the crew use the general 
rooms of the ship for smuggling, or such rooms 
as serve simultaneously as working rooms and 
as quarters. If the rooms in question, however, 
serve solely as the private quarters of the crew, 
the shipowner cannot be held liable. 

The Times of Argentina says that good 
work was performed at sea through the ship's 
wireless by the surgeon of the Lamport and 
Holt S.S. Voltaire on her trip down. On 
November 26 the Voltaire received a message 
from the S.S. Roxby (British), when about 
200 miles off Rio de Janeiro, that the 
latter vessel had a seaman on board who had 
fallen unconscious, and requesting a diagnosis. 
After several messages had been exchanged 
the Voltaire's surgeon. Dr. Silverman, diag- 
nosed the case as uremia, and prescribed ac- 
cordingly. The next day the Voltaire received 
a message from the Roxby stating that the 
man had partly recovered consciousness, and 
was told to put him ashore at the nearest port, 
this proving to be Florianopolis. Laboratory 
tests made at the hospital there proved that 
the man was, in effect, suffering from uremia, 
and he will be detained there until he is cured. 

Unemployment insurance for seamen has 
proved a failure, according to the report of the 
Hamburg Shipowners' Association for the year 
ended June 30, last. The report states that 
sickness insurance is also growing to disas- 
trous proportions because many men on being 
discharged report sick in order to receive the 
sickness benefit until they get fresh employ- 
ment. The effect of the insurance has been to 
multiply the percentage of sick men sevenfold 
in the case of a large shipping company. This 



led to contributions being increased from 2 l / 2 
per cent of the wages to 7 per cent. The As- 
sociation is putting forward a strong demand 
that the administration of the fund be so modi- 
fied as not to breed sick men, but promote 
good health among seamen at the lowest cost. 

Some of the ships now being built in foreign 
yards for the Norwegian firm of Wilh. Wil- 
helmsen are to be run under the flag of Pan- 
ama in order to escape the alleged onerous reg- 
ulations imposed upon Norwegian shipping. 
Fear is expressed in Norwegian labor circles 
that other shipowners may adopt the same 
policy. Panama imposes no restrictions of any 
kind upon shipping save the payment of a reg- 
istry tax and an annual tax on tonnage, both 
very moderate. It may be recalled that the 
Harriman concern once operated the liners 
Resolute and Reliance in the transatlantic pas- 
senger trade under the Panama flag in order 
to escape the "burdens" imposed upon ships 
of American registry. The ships are now 
owned by the Hamburg-American Line and 
fly the German flag. 

* * * 

A new form of insurance of seamen against 
sickness and accidents, and increased old-age 
pensions, have been introduced in France. 
The measure provides for a national office, 
F.tablissement National des Invalides de la 
Marine, the management of which will be en- 
trusted to a council of thirty members, includ- 
ing ten members of Parliament and govern- 
ment representatives, ten shipowners, and ten 
officers and seamen. As at present, seafarers 
will be entitled to a full pension at 50 years 
of age, after having served at sea for 25 years, 
but shipmasters will receive a minimum pen- 
sion of 6,800 fr., instead of 5,400 fr. formerly, 
and that of seamen will be raised from 3,070 
fr. to 3,400 fr. Bonuses up to 3,000 fr. per 
annum for masters, and 600 fr. for men, will 
be paid when salaries or wages exceed the 
minimum figures, so that the pension of a 
master may reach 9,870 fr., and that of a sea- 
man 4,000 fr. The resources of the insurance 
office consist of contributions from shipowners 
and seamen and government grants, the 
amounts inscribed in next year's budget being 
150,000,000 fr., an increase of 45,000,000 fr. on 
the year. 



38 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

PATRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

P. B. GILL, Third Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle, Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Fourth Vice-President 

1% Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fifth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Sixth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PETER E. OLSEN, Seventh Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

525 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general Interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
Is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



February 1, 1930 



EXCLUDE THE FILIPIXnS 



During the month the newspapers of the 
world have again carried dispatches from 
California setting forth the more or less brutal 
details of recent race riots in Monterey and 
Santa Clara counties. 

California seems destined to bear the brunt 
of the seemingly never-ending struggle for 
the effective exclusion of Asiatic laborers from 
the United States of America. 

This is the third time since California was 
admitted to statehood that the mass immi- 
gration of Asiatics has caused bloody race 
riots. 

It is notorious that American capitalists 
have had little or no concern for the future of 
our young republic. The greed of the early 
settlers — their insistence for cheap, "depend- 
able" labor gave to America a civil war and 
a negro problem that has remained a perplex- 
ing question to this very date. 



The men who built the first railroad to the 
shores of the Pacific again maintained that 
they could not do the job without cheap and 
docile labor from China. This wholesale im- 
portation of Chinese coolies caused the first 
race riots on the West coast and finally, in 
1882, resulted in the passage of the Chinese 
Exclusion Act. 

In the early part of the present century 
California agriculturists joyfully sponsored 
still another wholesale migration of cheap 
labor to our shores. But the Japanese laborers, 
although highly praised at the beginning, were 
entirely too ambitious. They were not content 
to remain mere hired tillers of the soil. Being 
thrifty and willing to work sixteen hours a 
day on an Oriental diet the immigrants from 
Japan soon began to compete with their former 
bosses. Then the erstwhile praise was quickly 
transformed into violent cussing. And, of 
course, when the white agricultural population 
joined hands with the city folks in demanding 
the exclusion of Japanese by law, Congress 
responded with the Exclusion Act of 1924. 

The Filipinos did not come to continental 
United States in considerable numbers until 
the sugar planters of Hawaii had imported 
many thousands to work as contract laborers 
in the cane fields of those tropical islands. 
From the Territory of Hawaii to the Pacific 
Coast is just another step, and every year more 
and more Filipinos have arrived as the 
nucleus of another unwanted, unassimilable 
alien group in California and other Western 
states. The recent so-called race riots are the 
inevitable sequence of the stupid and short- 
sighted policy which enables unlimited num- 
bers of these Asiatics to migrate to America. 

Census figures for continental United States 
fixed our Filipino population at 160 in the year 
1910 and 5603 in 1920. The present Filipino 
population is estimated as being in excess oi 
50,000 for continental United States and more 
than 60,000 for Hawaii. 

The average age of the Filipino immigrants 
is 17 to 25 years. Practically all are men and 
unmarried. Being able to obtain a higher wage 
than they have been accustomed to receive, 
they are soon in possession of comparative 
wealth. Then the trouble begins. 

In the language of Professor Barrows, 
formerly director of education for the Philip- 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



39 



pine Islands, the Filipino's "vices are almost 
entirely based on sexual passion. This passion 
in the Malay, and which includes practically 
all types of Filipinos, is inordinately strong; 
and in accordance with the native custom, it is 
rarely directed into the right channels or re- 
strained by custom or by individual will." 

This, then, is the type of immigrants which 
the cheap labor champions are now forcing 
upon a protesting citizenry. 

A bill to exclude Filipinos, in the same man- 
ner as other Asiatics are now excluded, has 
been introduced by Congressman Welch of 
California. The number of the bill is H. R. 
8708. 

All Americans who are at all concerned 
about the future of their country should be 
interested in this bill and personally promote 
its early enactment. 



SAILING AROUND THE HORN 



GIRLS ON THEIR FIRST TRIP 



The current issue of the Merchant Marine 
Bulletin comments at length on the employ- 
ment of women in the stewards' department 
of the Grace motor liners Santa Maria and 
Santa Barbara. The most interesting part 
of the story is the extraordinary statement 
that for "practically all the girls this was 
their first ocean-going trip." Well, it must 
have been an eventful trip for the passengers 
with all the waitresses on their first trip — 
minus sea legs ! Oh, how the soup must have 
splashed when the dear seasick girls attempted 
to navigate from the pantry to the head of 
the dining saloon. And yet, the venture is 
pronounced a complete success ! Well, won- 
ders will never cease. We have been told 
from time to time by spokesmen for ship- 
owners in Congress that sailors are really no 
longer required. Any wooden man will do 
for swabbing the decks. Perhaps we have now 
arrived at the stage of development where 
experience at sea and seasoned sea legs are 
no longer necessary for employment in the 
stewards' department. But we shall wait and 
see ! There may have been just a little too 
much imagination in the head of the Mer- 
chant Marine Bulletin's editor. Maybe the 
wish was father to the thought ! 



Anger makes a rich man hated and a poor 
man scorned. 



On her last voyage from the port of San 
Francisco, the place she has made her home 
for many years, the four masted Swedish bark, 
Abraham Rydberg, formerly a star member of 
the Alaska Packers fleet, departed at 11 o'clock 
a. m. on January 25, in tow of the Red Stack 
Sea Ranger. The craft carried 3,200 tons of 
California barley consigned to Dublin, Ire- 
land, and after discharging the cargo the ship 
will proceed to Sweden to become a training 
ship for young Swedish officers of the mer- 
chant marine. 

The Abraham Rydberg was built in Glas- 
gow, Scotland, in 1892, and was formerly 
known as the Hawaiian Isles, and later, under 
the ownership of the Alaska Packers' Asso- 
ciation, as the Star of Greenland. She is of 
2,179 gross tonnage, 270 feet long, 43.1 feet 
breadth and 23.6 depth. 

The last voyage of the famous old craft 
will be watched with more than ordinary at- 
tention by old time salts, as well as youthful 
admirers of the almost forgotten square rig- 
gers. This will probably be the last sailing 
ship to leave San Francisco harbor on such 
a trip and, in the year 1930, the voyage around 
the Horn is naturally of more than usual 
interest, even to landlubbers. 

Twenty-five years ago, the columns of the 
Journal contained numerous references to 
windjammers. Some were reported as over- 
due or "missing." Others had been blown 
ashore or abandoned at sea. There were re- 
ports of record trips and heartbreaking slow 
trips, like that of the French ship Bayonne 
(reported in the Journal of February 1, 1905) 
which required one year and seven months to 
make the trip from Dunkirk to San Francisco. 

But those ships have gone forever. The 
Abraham Rydberg is just a lingering reminder 
of days that were. Together with the passing 
of the beautiful white winged fleet the doleful 
record shows the rapid passing of the men 
who manned those ships. Merciful Providence 
has so arranged matters that all seafarers must 
sooner or later sign articles for a trip to 
shadowland. 

So here's our sad "farewell" to the Abra- 
ham Rydberg coupled with very best wishes 
for a pleasant and speedy passage to Dublin. 



40 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



SOULS OF MERCHANT SEAMEN 



Do the seamen in the merchant marine have 
souls? If so, do those souls perform or func- 
tion along different lines from the souls of 
other mortals? 

These are questions raised by Captain W. J. 
Petersen, general manager of the scab ship- 
ping office at San Francisco, in a recent stir- 
ring appeal to sympathetic hearts, philanthro- 
pists, etc. 

To begin with, the thoughtful captain 
frankly admits that "the man power on our 
ships is the most important item in the mer- 
chant marine industry, and that man power is 
the most neglected of our social units." 

This is, indeed, a meaningful confession 
when we consider that it comes from a man 
who is employed by the organized shipowners 
to prevent the organized seamen from helping 
themselves. 

Self-help, it is admitted by all thinkers and 
students of social problems, is the only real 
help for humans. A child may be nursed, 
pampered and petted — but some day the child 
will have to stand upon its own feet and fight 
its own way in the world. 

Strange to say, Captain Petersen is obsessed 
with the idea that while seamen are noble and 
heroic creatures, they cannot and must not be 
permitted to stand on their own feet — to help 
themselves through collective effort, through 
trade unionism. 

No one knows better than Captain Petersen 
that virtually all progress and advance in the 
seamen's life has been made through the or- 
ganization of seamen. No one knows better 
than the same Captain Petersen that his em- 
ployers, the organized shipowners, have, dur- 
ing recent years, ruthlessly refused to meet and 
discuss the grievances of the organized sea- 
men. 

It has been said that a certain type of ex- 
ploiters are willing to do almost anything for 
the poor, except to get off their backs. Cap- 
tain Petersen's employers are evidently not 
nearly so generously inclined. They want to 
continue riding on the seamen's backs, collect 
millions in the form of subsidy from Uncle 
Sam, and at the same time appeal to the 
world's philanthropists for a few additional 



millions to take care of "poor Jack" when he 
is ashore. 

What other deduction can we draw after 
reading so touching an appeal for charity as 
the following? 

In many seaboard cities, fine buildings are erected 
for the comfort of the men of our Army and Navy. 
Community chests, Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions and public-minded citizens are often proud to 
lend their aid to soldiers and sailors ashore. On the 
other hand, who concerns himself about the merchant 
seaman? Who welcomes him when he comes ashore? 
Who provides him with shelter under decent auspices? 
The merchant seaman is met by the pimp, the courte- 
san and the bootlegger, all of whom extend eager, 
itching hands for the little he has to spend, fill his 
body with poison and his soul with hell; and, when 
his money is gone, throw his drunken body into the 
gutter for the attention of the passing policeman. 
When he comes to himself, penniless, friendless, un- 
known, except for the men of his own class, his only 
choice is to go back again to sea, perhaps to perform 
another gallant deed of heroism that is often forgot- 
ten before the story of his sacrifice is a day old. * * * 

Are there no sympathetic hearts in America who 
will consider the shore needs of the merchant sea- 
men? Are there no considerate philanthropists, rich 
in this world's goods, that can be touched with a 
feeling of compassion for the men that go down to the 
sea in ships? Are the souls of merchant seamen less 
precious than the souls of the soldiers and sailors? 
I wonder. 

Yes, many of us wonder ! 

We wonder why seamen should be made 
subjects of charity. We wonder why the ship- 
owners' spokesman should plead for the souls 
and bodies of merchant seamen when, at the 
same time, he is keeping those souls in de- 
spair and those bodies in slavish submission. 

And while we still ponder and wonder, let 
us assure all who have any mental reserva- 
tions on the subject that the soul of the mer- 
chant seaman is very much like the soul of the 
average mortal. The souls of all real men 
yearn for freedom, for self-expression, for the 
privilege to associate and confer with kindred 
souls upon such topics as mutual aid and ad- 
vancement. The seamen also immeasurably 
prefer to pay their own way rather than go 
through life as regular recipients of charity. 
The poor, lone non-union seaman may be help- 
less and friendless, he may be subject to the 
blandishments of the bootlegger and the pimp, 
but can philanthropy improve his lot? Cer- 
tainly not ! There is only one effective rem- 
edy for all the ills mentioned by Captain Pe- 
tersen. That remedy strikes at the root of the 
evil. It is fundamental. It has met and sur- 
vived under the acid test. 

It is known as collective self-help or trade 



8 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



41 



unionism ! That remedy is guaranteed to ele- 
vate men's bodies and souls and, at the same 
time, provide a protecting armor against all 
the evil forces that have always preyed upon 
"poor Jack." To sum up: Justice is still more 
potent than Charity ! 



A MANLY YOUNG NEGRO 



HERESY HUNTERS 



Communists are split over tactics and the 
brethren have slipped to the status of heresy 
hunters, as has every other group of revo- 
lutionists who insist that the world adjust 
itself to their philosophy. 

According to the "red" dope, the United 
States is now in the "third period" of capital- 
istic development. This should mean — accord- 
ing to Communist strategists — that wage 
workers must swing to the left; that is, to join 
them, as the capitalistic system is on its last 
legs and everything is set for the revolution. 

The dope doesn't seem to work and the 
strategists are angry at the swing to the right. 
Three foreign language newspapers — one in 
New York City, in Oregon and in Wisconsin — 
have been called on the carpet for expressing 
bourgeois (liberal) views. 

The simon-pure brethren are warned that 
there must be a housecleaning and that true 
blue revolutionists cannot associate with op- 
portunists. The brethren are also warned that 
this fight means a loss of membership in the 
party, but that the theory of the "third period" 
must be upheld at all costs. 

The heresy hunters have expelled several 
"leaders" whom Moscow declared are tainted 
with right wing tendencies. 

Heresy hunting is a preliminary to the col- 
lapse of every revolutionary movement. As 
the tinsel wears off, insiders fight between 
themselves, each claiming they are orthodox 
in a struggle to control the party machinery. 
As the membership gets disgusted and collec- 
tions cease, the revolutionists pass from the 
scene. 

With the Communists however, insiders 
take their orders from Moscow and do not de- 
pend upon collections. These are supplied 
from the war chest in far-off Russia. 



In accordance with established procedure, 
the U. S. Military Academy at West Point 
let out 64 cadets during January because 
they were deficient in studies. At the station, 
Major General William Ruthven Smith, 
superintendent of the Academy, bade them 
goodbye, wished them success. Newsgath- 
erers promptly singled out a tall, broad- 
shouldered boy of 20 whose face was darker 
than the dark brown-paper bundle under 
his arm. He was Alonzo Souleigh Par- 
ham, the fourteenth negro to enter West 
Point, the eleventh to leave before graduation. 
Tactless reporters stabbed him with questions. 
Cadet Parham, more tactful than they, replied : 
"I got a square deal. I was given very good 
treatment. The officers were my friends and 
cadets, too, both from the North and South." 
Had he been happy? "Well, take any young 
fellow away from home out where men are 
men. He's going to be lonesome and homesick 
sometimes. Some of them resigned." Would 
he make a racial issue of his failure? "I should 
say not !" All of which indicates that this 
young negro is very much of a man, indeed ! 



THE "NOBLE EXPERIMENT" 



The way to be happy is to make some one 
else so. 



In different ways at different places, the 
ten!th anniversary of Prohibition was cele- 
brated on January 16. 

At Detroit, the Anti-Saloon League of 
America held its 24th national convention. 
Famed Drys assembled from all over the land 
to testify to the success of" their work, to 
pledge themselves to further endeavors. The 
Rev. Dr. Ernest Hurst Cherrington, director 
of the Anti-Saloon League, proposed raising 
$50,000,000 for a ten-year program of "educa- 
tion." Four years ago a similar campaign on 
a smaller scale was instituted, but no report 
has ever been made on its success or cost. 

Although it is now generally conceded that 
Prohibition can be enforced only through the 
medium of bullets and poison, the fanatical 
Christian gentlemen who conduct the Anti- 
Saloon League voted: (1) to induce friends 
to leave it large inheritances; (2) to oppose 
all referenda on Prohibition ; (3) to intensify 



42 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1930 



its propaganda; (4) to secure more Federal 
money and men for enforcement. 

Other groups of Americans expressed dia- 
metrically opposite views on the "noble experi- 
ment." In Boston, the bell atop Faneuil Hall 
tolled mournfully. Beneath it men wearing 
black neckties, women wearing black rosettes 
packed into the historic old building. On the 
platform sat solemn elders in deep mourning. 
The Liberal Civic League had called the 
meeting "In memoriam of the death of Liberty 
and the 1,363 who have been killed in the war 
of Prohibition." Muffled drums rolled. A 
bugler blew taps. Chief Speaker: Major 
General Clarence Ransom Edwards, retired, 
wartime commander of the 26th ("Yankee") 
Division, who asked for "laws promulgated by 
the ballot and not enforced by the bullets." 
When the band played the "Battle Hymn of 
the Republic," the crowd rose and cheered. 

While the pros and cons on the "noble ex- 
periment" were talking and resoluting, there 
was no let up in the extermination of dissent- 
ers. Murder and poison are the officially rec- 
ognized weapons against Demon Rum. And 
the Reverend Fanatics who have inflicted 
Prohibition upon us are busy framing alibis 
for every crime on the calendar, provided such 
crimes are committed in Prohibition enforce- 
ment ! 



COLLECTING UNION DUES 



The recommendation of a subcommittee that 
Matthew Woll, vice-president of the American 
Federation of Labor, and Victor A. Olander, 
secretary-treasurer of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, be made members 
of the board of directors of the Chicago 
World's F^air of 1933, has been concurred in 
at a general meeting of the board. The two 
trade-unionists will be in charge of making ar- 
rangements for participation in the fair by the 
labor movement throughout the world. They 
will consult with the Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor and with the 
officers of its affiliated national and interna- 
tional unions as to the character and scope of 
labor's exhibit. Construction of the World's 
Fair buildings will be started next spring. The 
fair management has stated emphatically that 
only union labor will be employed in the con- 
struction work. 



The "check-off" system of collecting union 
dues is a part of collective agreements in many 
industries other than the mining industry 
which has been the best known example of 
the system. According to an article in the 
current issue of the Monthly Labor Review 
provision for the check-off is found also in the 
agreements of such trades as baker.-, barbers, 
brickmakers, cleaner-, dyers and pressers, re- 
tail clerks, window pane cutters, hotel and res- 
taurant employees, meat cutters, street rail- 
way employees, teamsters and chauffeurs, 
carpenters, cement finishers, hod carriers and 
laborers, lathers, painters, plasterers, plumb- 
ers, roofers and sheet metal workers. The 
check-off is an arrangement under which the 
employer agrees to deduct from the wage- due 
to each union employee, who sign- a written 
authorization, the amounts that may be due 
from month to month from such employee to 
the union for regular dues, special assess- 
ments or fines. The aggregate amount thus 
collected from the individual employees is 
then paid over by the employer to the treas- 
urer of the local union. In a few ca 
notably some of the building trades — agree- 
ments cover only the collection of initiation 
fees when nonunion men are employed. 



Your life is an individual experience where 
you are bound to be used or misused — credited 
or discredited — successful or stuck. Did it ever 
occur to you that your own moves or mis- 
moves largely regulate what happens to you? 
And that is a good reason for suggesting self- 
examination and self-appraisement Your man- 
ners and mood.-, your own behavior, your 
thoughts and actions are what count for or 
against you. 



The thirty-second convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America adjourned 
at Washington, 1). C, on Thursday. January 
23. The full and complete proceedings will 
be printed as part of an enlarged edition of 
the Journal in the issue of March 1. 



The best way of revenge is not to imitate the 

injury. 



K) 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



43 



THE UNDERMANNING EVIL 

(By C. M. Goshorn, Secretary of the Sailors' Union 
of the Great Lakes) 



Dangerous and careless practices inevitably 
lead to disaster and loss of life in the maritime 
industry as well as in other lines of endeavor. 
The numerous accounts of accidents to ships 
appearing in the public press during recent 
months serve to emphasize the risks incurred 
by seamen arising from these dangerous and 
.careless practices. 

Undermanning of vessels is perhaps the most 
dangerous evil in the whole shipping industry. 
It is widely prevalent and the evils resulting 
from this practice have many ramifications. 
Undermanning affects the vessel, its equip- 
ment and machinery, and even its construc- 
tion in some cases. 

The shipowners' desire for larger profits is 
the underlying cause of the evil of underman- 
ning. Ships are sent to sea with deck crews 
so small in numbers that the ship's work can- 
not be done if the crews are divided into proper 
watches. This leads to the dangerous practice 
of navigating vessels during the night time 
with only two or three members of the deck 
crew on watch, the balance of the deck crew 
being worked during the daytime only. Al- 
though this dangerous procedure is in violation 
of Section 2 of the Seamen's Act as construed 
by the United States Supreme Court, ship- 
owners persist in continuing this dangerous 
method of operation. Repeated and vigorous 
protests by our International Union have re- 
sulted in some improvement in this respect, but 
the result still leaves much to be desired. 

The prevalence of the twelve-hour work day, 
particularly in the Great Lakes freight trade, 
is another evil result of undermanning of ves- 
sels. In this connection bear in mind that a 
twelve-hour work day means an eighty-four 
hour week for sailors. Would anyone but a 
shipowner contend that a vessel has a sufficient 
number of sailors on board when it is neces- 
sary to exact such unreasonable hours of labor 
from the crew in order to operate the vessel? 
The International Seamen's Union asserts that 
any ship in which the crew is insufficient in 
numbers to be divided into lawful watches 
and still be able to perform all the routine 
work incident to the navigation and care of 
the ship, is undermanned. And every under- 



manned vessel is a source of danger to her- 
self, to other vessels in her vicinity, and to the 
lives of the passengers and the seamen em- 
ployed thereon. 

A ship, her equipment, gear and machinery 
represent a considerable investment. To keep 
a ship in first-class condition requires constant 
attention and effort on the part of her crew. 
In undermanned ships much of the equipment 
does not receive proper attention on account 
of lack of time. In almost every disaster at 
sea the public press recounts stories concern- 
ing the failure of some part of the vessel's 
equipment to properly function. In nearly 
every instance failures of this nature can be 
directly traced to the evil of undermanning. 

The number of men required to safely navi- 
gate a vessel is determined by the local inspec- 
tors of the United States Steamboat Inspection 
Service. The service, therefore, must bear some 
of the responsibility for vessels being allowed 
to operate undermanned. They issue a cer- 
tificate to each inspected vessel in which is 
specified the number of men required in each 
capacity aboard that particular vessel. The 
fact that many vessels habitually employ more 
men than required in their inspection certifi- 
cates indicates clearly that the number speci- 
fied by the inspectors is not sufficient to operate 
the vessel. The advantage to shipowners in 
such cases is that the vessel may lawfully sail 
as long as she has on board the number of men 
specified in her inspection certificate, even 
though this number may be far less than the 
number habitually employed on the vessel. 
Of course it is unnecessary to state that ship- 
owners are not in the habit of employing more 
men than actually needed to handle the vessel. 

Safety of life at sea is a question that deeply 
concerns the International Seamen's Union. 
Our Union was instrumental in placing much 
of the present safety legislation on the statute 
books. Our Union has constantly struggled 
to secure real enforcement of all the laws in- 
tended to promote greater safety of life at 
sea for the traveling public and our members. 
The struggle has been a long and hard one. 
Thousands of dollars have been spent in fight- 
ing cases in courts in order to get the proper 
construction on some sections of laws intended 
to promote safety at sea. And even after the 
law is construed vessel owners continue to dis- 



11 



44 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Februarv. 1930 



regard the plain intent of the law. Repeated 

protests by the International Seamen's Union 

to the agencies charged with the enforcement 

of these safety regulations meet with small 

response. Apparently many of those in high 

places in the shipping industry believe that the 

following words of a famous poet indicate the 

seamen's place in the scheme of things : 

"Theirs not to make reply, 
Theirs not to reason why, 
Theirs but to do and die." 

Laxity in the enforcement of laws intended 
to promote safety of life at sea must be over- 
come. Shipowners must be made to realize 
that they are gambling with the lives of the 
traveling public and seamen, when they ignore 
safety laws and permit dangerous practices to 
exist in the operation of ships. 



U. S. STEAMBOAT INSPECTION 



TESTS FOR COLOR BLINDNESS 



One of the fundamental essentials required of 
navigators is a normal color perception, i. e.,the 
ability to distinguish the various colored signal 
lights used in navigation. The U. S. Public 
Health Service conducts the examinations and 
periodical re-examinations to determine the 
visual and color perception of navigators of 
American vessels, and after a thorough study 
by a board of five medical officers appointed 
for the purpose, the Surgeon General of the 
Public Health Service has decided to introduce 
a more rigid method of testing color vision ; 
namely, the colored plates test of the kind of 
which the Stilling's method is representative. 
This test, already adopted by the U. S. Navy, 
will enable the medical officers to determine 
rapidly and with much precision whether an 
applicant has defective color sense, because, 
if the reaction is positive, the candidate is 
totally unable to perceive the figures that ap- 
pear upon the dotted chromatic plates but are 
discernible at a glance to the person of normal 
color vision. To prevent injustice to pilots, 
mates and masters who have for years held 
licenses from the U. S. Steamboat Inspection 
Service, the use of the yarns and lantern will 
be continued for those so previously examined, 
and a careful distinction will be made between 
dangerous color blindness and minor defects 
of color vision, until all borderline cases shall 
have been eliminated. 



A substantial expansion in the U. S. Steam- 
boat Inspection Service must take place to cope 
with the increased responsibilities placed upon 
it as a result of the growth of the merchant 
marine, in the opinion of Dickerson X. Hoover, 
Supervising Inspector General, whose annual 
report is made public. The minimum number 
of additional inspectors needed in order to 
bring the service up to the desired point of^ 
efficiency is placed at fifty. With the present 
inadequate force it is physically impossible to 
make the required number of inspections and 
re-inspections in connection with hull and 
boiler construction, as the responsibility now 
rests with 47 different boards of local inspec- 
tors who may arrive at 47 different sets of 
opinions. To remedy this situation Mr. Hoover 
urges the creation of a central organization of 
technical experts at Washington who will be 
competent to pass upon the construction of 
hulls and boilers from a scientific point of 
view. Considerable progress was made during 
the year in bringing regulations in connection 
with steamship inspection up to date to meet 
modern conditions, the report points out. 
Among new and additional requirements rec- 
ommended by the Hoard of Supervising In- 
spectors to insure greater safety at sea were 
a lifeboat lowering test, testing crews in row- 
ing ships' lifeboats, and tests for releasing 
hooks and davits of lifeboats. 

An extensive investigation was also con- 
ducted with reference to boiler material, con- 
struction, etc., the results of which will be 
considered at the next session of the Board. 
The law governing the inspection of motor 
boats is in urgent need of revision, in Mr. 
Hoover's opinion. Under the present regula- 
tions while motor boats over 15 tons gross 
used for hire come under the supervision of 
the Service, private craft are entirely outside 
its jurisdiction. Furthermore, while the Service 
is empowered to issue operating licenses, it is 
expressly forbidden to examine the operators, 
a situation which is quite illogical. The num- 
ber of lives lost on vessels subject to inspec- 
tion by the Service from all causes during the 
year was 321, only sixty-nine of which were 
the result of accidents, collisions, founderings, 
etc. Life-saving appliances required by law 



12 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



45 



were the direct means of saving the lives of 
741 during- this period. During the past fiscal 
year 328,465,552 passengers were carried on 
steam vessels required by law to make reports 
and of these, exclusive of suicides, only fifty- 
nine were lost. 



U. S. IN WORLD COURT 



PANAMA R. R. STEAMSHIPS 



Operations of the Panama Rail Road Steam- 
ship Line, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1929, resulted in a profit of $46,856, as com- 
pared with $101,513 for the previous year; 
operating revenue was $2,137,267; operating 
expense $2,090,411, including depreciation 
charge of $116,663 based on 6 per cent of book 
value of steamers. Cargo carried was 253,682 
tons, compared with 247,068 tons in the previ- 
ous year. Freight revenue amounted to $1,753,- 
007, compared with $1,883,923 last year. Total 
number of passengers carried was 8,331 (8,614). 
Passenger revenue amounted to $309,931 
($334,385). 

The company continued its established pol- 
icy under which all freight for account of the 
departments of the U. S. Government was car- 
ried at a reduction of 25 per cent from pub- 
lished tariffs ; and all passenger traffic handled 
for account of these departments, including 
employees and their families, was carried at 
reductions from the regular tariff rates, rang- 
ing from 25 to 80 per cent. The number of pas- 
sengers carried for account of the Government 
was 5,677 adults, 1,009 children under 12 years 
of age and 235 infants under three years of age. 

These special rates, charged for the trans- 
portation of Government freight and passen- 
gers, resulted in a saving to the government of 
$508,114; had regular tariff rates been received 
on this Government business, the profit of $46,- 
856 would have been increased to a profit of 
$554,970. 



There are always two sides to every ques- 
tion — yours and the foolish one. 



Do you love life? Then don't squande 
time, for that's the stuff life is made of. 



The World Court protocol was signed by the 
United States, in Geneva, it was announced by 
the Department of State. 

The various documents which the United 
States signed were described by Secretary 
Stimson as consisting of the original 1920 
World Court protocol which 50 odd countries 
have signed, also the protocol of adherence 
which was drawn up specifically to meet the 
reservations of the United States and, finally, 
the protocol of revision which was to amend 
the charter in certain other respects, such as 
increasing the number of judges from 11 to 15, 
and providing the same rules for the World 
Court as apply in contentious cases. 

Secretary Stimson explained this last change 
as providing that no dispute can be submitted 
to the court without the consent of both 
parties. The World Court, Secretary Stimson 
stated orally, cannot reach out and take up a 
case. Cases must be submitted to it with the 
consent of both sides. 

It is expected that there will be bitter oppo- 
sition to ratification in the United States 
Senate. 



MORE ISLANDS FOR UNCLE SAM 



Liberty and duty are inseparable terms. — 
Kant. 



With ceremonious solemnity, Secretary of 
State Stimson and Sir Esme Howard, British 
Ambassador to the United States, signed an 
official document during the month which 
added seven specks in the Sulu Sea to the 
United States domain. The specks were the 
Turtle Islands, southwest of the Philippines 
and some twenty miles off the North Borneo 
coast. The United States and Great Britain 
had at last agreed upon a boundary line be- 
tween their respective possessions. Under the 
four-power Pacific Treaty of 1921, the United 
States is prohibited from using its new minia- 
ture archipelago as a naval base. 

The average size of the Turtle Islands is 
one by one-quarter mile. Total population : 
220. Products : a few thousand dollars worth 
of turtle eggs and copra yearly. The British 
North Borneo Company will continue to ad- 
minister Turtle Island affairs until the U. S. 
makes different arrangements. 



13 



46 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



CONGRESS OF RUSSIAN SEAMEN 



The Ninth Congress of Seamen of the So- 
viet Union was held in Moscow from August 
25 to September 4, 1929. It dealt almost en- 
tirely with political questions. 

According to the report of the retiring 
president, Mr. Bystrov, the membership of 
the Russian Seamen's Union is now 190,000. 
an increase of 20,000 as compared with 1927, 
the year of the last Congress. The financial 
position of the Union has also improved and 
its activities are making progn 

In regard to conditions of labor, it was 
stated at the Congress that there were exces- 
sive differences in the rates of wages paid 
in different undertakings. This resulted in a 
constant turnover of labor, especially of engi- 
neers and technical workers, whose pay was 
lower in sea and river transport than on the 
railways. Thus a qualified engineer received 
350 roubles a month on the railways and only 
225 roubles in the mercantile marine. Engine- 
room staff were agitating for an increase of 
wages ; at present stokers and mechanics were 
receiving the same wages as deck hands, and 
this seemed to them unfair in view of the 
much more trying nature of their work. The 
result of the reform of wage scales had been 
to reduce the wages of the lower paid groups 
and had given rise to intense dissatisfaction. 
Many delegates stated that the real value of 
wages had declined by reason of the increase 
in the cost of living. Mr. Uglanov, Commis- 
sar for Labor, declared in his address to the 
Congress that the principal task of the Com- 
missariat of Labor was to maintain the real 
value of wages at the present level. Mr. Ugla- 
nov considered that the trade unions should 
make a resolute attack on the question of the 
cost of living. Unless retail prices fell the real 
value of wages would be endangered. 

The delegates complained of the conditions 
of labor in general. The official organ of the 
Commissariat of Transport gives the follow- 
ing summary of their complaints: The sea 
and river transport undertakings have wholly 
inadequate funds for the protection of labor ; 
the housing conditions of seamen are ex- 
tremely bad ; technical measures of safety on 
board ship are totally inadequate ; seamen are 
compelled to work in appalling conditions. 



Mr. Poluyan, Deputy Commissar of Trans- 
port, recommended the Union to devote great 
attention to the improvement of labor disci- 
pline in sea and river transport undertakings. 
At present there were numerous cases of acci- 
dent^ and of serious damage, and. whatever 
might be said to the contrary, the Commis- 
sariat of Transport was of the opinion that 
these were less often the result of criminal 
actions than of culpable negligence and want 
of discipline. Sea and river transport under- 
takings were in general in a very difficult posi- 
tion, since they had not the necessary funds 
to increase the number of their vessels, and 
at the same time the competition of the rail- 
wax s prevented river transport from making 
sufficiently rapid progress. At the present time 
the tonnage transported by river was only 81 
per cent of the net tonnage so transported 
in 1913. For maritime transport the proportion 
was only 55 per cent. 

As has already been remarked, the discus- 
sions dealt mainly with political questions. Mr. 
Melnichansky. member of the General Council 
of Trade Unions, strongly criticized the work 
of the retiring executive committee of the Sea- 
men's Union, especially that of the President, 
Mr. Bystrov, whom he accused of failing to 
follow the instructions of the Communist 
Party and of sympathizing with the right- 
wing Opposition. After the address of Mr. Mel- 
nichansky, all the delegates who took part in 
the discussion made serious charges against 
the committee. Among other things it was 
accused of timidity, weakness towards the local 
trade union organizations, etc. Mr. Bystrov 
replied that 95 per cent of the charges against 
the retiring committee were based only on 
false or misleading information, and in addi- 
tion that neither he nor his colleagues of the 
retiring committee would have been exposed 
to such violent and unjustified criticism had 
it not been for the intervention of the repre- 
sentative of the General Council of Trade 
Unions. The Congress, however, decided on 
the proposal of Mr. Melnichansky not to re- 
elect the retiring committee, and passed a vote 
of censure upon it. Mr. Bystrov was replaced 
by Mr. Borissov, a former worker and a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. — From Industrial 
and Labor Information, published by the Inter- 
national Labor Office, Geneva. 



14 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



47 



CANADIAN MARINE HOSPITAL 



An address delivered by Dr. J. A. Amyot, 
Deputy Minister of National Health, at the 
recent conference of the Canadian Medical 
Association, contained the following account 
of the marine hospital service in Canada. 

Prior to Confederation the medical treat- 
ment and care of sailors was unorganized and 
was, therefore, somewhat haphazard in nature. 
We find in the year 1822 that the Provincial 
Legislature of New Brunswick voted the sum 
of £500 for the establishment of a marine 
hospital and pesthouse, and the City of Saint 
John provided land for the erection of the 
marine hospital. This institution was in exist- 
ence until the year 1893, when it became a 
home for incurables. 

At the time of the passing of the British 
North America Act, it was decided that, inas- 
much as the Dominion was granted the privi- 
lege of collecting taxes, quarantine and the 
establishment and maintenance of marine 
hospitals should become a function of the 
Dominion Government. In 1867, therefore, 
sick mariners came under the care of the 
Dominion; and, in order to provide funds, a 
duty was levied on ships entering Canada, and 
Part V of the Canada Shipping Act, which 
relates to Sick and Distressed Mariners, was 
passed. If we refer to that section of the Act 
which deals with duty on ships we find the 
following provisions : 

There shall be levied and collected on every ship 
arriving in any port in the provinces of Quebec, Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island or 
British Columbia, hereinafter called "the provinces," 
a duty of two cents for every ton which such ship 
measures, registered tonnage, but in no case shall the 
duty payable by any ship be less than two dollars 
in any year. 

No ship otherwise liable to pay the duty shall be 
exempt from the payment of the said duty by reason 
of her voyage being one not requiring entry or clear- 
ance at the Custom House. If the ship does not 
require entry, the duty shall be paid immediately on 
her arrival. 

No ship engaged in the coasting trade of Canada 
and arriving at any port in any of the said provinces 
from any other port in the same province, or arriving 
at any port in the province of Quebec from any port 
in the province of Ontario, shall be subject to the 
payment of the said duty. . . . 

No ship arriving at any port in Canada from any 
place out of Canada, and afterwards continuing her 
voyage to another port in Canada, shall be exempt 
from the payment of the said duty at the last men- 
tioned port, unless she has paid it at the first men- 
tioned or some other port on the same voyage. 



Such duty shall be payable on each ship each time 
she arrives in any such port, but in no case shall it 
be oftener than three times during each calendar year, 
and shall be paid by the master or person in command 
of such ship, or by some person on his behalf, to the 
collector or other chief officer of the Customs at the 
port at which such ship is entered, and at the time of 
making such entry. Such entry shall contain on its 
face the tonnage of such ship. 

Except as in this Part mentioned, no entry shall 
be validly made, or have any legal effect whatsoever, 
unless the duty is so paid. 

Xo collector or other chief officer of the Customs 
shall grant a clearance to any ship on which such 
duty or any part thereof is due and unpaid. 

Although the above provisions did not origi- 
nally apply to fishing vessels, at a later date 
an arrangement was made by which the cap- 
tain of a fishing vessel had the privilege of 
paying the duty and enjoying all the benefits 
of the Act. 

The master or person in command of any ship 
paying such duty may send to any hospital for sick 
mariners, at any hour of the day, and, in the case of 
accident or emergency, at any hour of the night, any 
sick mariner belonging to the ship. Such sick mariner 
so sent with a written recommendation from such 
master or person in command of such ship, endorsed 
as approved by the collector of customs of the port, 
or other officer appointed for the purpose by the 
Minister, shall be gratuitously received into such 
hospital, and receive therein such medical and surgical 
attendance and such other treatment as the case 
requires. . . . 

No sick mariner shall be entitled to the benefits 
conferred by this section for a period longer than one 
year without written authority from the Minister, and 
no sick mariner shall be entitled to treatment or care 
hereunder when suffering from permanent insanity. 

The funds collected for the treatment of 
sick mariners are paid into the consolidated 
revenue of the country, and when Parliament 
meets a sum sufficient for the treatment of 
sick mariners is voted by the Government. 
This money is turned over to the Department 
of Pensions and National Health to be used 
for the treatment and care of sick and dis- 
tressed mariners. 

From the year 1867 until 1921, the dues 
were \y'z cents per ton. It was found neces- 
sary in the latter year to increase the dues to 
2 cents per ton as the expenditure was greater 
than the revenue. In spite of the increase in 
the rate, we have again reached a point where 
the expenditure is greater than the revenue. 

Each seaman who is a member of the crew 
of a ship which has paid dues is entitled to 
treatment when ill, irrespective of the nature 
or severity of the illness. Treatment is pro- 
vided in government hospitals, general hos- 
pitals, infectious disease hospitals, sanatoria. 



48 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February. 1930 



nursing homes and private homes if hospital 
accommodation is not available. 

The Department of Pensions and National 
Health has two marine hospitals for the treat- 
ment of sailors — one of which is situated at 
Sydney, Nova Scotia, and the other at Lunen- 
burg, Nova Scotia. In addition, sailors are 
placed in some of the Departmental hospitals, 
which are set aside for the treatment of sol- 
diers, when conditions permit. 

Contracts have been entered into by the 
Department of Pensions and National Health 
with various hospitals, which number 58, 
whereby a sailor is given complete hospitali- 
zation for a definite per diem rate. In the 
case of general hospitals, this is at the rate 
of $3 per day. Infectious disease hospitals 
vary from $3.50 to $5 per day. In sanatoria 
the rate is $3.50 per day. In hospitals at 
which there is no attending physician, the 
rate is $2.50 per day. 

General hospitals, sanatoria and infectious 
disease hospitals agree to furnish the sailor 
with ordinary public ward quarters, hospital 
bedding, linen and clothing, full medical and 
surgical care, necessary operations, including 
use of operating room, anaesthetic, x-ray, 
dressings, hospital appliances, etc., satisfactory 
diet and medicines, including serums and vac- 
cines. Hospitals in which there is no medical 
attendant supply all but the services of the 
physician. 

In outlying districts where hospitals are not 
available, a room is found for the sick sailor, 
generally at the rate of $1 per day, and board, 
nursing, medical or surgical treatment pro- 
vided. It has been found necessary in some 
districts to appoint physicians on a salary 
basis, and in some others, on a fee basis. There 
are 57 physicians on salary and 48 physicians 
on a fee basis. The salary is based upon the 
amount of work performed. 

The total number of sick, distressed, and 
injured mariners treated during the year 
1927-28 was 5217, and the number of days of 
hospital treatment was 45,207. From year to 
year the number of cases being treated is in- 
creasing, and the demand for hospital medical 
services is becoming more and more im- 
perative. 



THE WONDERS OF DELHI 

(By Alfred Fuhrman) 



The seat of eight different empires, of which 
six were almost totally destroyed, the seventh 
now occupied, and the eighth at present laid 
out and being built. Delhi is without any doubt 
unique and the most interesting city on earth. 

All conquerors of India were of the Cau- 
casian race; each one made Delhi his capital, 
and each of the first seven conquerors de- 
stroyed the city of the vanquished, except 
some temples and tombs, which were usually 
respected. 

The first known historical conqueror was 
Alexander the Great, and here, between Delhi 
and Agra was fought the decisive battle in the 
fourth century B. ('. Luckily for him, the de- 
feated King Porus was quick-witted, for when 
he was brought in chains as a captive before 
Alexander, the conqueror asked : "And what 
treatment do you expect from me?" To which 
Porus quickly replied: "The same treatment 
which one king should extend to another 
king." The youthful conqueror was so much 
pleased with the reply, that he forthwith set 
the captive king at liberty and restored him to 
his dominions as an ally and not as a subject. 

From that time until about the tenth 
century A. D., there were about 118 separate 
kingdoms existing in India, mostly unmolested 
from the outside, but much at war with each 
other. With the tenth century A. D., appeared 
the various Moslem conquerors on the scene. 
First, Afghan, then the Turks, Persians and 
lastly the Moguls holding sway over the 
whole of India for almost 900 years, until 
replaced in turn by the British, who ended the 
Mogul empire in 1857. Each of the con- 
querors came from the North, and after con- 
quering Delhi, went through India like greased 
lightning, except the British who came from 
the South and conquered Delhi last. 

Within the area formerly occupied by the 
Fourth City of Delhi stands the Kutub Minar. 
that graceful pillar erected from 1200-1220 
A. D., by Kutub Aibak, the slave and viceroy 
of the first Mohammedan conqueror, Sultan 
Mohammed Ghore. It is built in five stories, 
the first three of red sandstone and the fourth 
and fifth in marble. It is 234 feet high, and 



16 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



49 



from the first balcony, about 100 feet above 
the ground, an excellent view can be had of 
the desolate graveyard of the past Indian 
empires. 

The Mogul emporer Shah Jehan, who like- 
wise caused the Taj Mahal to be constructed, 
is the builder of the present Seventh City, 
which was built by destroying the Sixth City 
and with the material reared the Seventh City, 
and he then removed the seat of empire from 
Agra to Delhi. 

The palaces and mosques within the fort 
were all completed during the seventeenth 
century A. D., and there is nothing on earth 
that can be compared to them. 

Flowing streams passed through all the 
apartments within the palaces in white marble 
channels, which were and are inlaid most in- 
geniously with black curved marble slabs, so 
as to create the optical illusion of waves and 
billows as these streams and rivulets, filled 
with rose water and fed by innumerable foun- 
tains, ran murmuringly through the imperial 
apartments. 

What a difference between these exquisitely 
artistic creations in white marble and alabaster 
and luxurious appointments with their wonder- 
ful hammara bath and bathing halls, etc., and 
the gloomy, miserable palaces of the poten- 
tates of Europe, without a single bathtub, 
during the same period of time. 

And though despoiled over and over again 
since that time, and plundered and bereft of 
all its priceless peacock and jewelled thrones 
and gorgeous furniture and adornments, there 
is still nothing on earth to equal it. 

And even today, the beholder, lost in mute 
admiration, can only repeat and echo the 
rhapsodic exclamation of that visiting Persian 
monarch, which is inscribed in Persian char- 
acters on the walls of the central hall of the 
main palace, namely: 

"If there is a Paradise on Earth, it is this, 
it is this, it is this." 



DEMOCRACY IN HAITI! 



Strip the bishop of his apron, the counsellor 
of his gown, and the beadle of his cocked hat, 
what are they? Men, mere men. Dignity, 
and even holiness, too, sometimes, are more 
questions of coat and waistcoat than some 
people imagine. — Dickens. 



Major General Smedley D. Butler "let the 
cat out of the bag" in explaining to the Pitts- 
burgh Builders' Exchange how United States 
marines govern Haiti and Nicaragua. The gen- 
eral is now called upon by Secretary of the 
Navy Adams to "explain" his speech. 

General Butler told Pittsburghers that the 
marine-controlled president of Haiti dissolved 
the Congress of that country to prevent adop- 
tion of a new constitution. The speaker said 
he aided the president in drawing up the edict 
that dissolved the Congress. 

In Nicaraguan elections, the marine officer 
said, opposition candidates were declared 
bandits when it was necessary to elect a candi- 
date. "At one election," he said, "the fellow 
we had in there nobody liked. But he was a 
useful fellow — to us — so we had to keep him 
in. How to keep him in was the problem. 

"We looked up the election laws and found 
that the polls had to be open a sufficient length 
of time — at least that's the way we translated 
it — and that a voter had to be registered to be 
eligible to vote." 

The district was canvassed and 400 were 
found who would vote for the proper candi- 
date, said General Butler. 

"Notice of opening the polls was given five 
minutes beforehand, the 400 voters were as- 
sembled in line and when they had voted, in 
about two hours, the polls were closed. The 
other citizens had not registered and, therefore, 
were ineligible to vote." 



The newspapers are headlining figures just 
made public which show that 290 Americans 
paid taxes on incomes in excess of $1,000,000. 
Almost ignored are accompanying data which 
prove that less than 2,500,000 people in the 
United States had incomes large enough to 
require payment of the federal tax. This 
means that of the 120,000,000 fortunate beings 
whom Europeans are supposed to lump to- 
gether as American millionaires, probably 
more than 110,000,000 are members of families 
which operate on annual revenues well below 
$5000. The tax report reinforces estimates ad- 
vanced by the Secretary of Labor which indi- 
cate that 80 per cent of American families have 
only $750 to $2000 a year. 



17 



50 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



PROBLEMS OF THE PACIFIC 

(Continued from Page 30) 



and narrow minority. Nevertheless, all thinking Japa- 
nese, when not quoted for publication, are perfectly 
ready to confess that the country cannot go on 
indefinitely with a net annual increase in population 
of approximately three quarters of a million. By 
general consent it was admitted that immigration 
restriction laws would become unnecessary when the 
standards of living in the present low -wage countries 
had been raised to prevailing levels of Australia, 
Canada and the United States. 

Standards of Living in Pacific Countries 
An entire evening was set aside to summarize 
the difference in the standards of living in the various 
Pacific countries. The formal question before tin- 
house was: "In what way and to what extent do 
conditions in one country affect labor conditions and 
standards in other countries?" On this occasion one 
of the Chinese members forcefully directed attention 
to the exploitation of Chinese labor through the 
textile mills and other factories recently constructed 
in China. He asked, "How long can you of the white 
race maintain your high living standards if capital 
can build and operate factories in countries with the 
lowest standards?" 

The only answer to this question came from a 
trade-unionist member of the conference, who said: 
"We must organize the workers in countries with 
low standards so they can successfully resist exploi- 
tation by unscrupulous capitalists." 

Still another evening (the day before closing) was 
devoted to a discussion of the significant role of 
labor and its various problems in the countries bor- 
dering on the Pacific. There were formal addresses 
by each of the trade-unionists in attendance at the 
conference. The legal and economic status of the 
workers in the respective countries and the important 
part wdiich trade-unionism has had in all struggles 
for progress were ably presented. At the conclusion 
of the scheduled speeches there were questions as 
well as five-minute discussions from the floor. 

The Struggle for Filipino Independence 
One of the many interesting sidelights of the con- 
ference was the persistent effort of the Filipino group 
to force a free discussion of the movement for Philip- 
pine independence. Although this question was not on 
the official agenda, the members of the Filipino group, 
both men and women, never lost an opportunity to 
make a point or present an argument for the much- 
desired independence of the Philippine Islands. Vari- 
ous other national groups manifested an unusual 
interest in this propaganda. The British were deeply 
concerned because independence for the Philippines 
would materially encourage a similar movement in 
India. The Dutch are watching the situation with 
anxious eyes. The independence spirit is smouldering 
in Java and other Dutch colonial possessions. Any 
progress along those lines in the Philippines will 
have an immediate reflex in the Dutch East Indies. 
And it should be borne in mind that the population 
of the Dutch possessions in Asia is nearly seven times 
as large as that of the mother country. Japan, too, 
is interested. The submerged aspirations of the 
Koreans may be fanned into new life when and if 
other Asiatic peoples win for themselves independent 
self-government. 

The outstanding features of the Kyoto conference 
have now been reviewed. Intensely practical American 
trade-unionists may ask: "What did the Conference 
do besides educating its members?" 

This is an eminently proper inquiry. The Confer- 
ence made no decisions and passed no resolutions. 
The members were consequently saved from spending 
time in literary pursuits seeking innocuous verbiage 

1! 



for "harmony resolutions" to which all present would 
subscribe. 

But while declining to "resolute" the Conference did 
not evade a single touchy issue. To the contrary, the 
Kyoto meeting demonstrated that foreign policy had 
ceased to be an esoteric mystery confined to "elder 
statesmen and professional diplomats. Therefore, the 
Conference was mucb more than a mere school for 
its members. The fate of tbe world depends upon an 
informed democracy. Tbe Institute of Pacific Rela- 
tions has taken the lid off secret diplomacy. It has 
earnestly endeavored to assemble both expert scholars 
and hard-headed men of affairs, to meet and frankly 
discuss tbe most delicate questions which threaten 
to divide the peoples living on the shores ami islands 
oi the Pacific. In the language of Dr. Condliffe. New 
Zealand professor of economics, "Tbe Institute, if it 
is to live at all, must live somewhat dangerously. 
It- very reason for existence lies in providing machin- 
ery for tbe friendly discussion of dangerous subjects. 
It per>ists in opening up topics of discussion often 
deemed too delicate for diplomacy." 

( Official treaties to outlaw war have been referred 
to as mere gestures. Tbe unofficial Institute of Pacific 
Relations is mucb more than that Treaties t.» outlaw 
war will become effective only when backed by a 
corresponding international public opinion to secure 
.iu-iice between all nations. The hope and aspirations 
of the Institute of Pacific Relations is to create such 
public opinion! 



GEORGE HANSEN 



The resignation of George Hansen, agent of 

the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes at the 
port of Detroit, on January 11. 1930. due to ill 
health, marks the retirement from active ser- 
vice of the oldest officer of the union, both in 
length of service and age. Agent Hansen is 
one of the fast disappearing type of the old 
school of sailors who received their training 
on hoard sailing vessels. George Hansen 
joined the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 
in 1882 and has held continuous membership 
since that time. Forty-eight years as a trade 
unionist is a record of loyalty to a cause that 
any man can well refer to with pride. With 
the exception of two years, George Hansen 
has served the union as an officer since 1900. 
being agent at the port of Buffalo from 1900 
to 1922. From 1924 up to the time of his res- 
ignation he has filled the same office at the 
port of Detroit. The JOURNAL joins with the 
members of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes in the sincere hope that lie will fully 
recover his health and enjoy many years of 
well-earned rest. 



Society has just two mortal enemies — the 
man who will not speak his mind and tin- man 
who tries to close the mouths of those who do 
not think as he does. — T. L. McCready. 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



51 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 



$20,000 Judgment Sustained.— The United 
States Supreme Court has dismissed a writ of 
certiorari previously granted in the case of 
Becker Steamship Co. vs. Snyder. The Becker 
Steamship Co. sought a review of the decision 
of the Court of Appeals of Cuyahoga County. 
Ohio, which had granted the respondent, a 
seaman on the Great Lakes, a judgment for 
$20,000 for injuries which he received while 
working on the petitioner's vessel, W. H. 
Becker, at Allouez, Wis. The respondent had 
alleged as grounds of negligence the unsafe 
condition of the deck which, he pointed out, 
was covered with wet coal, dirt and debris. It 
was asserted that, due to the petitioner's negli- 
gence in permitting this material to remain on 
the deck, the respondent slipped while pulling 
on a hatch cover and fell into the hold of the 
vessel, sustaining serious injury. 

Seamen's Priority Right for Wages. — Pri- 
ority right of seamen for unpaid wages is in- 
volved in the case of Collie et al. vs. Fergus- 
son et al. (No. 423), now before the United 
States Supreme Court. The seamen had been 
hired to work on the Dola Lawson, a trawler. 
A libel was filed by one of the respondents for 
supplies furnished the vessel and the vessel 
was seized by the marshal. The seamen filed 
intervening petitions asking for the full 
amount of their wages, and for an immediate 
sale of the vessel, on the ground that the 
increasing number of liens which were piling 
up against her would soon greatly exceed the 
amount for which the vessel could be sold. 
The District Court determined that the sea- 
men were entitled to priority for their claims 
for wages, but damages or "waiting time" 
were not allowed them. The District Court 
did not enter a decree until several months 
later, at which time the decree was suspended 
until the expiration of time for the prosecution 
of an appeal. The suspension of the effect of 
the decree pending the appeal was at the in- 
stance of the respondents, and the Circuit 
Court of Appeals decided that the full amount 
of the wages was due and that they were with- 
held pending the appeal at the request of the 
appellees, but it did not award double wages 
in conformity with Sec. 596, title 46, U. S. 



Code, which provides that seamen petitioners 
are to receive double wages when their wages 
are not paid within two days after the termi- 
nation of the relationship. 

Boss Stevedore Liable for Brutal Foreman. — 

Assault by a foreman in the furtherance of his 
master's business upon a stevedore engaged in 
work upon navigable waters has been held to 
make the master liable, as the fellow servant 
rule has been abrogated so far as it relates to 
stevedores and seamen employed upon navig- 
able waters by Section 33 of the Jones Act. — 
Valentine Encarnacion v. Inez M. Jamison et 
al., executors, etc., Ct. Appeals, N. Y. 

Following is the opinion of the Court, in 
part : 

Defendants' testator was an employing stevedore. 
Plaintiff was one of his employees who was assaulted 
by the foreman or gang boss in charge of a gang en- 
gaged in loading a barge in the East River. The evi- 
dence justifies the inference that the foreman, in an 
effort to carry out his orders to keep the men busy and 
in furtherance of the employer's work, assaulted plain- 
tiff, an employee subject to his orders, to make him 
hurry up with the work in which he was engaged. No 
question of negligence is in the case. The trial judge 
allowed a recovery if the jury found that "the assault 
was committed in the furtherance of the master's 
work" (Mott vs. Consumers Ice Co., 73 N. Y., 543, 
547). The jury so found. The Appellate Division re- 
versed, applying the fellow-servant rule and holding 
that there was no liability on the part of the employer 
even though the foreman inflicted the injuries when 
he was engaged in hurrying up the work in obedience 
to the employer's orders. 

The cause of action, having arisen upon the navig- 
able waters of the United States, is to be disposed of 
under the principles of maritime law. The foreman, 
in the management of the work intrusted to him by 
his employer, is a fellow-servant of the members of 
the gang under his direction and control in the per- 
formance of the work (Crispin v. Babbitt, 81 N. Y., 
516). For injuries suffered by the men placed under 
the authority of such a one as the result of his negli- 
gence or misconduct in the furtherance of the employ- 
er's business it has been held that the employer is not 
liable to indemnify the injured employee (Gabrielson 
v. Waydell, 135 N. Y., 1). Such was the rule of the 
common law and of the admiralty law as defined by 
this court. . . . The Gabrielson case was decided 
by a divided court with a strong dissent. It has been 
subjected to much adverse criticism. While it may 
no longer be regarded as authoritv for the proposition 
of general maritime law that the misconduct of the 
captain of a ship in his care of the seamen under 
him is a risk assumed by the seamen for the conse- 
quences of which the owners are not responsible 
(Gabrielson v. Waydell, 67 Fed. Rep., 342: The 
Osceola, 189 U. S., 158, 175). There remains in it a 
vestigal remnant of the once all-comprehensive fellow- 
servant rule, which was in its fullest glory in the year 
1892, to wit, the rule of non-liability of the employer 
for assaults committed by a superior employee upon 
his inferior in the performance of the employer's 
work. To this extent it may be controlling upon this 
court if it remains in harmony with recent legislation 
on the subject. 

The admiralty and maritime law is subject to change 



19 



52 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



by Congress. Congress has acted and the Supreme 
Court of the United States has said broadly (Inter- 
national Stevedoring Co. v. Haverty, supra) that the 
statutes do away with the fellow-servant rule" as ap- 
plied to longshoremen engaged in stowing freight in 
the hold of a ship with the admiralty and maritime 
jurisdiction of the United States. We would be con- 
tent to give this declaration its full face value were it 
not for the fact that the case was one of the negli- 
gence, rather than the misconduct, of a foreman. . . . 
The Jones Act (Merchant Marine Act of June 5, 1920) 
extends to seamen who shall suffer personal injury in 
the course of their employment, the rights and reme- 
dies given by Congress to railroad employees (Panama 
R.R. Co. v. Johnson. 264 U. S., 375, 389; Baltimore 
S.S. Co. v. Phillips, 274 U. S., 316, 324; Pacific S.S. 
Co. v. Peterson, 278 U. S., 130) by providing that 
they may maintain actions against their employers 
for damages and that in such actions "all statutes of 
the United States modifying or extending the com- 
mon-law right or remedy in cases of personal injury 
to railway employees shall apply" to them. The ref- 
erence is to the Federal Employers' Act of April 22, 
1908 and its amendments which is thus incorporated 
into the maritime law of the United States. That act, 
wherever applicable, read literally, imposes liability on 
the employer for the acts of a fellow servant only in 
cases of personal injury to an employee resulting from 
negligence. Misconduct is not in terms included. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Justice Holmes, writing for the 
U. S. Supreme Court in the Haverty case (supra) 
reads the act as doing away with the fellow servant 
rule as freely as he reads the word "seamen" so as to 
include "stevedores." This, it would seem, is its popu- 
lar interpretation. As the word "seamen" in the act 
includes "stevedores," so the word "negligence" should 
"in view of the broad field in which Congress has dis- 
approved and changed the (fellow servant) rule in- 
troduced into the common law within less than a cen- 
tury," include "misconduct." Reading Gabrielson v. 
Waydell (supra) in the light of the Merchant Marine 
Act and its history, we do not hesitate to say that the 
authority of the case as a rule of maritime law has 
been largely, if not fully, spent; that we should not 
waste time in pointing out distinctions between neg- 
ligence and misconduct in this connection in order to 
defeat plantiff's recovery, but should hold broadly 
that Congress, in doing away with the fellow servant 
rule in cases of negligence coming within the scope 
of its legislation, has left neither substance nor reason 
to our earlier decision and that it is no longer con- 
trolling. We cannot, with a fair countenance, say that 
the master is now liable to his servants for personal 
injuries due to a careless foreman, but is not liable 
for personal injuries inflicted on them by a brutal 
foreman in directing the performance of the work and 
intended and believed to be for the interest of the 
master. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



A NEW ZEALAND VIEWPOINT 



"The freedom of the seas" means that Great 
Britain has to have enough naval strength to 
prevent, during war. other nations from having 
any freedom of the seas. — The New Zealand 
Worker. 



A bigger, better and stronger labor move- 
ment can be secured by our power of purchase 
in a consistent demand for the union label, 
shop card, and working button. 



FROM SANDY HOOK TO 62°. By Charles Ed- 
ward Russell. Publisher: The Century Co., 353 
Fourth Ave., New York. Price $3.50. 

In these all-too-brief pages lies a thrilling 
account of the adventures and exploits and 
services of the old New York pilot boats, 
whose peculiar style of schooner rig and 
strong lines started a new kind of marine 
architecture and bred a race of men renowned 
for the skill and daring with which they 
handled these boats — for in the years from 
1811 on, the New York pilot boat was the 
fastest thing that sailed, and as seaworthy as 
many a line-of-battle ship. The evolution of 
the pilot schooner into the steam pilot boat 
of today brings the story up to date and shows 
us the pilot as he bravely served during the 
World War and as he serves today, in New 
York harbor. 

As privateers in the war of 1812 these Sandy 
Hook pilots played an important part in the 
winning of this trade war which may be said 
to have started the issue of the freedom of 
the seas. Ostensibly Britain's idea in seizing 
American ships and impressing their crews 
was to prevent any trading with her age-old 
enemy France, but American ships that had 
never traded with France and were not in any 
part of the world where they could trade with 
France, were repeatedly captured on the high 
seas, taken to port and sold as prizes. 

It was largely due to the fact that American 
ships were thus the prey of any British cruiser 
that might happen upon them, that they were 
forced to develop that superior speed for which 
American sailing ships were ever noted, and 
which, when the war of 1812 closed, left to 
the credit of the Americans a total of 2396 
captured British vessels, 9677 captured guns 
and 30,000 prisoners ! 

The part that these brave Sandy Hook pilots 
had in this naval drama is tersely told in a 
series of incidents crowded into the short 
stories of this delightfully breezy book. Com- 
mencing with an account of how old Sandy 
Hook was formed by countless geologic ages, 
the author tells us how and why the Pilot 
Service was first established and how it had 
to fight to free itself from graft and political 
control to reach its high standard of efficiency. 
The "Story of a Monument" illustrates the 



20 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



53 



hazards of this service and tells the story of 
the brave and fatal fight made by Capt. 
Thomas Freeborne, pilot of the Minturn, on 
a stormy Saturday night in February, 1846, 
between the Hook and port. 

Many a youth who wanted to . become a 
pilot faltered before the nine years of appren- 
ticeship were up — "It was too much like 
work. In the middle of a cold night, with 
everything iced-up and the wind like butcher- 
knives, to launch an ice-incrusted yawl and 
pull it over the mountainous seas and then 
pull it back — two men at the oars and the oars 
long sweeps — and the yawl every moment in 
peril — no, there was nothing entrancing about 
that!" Those who survived were born in the 
traditions of the sea, had character, courage 
and intelligence. They rarely failed in the final 
examination so thorough had been their 
training. 

No better chest of sea stories could be found 
than these true stories of the life and death 
of our own American pilots. Any father who 
would stir in his son the longing for manly 
adventure and physical prowess, let him read 
the chapters on "Beating and Banging," "Old 
Sea-Dog Stories," and "In the Fog," and then 
recount them to his boy on a snowy winter's 
night when the radio is shut off and the storm 
howls without ! 

The reader will find one hundred years of sea 
adventure packed somewhat disconnectedly, 
it is true, into the covers of this fascinating 
book. — Ekel. 



FALMOUTH FOR ORDERS. By A. J. Villiers. 
Publishers, Geoffrey Bles, 22 Suffolk St., London, 
England. Price 25s. net. 

This book has several claims to distinction, 
firstly on account of its subject matter; sec- 
ondly because of its illustrations, and thirdly 
by reason of the excellence of the production. 
Briefly, the book contains the story of what 
will in all probability prove to have been the 
last clipper ship race around Cape Horn — that 
between the Herzogin Cecilie and the Beatrice 
from Australia to England. Mr. Villiers, 
an Australian journalist — but none the less a 
seaman for that fact — explains that the had 
long intended to make a voyage in one of 
the few modern steel sailing ships that still 
survive, feeling that their story deserved writ- 
ing while the opportunity yet remained. "I 



had sailed in those ships myself once," he adds, 
"and I thought that, though many good books 
had been written about them, there existed 
scope for one more, one that would give a pic- 
ture of the last of sail obtained on the spot, 
illustrated with photographs that would show 
every phase of sailing ship life." We are very 
glad that Mr. Villiers' thoughts did run in 
such a channel, and that he was given the 
chance to bring his dream to reality, for he has 
done his work' well. The volume must be al- 
most unique, for the purpose explained in the 
preface has been exactly fulfilled. The author 
joined the flerzogin Cecilie as an A.B. in Mel- 
bourne and completed the voyage to Falmouth 
in her, and with a graphic but seamanlike pen 
he faithfully describes every incident — not for- 
getting that of the girl stowaway. But, as 
already indicated, what perhaps gives more 
value to the book than anything else is the 
wonderful series of 49 photographs, illustrating 
practically every aspect of life on board the 
ship. The pictures range from a view of the 
vessel in full sail to portraits of the crew at 
work and at leisure, from "Looking forward 
from the mainmast" to "Manning the yard- 
arms" and "Bending a royal on the foremast." 
Every one is admirably clear, and some must 
have been taken from exceedingly difficult, if 
not dangerous, positions. Every lover of the 
sea and of sailing ships will appreciate this 
beautiful, interesting and historic book. 



Our civilization overflows with charity, 
which is simply willingness to hand back to 
labor as generous, gracious alms a small part 
of the loot from the just wages of labor. But 
of real help, to just wages for honest labor, 
there is little, for real help would disar- 
range the system, would abolish the upper 
classes. — David Graham Phillips. 



What, then, is the aristocracy? The aris- 
tocracy is the league, the combination of those 
who are bent on consuming without producing, 
living without working, occupying all public 
posts without being able to fill them, and 
usurping all honors without having earned 
them — that is the aristocracy — General Foy. 



Lawyers and woodpeckers have long bills. 



21 



54 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The contract for the construction of a new 
oil-burning New York City ferryboat to dupli- 
cate the Dongan Hills, largest of the municipal 
fleet, has been awarded to the United Dry 
Docks, Inc., whose bid was $950,000. The boat 
will seat 1650 passengers. 

John R. Gordon of New York has been 
selected president and general manager of the 
Merchant Fleet Corporation by unanimous 
vote of the Shipping Board. He succeeds T. V. 
O'Connor, who remains chairman of the Ship- 
ping Board. 

The Pacific Gulf Conference at a recent 
meeting in Portland, ( )re.. decided that the 
present $14 lumber rate between the Pacific 
Coast and Gulf ports be maintained for at least 
another year. It had been suggested that the 
rate be reduced to $12. Assurance was given 
at the meeting that the Redwood Line, which 
is not a member of the conference, would also 
maintain the $14 rate. 

Breaking up prices of old steamers are in- 
creasing. The market price in Europe at 
present time is about £2 per ton gross for a 
cargo steamer, and for a passenger liner, 
£2 10s., the brass, etc., in the latter class of 
ship accounting for the difference. Purchase 
of old liners by Norwegians for whaling pur- 
poses has been partly the cause for the advance 
in price. 

Sir Joseph Isherwood, Bart., London, on 
account of the Imperial Oil Company, Toronto, 
has contracted with the Furness Shipbuilding 
Company, Haverton Hill-on-Tees, for two oil 
tank steamers of about 250 feet length, for 
service on the Great Lakes. The vessels are 
to be fitted with triple-expansion engines, and 
will be built on the Isherwood combination 
sytem. 

The Standard Shipping Company of New 
York, the shipping arm of the Standard Oil 
Company of New Jersey, recently contracted 
with the Federal Shipbuilding Company, 
Kearny, N. J., for two single-screw steamers, 
each of 19,000 tons d.w. capacity. 525 x 74 x 40.6 
feet, to be fitted with superheated steam tur- 
bines of 4000 s.h.p., with watertube boilers of 
400 pounds pressure, to give a speed of 11 y 2 



knots. In addition, the company has placed 
orders in Europe for seven motor tankers. 

A loan of $5,625,000 to aid in building six 
thirteen-knot cargo vessels has been requested 
by the McCormick Steamship Company, San 
Francisco,- from the Shipping Board. The loan 
is to represent 75 per cent of the cost of con- 
struction of the six ships. Total construction 
cost has been estimated at $7,500,000, each ship 
to cost $1,250,000. The company contemplates 
inviting bids for construction at once, so that 
the first of the vessels, which are to be placed 
in service between the United States Pacific 
Coast and the East Coast of South America, 
may be completed by next year. 

Construction of two passenger liners for the 
Dollar Line has been begun at Newport News. 
These ships will be propelled by turbo-electric 
machinery developing 26,500 s.h.p. The 
designed speed is twenty knots. The power 
for the propelling motors is furnished by two 
main turbine generator sets which operate 
with steam at 275 pounds pressure and 200 
degrees Fahrenheit superheat. The turbines 
exhaust into a vacuum of twenty-eight inches, 
the condensers being installed below the tur- 
bines. Each set is rated 10,200 kw.. at 4000 
volts, three-phase, at a speed of 2660 r.p.m. at 
full power. The main generators have a closed 
system of ventilation, water-cooled air coolers 
being used. The turbines are of the Westing- 
house combination impulse and reaction type. 

An operating loss by the Merchant Fleet 
Corporation of $13/>65,000 for the fiscal year 
1929 is shown in the annual report of the Ship- 
ping Board. The loss in the preceding fiscal 
year was $16,279,000. The reduction in losses 
is attributed to smaller expenses due to sales 
from the government fleet and improvements 
made in recent years in the operation of con- 
tinuing lines. For the fiscal year 1931, the 
budget submitted by the President to Congress 
contains an appropriation of $6,396,000 for the 
Shipping Board and M. F. C, against $11,- 
494,000 for the current fiscal year, the great 
reduction being due also to the disposal of 
services. In addition to the operating loss for 
1929, $2,614,000 was sunk in reconditioning 
and operating vessels in the coal trade. 

The United Fruit Company, which has been 
operating a weekly service between Central 
America and San Francisco, announces a new 



22 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



55 



passenger service and additional freight ser- 
vice, through the addition of two passenger 
vessels, the Saramacca and Suriname. To- 
gether with the La Perla, now on the Pacific, 
these vessels are to be operated on a fortnightly 
passenger route to San Jose de Guatemala, La 
Libertad, La Union, Corinto, Puerto Armu- 
elles, Balboa and Cristobal. The smaller ves- 
sels in the Pacific fleet, the San Mateo, San 
Jose and Esparto, will run between the sailings 
of the passenger vessels to Champerico, Aca- 
jutla, La Union, Corinto, Balboa and Cristobal. 
The first passenger sailing will be the Sara- 
macca, from San Francisco, January 10. 

The Shipping Board has approved a loan 
amounting to $6,304,687.50 to be used by the 
Motor Tankship Corporation in aid of con- 
structing five motor tankers of approximately 
13,450 deadweight tons each. The vessels are 
to be built by the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Company at Chester, Pa., under a con- 
tract entered into with the owner. Repay- 
ment of the loan, which amounts to three- 
fourths the cost of the ships, is to be in twenty 
equal annual installments, with interest pay- 
able semi-annually. The plans for the ships 
have been approved by the Secretary of the 
Navy, and the Shipping Board Committee on 
construction loans. The vessels will be of 
approximately 18,900 tons displacement, and 
capable of approximately eleven knots speed. 
They will be propelled by single screws driven 
by Diesel engines. 

Henry Herbermann, president of the Export 
Steamship Corporation, New York, recently an- 
nounced that he intended to place orders for 
two additional steamers larger and faster than 
the four 8200-ton passenger and cargo steam- 
ers now being built for his company at 
Camden, N. J., to engage in the New York- 
Mediterranean service. It is expected that the 
first of the quartet will be ready late next year, 
while the second will be delivered in April, 
1931. The fleet of the American Export Lines 
at present consists of twenty-four owned 
steamers besides thirteen operated on behalf 
of the Shipping Board, including seven char- 
tered for the recently inaugurated Black Sea 
service operated in conjunction with the trad- 
ing organization of the Soviet government in 
this country. The other six are in the Med- 
iterranean coal trade. 



Improvements have been completed at the 
Mobile plant of the Todd Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock Company, Inc., which make it the 
most up to date ship repairing establishment 
on the Gulf Coast. The yard frontage on the 
Mobile River has been extended about 600 
feet, with a minimum depth of water of thirty 
feet. Two new piers have been constructed, 
with two basins, one 210x800 feet and an- 
other 220 x 800 feet. Each pier is provided 
with a standard gauge track running its full 
length and connected with shore railroad 
tracks, thereby enabling locomotive cranes to 
pick up materials direct from railroad cars 
without rehandling. Besides complete shop 
equipment, the plant has two floating drydocks 
of 12,000 tons and 8500 tons lifting capacity, 
respectively, and is provided with berthing 
facilities for more than fourteen vessels. The 
installation of a new floating drydock at the 
Algiers plant of Todd Engineering Dry Dock 
and Repair Company, Inc., the New Orleans 
sister concern, has been completed and will 
take care of the present demand for docking 
facilities at that point. 

The United States Customs Court has al- 
lowed a protest of the Admiral Oriental Line 
in respect of duty assessed on steel swimming 
tanks, seventeen feet long, eleven feet wide and 
eight feet deep, constructed of 5-16 inch steel 
plates, each weighing two tons, installed in 
the steamships President Grant, President Jeffer- 
son and President McKinley in such a manner 
that it became necessary to cut a cross beam, 
twelve inches square and about 200 feet long, 
from the hull of each vessel, and permanently 
secure the tank thereon to the remainder of the 
crossbeam. The court held that such installa- 
tion came under the term "hull and fittings" 
rather than equipment of vessels. Duty was 
assessed upon the painting and upon the swim- 
ming tanks at the rate of 50 per cent ad 
valorem, under section 466, TarifT Act of 1922, 
as repairs made and equipments purchased in 
foreign ports. The duty is ordered refunded. 
As to painting, this contention was not pressed 
and the court followed the decision in E. E. 
Kelly and Company v. United States (T. D. 
43322), wherein it was held that maintenance 
painting is a repair, the claim for free entry for 
the cost of maintenance painting being over- 
ruled. 



23 



56 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Nippon Yusen Kaisha reports net prof- 
its of 4,795,000 yen for the half year ended Sep- 
tember 30 last, inclusive of balance carried 
over. A dividend at the rate of 8 per cent 
annually is paid. 

The owners of thirteen Finnish sailing ships 
have brought a claim for damages against the 
United States for sequestration of their ships 
during the war in American ports. The com- 
pensation demanded by the owners amounts to 
$750,000. 

The Shipping Board has authorized trans- 
fer to the Navy Department of the steamship 
Henry County to be loaned to the State of 
California as a training ship for the nautical 
training school recently established. She is 
a steel cargo steamer of 4155 tons d.w. and 
will be turned over to the navy in operating 
condition at Norfolk where she has been laid 
up since February, 1921. 

The Odd Whaling Company of Norway 
reports a surplus for the season of kr. 2,623,- 
766, on which a dividend of 25 per cent is pro- 
posed. Kr. 670,041 have been written off the 
steamship Pythia, which was sold last year, and 
1,000,000 kroner on the property account, while 
kr. 150,000 have been set apart for a boiler and 
survey fund. The question of having the com- 
pany's fleet rebuilt for oil burning is under 
consideration. 

The depression which followed the stock 
market crash is having its effect on steamship 
travel, as was to be expected. It is stated that 
bookings are about 25 per cent below normal 
and already a number of winter cruises have 
had to be cancelled. Tourist agencies which 
gave guarantees to steamship companies will 
face severe losses. Another feature of note is 
a heavy drop in the number of buyers sent to 
Furope by importing houses. 

Since the war Danzig has forged ahead of 
the German Baltic ports — Stettin and Lubeck 
— and while it is still behind Hamburg and 
Bremen, it has a more important traffic than 
Bremen, which has a larger ship tonnage solely 
because of the presence of oversea liners. In 
order to offset the growing importance of 



Danzig the German government is granting 
special tariffs to traffic moving across Germany 
which might flow to Danzig if economic con- 
ditions were not interfered with. 

The German refrigerated motor trawler 
J'olkswohl has been delivered to the Nordsee 
High Sea Fishing Co., Bremen-Cuxhaven, 
which has chartered her from the German 
State. The vessel is provided with a refrig- 
erating plant on the Ottesen system, by 
which the caught fish may be frozen rapidly 
and a quantity of 120 tons of frozen fish 
stored in refrigerating holds. The ship was 
constructed at Kiel, is of 500 tons gross, and 
carries fuel for 45-50 days' cruising. 

Peculiarly fitting seems the announcement 
that Lieutenant-Commander E. H. Smith, ice- 
berg specialist of the United States Coast 
Guard, is to make the north pole trip with the 
Graf Zeppelin this year. He has already 
studied in his ship patrol work the sources of 
icebergs and their courses south to the Atlan- 
tic steamer lanes. Now he will be able to 
study by air their relation to the north. How 
soon will it be before regular air patrol ser- 
vice is established to protect the arctic air- 
plane traffic? 

World shipbuilding is now at the highest 
point reached since the end of 1927, and is 
almost at a level with the rate of production 
just before the war, according to the quarterly 
return issued by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 
covering all countries for the three months 
ended December 31 last. With the exception 
of the total at the close of 1927, which was 
only 8000 gross tons more than the present 
figure of 3,110,000 tons, the current aggregate 
is the largest since the end of the warbuilding 
boom in ship construction. 

The Government of Japan pays ocean liners 
4,500,000 yen annually in subsidies, and coast- 
ing vessels, including Java and Shanghai 
boats, 1,800,000 yen, besides 70,000 yen of- 
fered through the local governments and 900,- 
000 yen by the Korean Government. It is 
suggested in Japan that these "may be reduced 
under the economic policy adopted by the 
government." A provisional plan has been 
made by the Japanese Government under 
which the Industrial Bank of Japan will lend 
money to shipowners amounting to between 
20,000,000 and 30,000,000 yen per year. 



24 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



57 



The Secretary of War has refused to meet 
a delegation representing New York shipping 
and trade interests relative to the extension 
of the North River pierhead line. The secre- 
tary referred the committee to the New York 
Harbor Line Board, which has consistently 
refused to consider proposals for the exten- 
sion, so that the deadlock is now complete. 
There is talk of forcing action through Con- 
gressional enactment, but there is no record 
of the army engineers having ever been re- 
versed in this fashion in the past. The im- 
pression is now stronger than ever that con- 
siderations of national defense are at the back 
of the army engineers' attitude, and it may 
happen that military ideas on this question 
will change if a working arrangement is 
reached at the London Naval Conference. 

Rules and regulations for the purpose of 
protecting lives and property on the navigable 
waters of the United States were discussed at 
a meeting of the Steamboat Inspection Ser- 
vice held in Washington January 15. The sub- 
jects discussed included specifications for life 
preservers, rules covering boiler material, con- 
struction, appurtenances, etc., licensing of 
crews and officers, changing the present line 
of demarcation in New York harbor, recharges 
for fire extinguishing systems, use of gas 
masks, etc. At last year's conference rules 
were amended to require a greater number of 
life preservers on certain types of ships ; to 
require a boat lowering test of lifeboats ; to 
require the testing of crew in pulling oars in 
ship's lifeboats ; to test all releasing hooks 
with a view to ascertaining those which are 
deficient, etc. 

The creation of a Ministry of the Merchant 
Marine in the new French Cabinet headed by 
Andre Tardieu is regarded as evidence of the 
intention of the French government to deal 
methodically with all questions relating to the 
growth of French merchant shipping. The 
recent decision of the Cie. Generale Trans- 
atlantique (French Line) to construct six 
ships at Belfast has created quite a commo- 
tion in French shipping circles where this 
order is regarded as proof of the inadequacy 
of the credit scheme known as the Credit 
Maritime. However, the consensus of opinion 
is that low cost prices, combined with the easy 
financing made possible by the Trade Facilities 



Act of Northern Ireland, proved to be an 
insurmountable factor of competition. 

The new Tilbury Docks, near London, 
which can accommodate the largest ships 
afloat, were opened recently. The work, begun 
four years ago, was completed a year ahead of 
schedule at a cost of more than $12,000,000, 
and brings Tilbury, below London on the 
Thames, in line with Southampton and Liver- 
pool as a leading British port. Building of the 
entrance lock has altered the map of the 
Thames. The lock and dock enlargement, 
which constitutes the largest engineering un- 
dertaking in England since the war, includes a 
new drydock entered from the main lock, a 
river landing stage 400 yards long for ocean 
liners, a new entrance from the river and west- 
side docks and a reconstructed station for 
direct London rail service. The entrance lock 
was 700 feet long and eighty feet wide. The 
new one is 1000 feet long and 110 feet wide 
with a depth at high water of more than forty- 
five feet. The area of the main dock also is 
increased by fifteen acres. 

A novel installation for the disposal of whale 
carcasses has been fitted in the steamship Sol- 
glimt (ex-liner Stockholm) now owned by the 
Atlas Whaling Company of Larvik, Norway. 
The most striking feature is a docking arrange- 
ment whereby the whale can be hauled into 
the hull of the vessel through an entrance in 
her port side, about 13 x 26 feet, connected to 
a sloping tunnel in which the whale is cut up. 
When the vessel is under weigh the entrance 
is closed by a watertight door. There is also 
a watertight hatchway in the tunnel about 
twelve feet from the side of the vessel. When 
the vessel is about to return, the inner hatch- 
way can be closed and the tunnel made into a 
tank with a capacity of 4800 barrels of oil. The 
after-deck is higher than the fore-deck, and 
both are joined by a slanting bridge. The 
whale is to be hauled up from the tunnel to the 
flenching deck by means of a fifty-ton winch ; 
besides this the vessel has forty other winches. 
All the former deck erections have been re- 
moved and replaced by boilers and tanks, of 
which there are twenty-four, including the 
tunnel. Including 1000 tons of fuel oil, the 
Solglimt can carry 13,700 tons of oil. The ship 
is now operating at the Antarctic whaling 
field. 



25 



58 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



LABOR NEWS 



Gilbert E. Roe, former law partner of the 
late Senator Robert M. La Follette and valiant 
fighter for progressive legislation, died at his 
home in New York City December 23 at the 
age of 65. 

Every citizen is affected by coal mine acci- 
dents, according to statistics issued by the 
United States Bureau of Mines. The annual 
financial loss is estimated at $188,000,000, which 
amounts to an additional cost of 14 cents for 
each ton of coal mined. This is exclusive of 
lost wages, which total, in a typical year, 
$106,000,000. 

Wages for women employees in chain de- 
partment stores range between $12 and $15 a 
week, according to a survey by the United 
States Women's Bureau. Nearly one-half are 
paid less than $12. In six states the rate is as 
low as $9. The study included 6000 women 
employed in 18 states. Seventy per cent of 
the total receive less than $15 a week and over 
40 per cent less. California pays as high as $16. 

Placement of older workers becomes in- 
creasingly difficult after the fifty-fourth year, 
according to a study by the Massachusetts 
Department of Labor and Industries summar- 
ized in this issue of the Review. In view of 
the popular belief, however, that discrimination 
against men occurs after the age of 45 it is of 
interest to note that in the present instance the 
highest percentage of placements was made 
between the ages of 45 and 54. 

Eight deputies charged with killing six tex- 
tile strikers at Marion, N. C, October 2, were 
acquitted. The trial lasted eleven days and the 
jury deliberated 22 hours. The mill deputies 
claimed they shot in self-defense. They threw 
gas bombs at the crowd of 200 strikers and 
shot, they claimed, only after the strikers 
opened fire. The defense named strikers who 
shot, but all these were killed. The workers 
claimed the victims were shot in the back and 
that none of them used a pistol. 

Recently the trustees of the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund of the men's clothing trades in 
New York City ordered the distribution of 



$100,000 to some 4000 members of Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers' Union who in the 
last year have not enjoyed the minimum terms 
of employment. 1 hiring the previous year the 
fund under the supervision of the union and 
the New York Clothing Manufacturers' Ex- 
change distributed 850,000. In Chicago, where 
the system has been in effect since 1923, 
$5,750,000 has been collected, and $4,750,000 
paid out. 

Government aid to the textile and coal indus- 
tries was favored by the Taylor Society at the 
conference in New York City. The society is 
an international organization "to promote the 
science and the art of administration and of 
management." The resolutions recommend 
that the policies of the United States Bu- 
reau of Standards and the Division of Simpli- 
fied Practice "be extended into other fields and 
phases of business and industry." President 
Kendall of the society stated that he was hope- 
ful President Hoover could select someone 
who is familiar with the industry and that 
hours could be reduced through a conference 
with textile mill owners. 

The lumber industry can be considered an 
ideal ''free and independent" industry, accord- 
ing to statistics on hours and wages paid these 
unorganized w r orkers, issued by the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics. The data 
covers 58,007 workers of 319 representative 
sawmills in twenty-two States and 6,968 em- 
ployees in 51 logging camps in ten States. 
Prosperity and high wages are unknown to 
these workers. The average earnings per hour 
was 37.1 cents in 1928 and 35.7 cents in 1925. 
This three-year increase of but less than \ l / 2 
cents an hour of a wage that borders on pau- 
perism is one reason why labor unions are 
opposed. 

Many know that the California State Com- 
pensation Insurance I 7 und is a self-supporting 
enterprise and not subsidized by the state in 
any way. However, it is not generally known 
that said fund is in the unique position of 
being one of the largest taxpayers in the state. 
A check for $181,593.94 was paid to the State 
Treasurer recently, in payment of the fund's 
premium tax. The fund, in 1928 competition 
with over fifty insurance companies, wrote 
over $7,000,000 in premiums and pays the same 



26 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



59 



premium tax as other insurance companies. 
The State Compensation Insurance Fund not 
only carries on without aid from the state, but 
as a large taxpayer contributes to the support 
of the state. 

This country is the only prominent nation 
in the world which makes no systematic pro- 
vision for the care of aged, declared Rev. Dr. 
Francis J. McConnell, New York Bishop Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. From the viewpoint 
of other countries, the United States is a cruel 
nation, unwilling to care properly for aged 
men and women, he said. With the exception 
of China and India, where systematic care is 
based on religious faith and philosophy, every 
major nation other than ours provides some 
form of extended government aid, he said. 
"The impression that the United States is cruel 
and willing to neglect old men and women can 
be corrected only by positive manifestations of 
real interest," said Bishop McConnell. "At 
present the positive manifestations are almost 
entirely in the form of homes maintained 
through spontaneous charity." 

"We are establishing economic feudalism," 
declared the University of Wisconsin debating 
team in a discussion with the University of In- 
diana on the value of chain stores. Wisconsin 
successfully held that chain stores are socially 
wrong. The winners cited figures to prove that 
13 per cent of the population of the United 
States owns 90 per cent of the wealth ; that 95 
corporations made 50 per cent of last year's 
profits ; that 500,000 independent dealers, or 
one in every three, have gone down before 
chains, and that in four years, at the present 
rate, 90 per cent of the independents will be 
out of business. "Can this mechanization be 
justified, in view of the loss of human values?" 
was asked. "What does it profit a man to gain 
the world and lose his own soul, and what does 
it profit a nation to reach the acme of indus- 
trial efficiency and drive its people into idle- 
ness?" 

The National Industrial Conference Board, 
representing a score of anti-union employers' 
organizations, has surveyed the five-day week 
movement and acknowledges that the plan is 
practical "under certain given circumstances." 
The employers run true to form by first op- 
posing the plan and now declaring that it is 
not "radical." The board estimates that 400,000 



workers were on the five-day week at the be- 
ginning of this year. The board grudgingly 
submits to the overwhelming evidence it has 
discovered, but warns that all industrial plants 
cannot adopt the five-day week. This is an- 
other way of saying to long-hour employers : 
"Yield nothing until you are compelled to by 
a public opinion that organized labor devel- 
ops." It is agreed, however, that the facts 
collected "remove the five-day week from the 
status of a radical and impractical administra- 
tive experiment." 

National defense and the cost of past wars 
will use 72 per cent of the Federal government's 
budget for 1931 and but 13 per cent will be 
used for social services, research, public works 
and similar functions, according to a tabula- 
tion issued from the White House. The budget 
totals $3,830,000,000, of which $2,733,213,283— 
or 72 per cent — will go to national defense 
and the fiscal burdens of previous wars. The 
13 per cent, totaling but $511,193,000, is for 
every social service. Only 8 per cent of the 
budget— $300,307,000— will be required for the 
normal departmental government functions, in- 
cluding $50,000,000 for the post office deficit. 

"Life insurance companies must work out an 
old-age pension plan, and this problem dare 
not be left to a paternalistic government," said 
Frederick H. Ecker, president Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company, in an address to the 
Association of Life Insurance Presidents' con- 
vention. Mr. Ecker informed the 300 execu- 
tives that old-age pension sentiment is grow- 
ing and they must act if state and government 
action is to be checked. He suggested an ex- 
tension of group insured annuities "already in 
operation in many industrial organizations." 
The great difficulty in the evolution of such an 
industrial scheme, Mr. Ecker explained, is the 
fact that provision must be made at the outset 
for thousands already nearing the age limit 
of usefulness who have no time to roll up a 
"financial snowball." The number of persons 
who would secure no relief by the Ecker pro- 
posal is indicated by L. W. Squier in his study 
entitled "Old Age Dependency in the United 
States." He estimated that in 1912 "there are 
approximately 1,250,000 wage earners who 
have reached the age of 65 in want and are now 
supported by charity, public and private." 



27 



60 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



The decision of the British Parliament to 
renew diplomatic and trade relations with the 
Soviet Republics will not change the relation- 
ship between Canada and that country — for 
the present, at least. Canada is not bound by 
the decision of the British Parliament. 

Continued Japanese immigration into Brazil 
is taking place, 655 Japanese families having 
recently settled in the state of Sao Paulo, fol- 
lowed by 200 Japanese immigrants destined 
to settle on lands of the Compania de Plan- 
tacoes do Brazil in the state of Para. 

According to the Central Office of Statistics 
in Rome, the Italian emigration movement is 
steadily declining. During the first six months 
of the year 1929 there were 77,&66 emigrants, 
which number is 113,134 less than the total for 
the entire year 1928. During the same period 
immigrants totaled 35,794. 

The Canadian government wants Russian 
trade, but believes it can secure it on the same 
terms as the United States. When the British 
government some time ago severed relations 
with the Soviet government, Canada decided 
to take similar action. That decision will stand 
until it is changed by the Dominion govern- 
ment. 

The Royal Commission, headed by J. H. 
Whitley, and created for the purpose of inves- 
tigating labor conditions in India, has steadily 
pursued its work since arriving in October and 
has heard evidence from all branches of In- 
dian labor and industry in several cities. The 
attempt to boycott the commission, sponsored 
by the Swarajist party, apparently did not suc- 
ceed. 

A strike which stopped traffic for two weeks 
on the railroad line between Mexico City and 
the port of Vera Cruz was ended by a decision 
given by President Portes Gil of Mexico as 
arbitrator; the decision ordered the men back 
to work and the company to pay their wages 
for the time they were out, the company also 
being directed to make a collective agreement 
with the strikers within 45 days. 

The Chilean president recently sent a mes- 
sage to Congress, in which he proposed a 



project of law establishing a basis for immi- 
gration. The proposed law provides free sup- 
port for immigrants for ten days after arrival, 
free transportation to permanent selected place 
of residence from port of discharge, assistance 
in placing themselves in their desired industry, 
a loan up to 10,000 pesos from the agricultural 
colonization bank, and other minor benefits. 

In its efforts to aid land settlement in the 
post-war period the province of British Colum- 
bia has lost $5,279,000, according to the audi- 
tor's report, just filed with the provincial gov- 
ernment here. These losses were incurred in 
the operations of the Land Settlement Board, 
which cleared several large settlement areas, 
in the reclamation of the Sumas area, outside 
Vancouver, and in the South Okanagan irri- 
gation scheme. 

The Argentine Congress has passed an 
eight-hour law, applicable to all salaried em- 
ployees and persons working for a wage, with 
the exception of farm laborers, domestic ser- 
vants, and sons and daughters working for 
their parents. A health clause and regulations 
governing the hours of night workers are also 
included in the new law, along with overtime 
provisions and rules with respect to work per- 
formed on Sundays and holidays. 

The minimum age for marriage of girls in 
India has been raised to 14 years and the age 
of consent to 16 through the passage of a law 
by a very large majority of the Indian Legis- 
lative Assembly, which also raised the legal 
age of marriage for boys to 18 by the same act. 
The bin was introduced by a native member 
and had strong support from the government. 
Penalties are imposed for celebrating any mar- 
riage below the legal ages, and the law is 
applicable to members of all religious com- 
munions. 

Formulation of a new Canadian immigra- 
tion scheme to be known as the British Fam- 
ily Reunion Association, is reported. The 
association is said to have been organized by 
the Canadian Pacific and Hudson Bay com- 
panies, and has as its primary purpose the 
aiding of the heads of British families, who 
have recently settled in Canada and are profit- 
ably employed, to send for their families. Aid 
will also be extended to settlers of somewhat 
longer establishment who desire to bring rela- 
tives and friends. 



28 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



61 



LA FOLLETTE HONORED 



Congress, as everyone knows, is government 
by committee. By controlling the political 
composition of these off-stage organizations, 
the party in power controls the character of 
legislation they frame for enactment. The 
most important of Senate committees is the 
Committee on Finance, dealing with taxation. 
To maintain control over it is a practical neces- 
sity for any Senate majority. During the month 
the rising tide of Western insurgency reached 
a high-water mark when the Regular Repub- 
licans virtually lost control of the Committee 
on Finance by the election of Senator Robert 
Marion La Follette, young Wisconsin Insur- 
gent, to that sub-Senate group. 

A Finance Committee vacancy occurred 
when Senator Walter Evans Edge resigned 
to become Ambassador to France. Senator 
La Follette applied for the place, supported 
by his Insurgent colleagues. The Regular Re- 
publicans controlling the committee sought to 
head him off by inducing West Virginia's 
Senator Goff to make application for the same 
vacancy. Slightly senior to Senator La Follette 
in service, Senator Goff was reluctant to leave 
his Interstate Commerce Committee post 
where he could take good care of coal prob- 
lems touching his state. The contest between 
them promised to become interesting, when 
Senator La Follette won and became the first 
and only Insurgent Republican in the Finance 
Committee corner. 

Why the Regular Republicans did not want 
La Follette on their committee was plain. The 
Finance Committee is composed of eleven Re- 
publicans and eight Democrats. Among the 
Republicans is Michigan's Couzens, prime foe 
of Secretary Mellon. If Senator La Follette 
and Couzens join with Democrat members in 
opposing the Administration's fiscal policies, 
which is altogether likely, the Regular Repub- 
lican majority will be overthrown by one vote. 

Senator Root well knew, however, that if 
the committee fight went to the Senate floor, 
the Regular Republicans would lose against 
the same coalition of Progressives and Demo- 
crats which had already routed them on the 
tariff. So next day in the name of party peace 
he changed his mind, cast the deciding vote in 



the Committee on Committees which put 
Senator La Follette on his own committee. 

Though they grumbled because they had 
failed to put South Dakota's Senator McMas- 
ter on the Interstate Commerce Committee, 
the Insurgent Republicans were appeased by 
the La Follette selection. They lined up with 
the Regulars to ratify the entire committee 
slate. And so young Senator La Follette is a 
full-fledged member of the Senate Finance 
Committee. More power to him ! 



An honest man is the noblest work of God. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Page 2) 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 
P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

ROBERT BRAUER, Agent. Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42 

CHARLES F. HAMMARIN, Agent 
Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore 2 Astor Street 

PAUL GERHARDT, Agent 
P. O. Box 138. Phone 147 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 281 

CARL S. PRUETT, Secretary 



COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore. - F. REIMANN, Secretary 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Cal..... WILLIAM KAY, Secretary 

2441 K Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 
AND VICINITY 

CORDOVA, Alaska * P. O. Box 597 

N. SWANSON, Secretary 



MONTEREY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 
Headquarters 

MONTEREY, Cal 508 Abrego Street 

O. VENTIMIGLIO, Secretary 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore E. H. DYE, Secretary-Treasurer 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
P. O. Box 65 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

P. B. GILL, Secretary. Phone Elliot 6752 
Orancr.es 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1676 

J. M. MORRISON, Agent 
Phone Black 241 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box A17 

PETE SWANSON, Agent 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal Room "J," Ferry Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary. Telephone Davenport 7928 



29 



62 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, \9M 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL, 

Clothier, Furnisher 8C Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

Funeral Directors 
Crematory and Columbarium 
1702 Broadway 



Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO 

FOOT OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING, SHOES, HATS, 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



CARL SCHERMER CO. 

Union Label House 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING — FURNISHINGS 

HATS and SHOES 

Pay Checks Cashed 

715 First Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



Phone 263 

NEILS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGTHT ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 

Red Top Cab Co., of R. L, Inc. 

67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. I. 



"I asked her if I could see her 
home." 

"And what did she say?" 
"Said she would send me a pic- 
ture of it." 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
AT 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone DAvenport 537 



THE 

James H. Barry Go, 

The Star Press 

Printing 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



MAIN 8000 

GEO. LONEY, Tailor 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

112 South 10th Street 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Low Wages 



Now and then an applicant for a 
job will give an honest estimate of 
his worth. 

A farmer, in great need of extra 
hands at haying time, finally asked 



JENSEN & NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



10 EAST STREET 
DAvenport 3863 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Phone DAvenport 0505 With Morgen't 

BEN HARRIS 

Formerly of 218 East Street 
125 MARKET STREET 

No relation to Joe Harris 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 
SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



Careless Auntie 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HATS. 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS. 
GLOVES, OVERALLS. SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street • Aberdeen 



Suspicious Husband: "Who called 
this afternoon?" 

: His Better Half: "Only Aunt So- 
phie." 

Suspicious Husband: "Well, she 
left her pipe." 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings, Hickory Shirts. 

Hats, Oil Clothing 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe 

302 So. F Street, Aberdeen, Wash. 

On the Water Front 



THE ROYAL CIGAR STORE 

DOLLMAN AC GOMMERSON 

Cards, Cigars, Tobaccos, 

Fountain Lunch 

500 EAST HERON STREET 

PHONE 452 ABERDEEN, WASH. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



"Will any members of the crew 
of the steamship Sahale that know 
about Benjamin Lovette, who was 
drowned at Hamburg, Germany, 
during September, 1927, please call 
or communicate with Silas B. Axtell, 
attorney for the relatives of Benja- 
min Lovette, 11 Moore Street, New 
York City." 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Members of the crew of the 
steamship "Sagauche," which signed 
on in Galveston, Texas, on or about 
September 14, 1925, and who know 
about the sickness of one \\ ilbur 
Herbert Meyer, kindly get in touch 
with Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore St. 
New York City. 



Indiscreet 



Indignant Wife: Just like you and 
your lack of intelligence! Just be- 
cause you feel too warm, you would 
go and choose to take off your over- 
coat outside the door of a pawn- 
broker's shop when everyone 
looking!" 



30 



February, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



63 



Professional Cards 



Telephone SUtter 6900 



Notary Public-Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 

San Francisco 



101 Market St 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

531 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 
SAN FRANCISCO 
Phone DOuglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 
Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ Bldg. Tel. DOuglas 1058 

San Francisco, California 



S. T. HOGEVOLL 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

909 Pacific Building 
821 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



GEORGE F.SNYDER 

A ttorney-at-Law 

Room 1224, Hearst Bldg. 
Third and Market Streets 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone SUtter 7050 



ANDERSON 8C LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 
PERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will Charles Jorgenson who has 
a claim pending in my office against 
the steamship Steel Navigator, 
please call or communicate with 
this office at once? Your case has 
been reversed on appeal and your 
presence at the new trial is neces- 
sary. Silas B. Axtell, 11 Moore 
Street, New York City, N. Y. 



< t 



Exclusive But Not Expensive" 

Fine Clothes Since 1898! 



ALWAYS 
FAIR 



BOSS 



UNION 
TAILOR 



FURNISHES THIS LABEL 



We use the only 

Label recognized by 

the A. F. O. L. 




In fairness to 

yourself accept 

no other. 



BEAUTIFUL NEW STORE 1034 MARKET ST. GR b 1ock A 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

26 CALIFORNIA ST., NEAR DAVIS 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone DOuglas 4874 



H. SAMUEL 

THE OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry 

Phone KEarny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near TOWNSEND 

San Francisco 



WANTED 

Men on all classes of ships. We 
pay 20 per cent cash on an invest- 
ment of only $5. The opportunity 
is here to invest as much as you 
wish. The 20 per cent is for mem- 
bers only. 

Address: Fore and Aft, P. O. Box 
311. Reno. Nevada 



Spartan Simplicity 



Book Agent (to farmer) : "You 
ought to buy an encyclopedia, now 
that your boy is going to school." 

Farmer: "Not on your life. Let 
him walk, the same as I did." — The 
New Outlook. 



Chicken-feed 



"I advertised that the poor would 
be welcome in this church," said the 
minister, "and after inspecting the 
collection, I see that they have 
come." — Boston Transcript. 



"I didn't say nothin' impolite to 
Mrs. Smith. I just asked her to let 
me see if her tongue was a yard 
long like Papa said it was." 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



19 Embarcadero 



Foot of Ferry Bridge 



GEO. A. PRICE 

Leading Maritime Haberdasher 

The Best of Everything for the Man That 
Goes to Sea 

Headquarters 

FOR SQUARE KNOT MATERIAL 

BELFAST CORD, PEARL BUCKLES 

BETTER CLOTHES FOR LESS 

BOSS OF THE ROAD 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvenport 0594 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 

QUICK SERVICE 
San Francisco California 



A state of continual dependence 
on the generosity of others is a life 
of gradual debasement. — Goldsmith. 



When in San Francisco 
Do Not Fail to Visit the 

MOHAWK 
RESTAURANT 

109 Steuart Street 

Near Mission 

JACK (FAT) CLARK, Manager 



31 



54 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always in view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now 
in addition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




A Compromising Question 



Representative Bulwinkle of North 
Carolina told a campaign story at a 
Gastonia banquet. 

"Up North," he said, "a young 
colored girl made her way into a 
registration booth. 

" 'Ah wants ter vote,' she said, and 
she began to giggle. 



" 'What party do you affiliate 
with?' asked the clerk. 

"'Suh!' she looked indignant and 
rolled her eyes. 'Suh!' 

" 'What party do you affiliate 
with, I asked you.' 

" Does Ah have to tell dat?' 

" 'You sure do, sister.' 

" 'Den Ah won't vote nohow. 
Why, de party wot Ah filiate wiv 
liaint even got his divo'ce yet.' " 



White Palace Shoe Store 

34 MARKET STREET, %£.%Z»fr£8* na * eo 
JOE WEISS, Prop. 

We have a large stock of Union-made 
shoes for your approval. Also bring 
your old ones and we'll repair them 
neatly while you wait. 




1/ Your Teeth Hurt 

See a Parker Dentist! 

Hundreds of seafaring men have found Parker Dentists 
reasonable in price and strong on service and fine dental 
work. There's an office in every Pacific seaport. 
PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST USING 



E. R. PARKER SYSTEM 



San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 109% 
E. Ocean Blvd.; San Pedro, 706 Palos Verdes; San 
Francisco, 1012 Market St., 767 Market St., 1802 
Geary St.; Los Angeles. 550 So. Broadway, 104% W. 
7th St., 432 So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F. St.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington 
and Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103% Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and Commer- 
cial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 Hastings St. E.; 
Boston. Mass.. 581 Washington St. 



tyfifl 



A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 




HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 
SUTTER 8000 



Reformer: Young man, do you 
realize that you will never get any- 
where by drinking? 

Stewed: Ain't it th' truth? I've 
shtarted home from 'ish corner five 
times already. — Aggievator. 



you 



Dean: Don't you know 
shouldn't play strip poker? 

Sweet Young Thing: Oh, it's per- 
fectly all right. It's not really 
gambling. 

Dean: What! 

S. Y. T.: No; you see we get 
our clothes back. — Utah Crimson. 



KODAKS 

Exchanged t Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Mission 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



32 






1930 CONVENTION EDITION 




Official Paper of the International Seamen's Union of America 



A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, -FOR SEAMEN 

Sea Power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 

Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea Our Motto : Justice by Organization 

Contents 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 32ND ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE INTER- 
NATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 97-207 

Editor's Note: An Index of the Convention Proceedings will be found on Pages 208-211 

UNEMPLOYMENT— A CHALLENGE 65 

MARINE CREDIT UNION, LTD 66 

LAW ENFORCEMENT ON THE GREAT LAKES 67 

NEWS AND COMMENT CONCERNING SEAMEN THE WORLD OVER 68 

EDITORIALS: 

A GAME OF DRAW! 70 

LEVELING WAGES 71 

NATURE IS INCORRIGIBLE! 72 

FOOLING THE PASSENGERS 73 

ARE HARD TIMES AHEAD? 73 

UNION SEAMEN COMMENDED 74 

WHERE DO WE COME FROM? 75 

LICENSED OFFICERS' CONVENTION 76 

AMERICAN CAPITAL ABROAD 77 

THE "YELLOW DOG" CONTRACT 78 

THE ALASKA PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 80 

"IT CAN BE DONE" 81 

TREE-CLIMBING FISHES 82 

CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 83 

BOOK REVIEWS 84 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN SHIPPING NEWS 86, 87, 88, 89 

LABOR NEWS, HOME AND ABROAD 90, 91, 92, 93 



VOL. XLIV, No. 3 
WHOLE NO. 1994 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice 
as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, 
authorized September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
March 1, 1930 



w^ 






International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR and the INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERATION 



ANDREW FURUSETH, President 
A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 



VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 
623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

1% Lewis Street. Phone Richmond 1258 
Branches 

PROVIDENCE, R. I RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

131 Point Street. Phone Dexter 

NEW YORK, N. Y ADOLF KILE, Agent 

26 South Street. Phone Bowling Green 0524 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa S. HODGSON, Agent 

131 Walnut Street. Phone Lombard 4046 

BALTIMORE, Md E. C. ANDREWS, Agent 

1704 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 6910 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone 23868 Norfolk 

MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Texas ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street. Phone 2215 
PORT ARTHUR, Texas JAMES O'SHEA, Agent 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y...._ „ _..70 South Street 

OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

Telephone John 0975 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass.-... „ JOHN FITZGERALD, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE. R. I „ RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

131 Point Street. Phone Dexter 8090 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa R. DAVIS, Agent 

209 Pine Street. Phone Lombard 7425 

BALTIMORE, Md ALEX KERR, Agent 

1618 Thames Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NORFOLK, Va „ DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

.,^^, 54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk. 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Tex _.._ ALEX YURASH, Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Texas „ _ K. H. MEYER, Agent 

131 Prootor StreeL Phone 2181 

MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Agent 

104 S. Commerce Street. Phone Bell Dexter 1796 



RAILROAD FERRYBOATMEN AND HARBOR 
EMPLOYEES' UNION OF NEW ORLEANS 

ALGIERS, La. LESLIE S. DUPLAN, Secretary 

701 Park Boulevard. Phone Walnut 4449 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 
ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, Secretary 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

Branches 

NEW YORK (West Side Branch).... J AMES ALLEN, Agent 

61 Whitehall St. Phone Bowling Green 1297 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

288 State Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I.„ _ RALPH RIVERS, Agent 

375 Richmond Street 

BALTIMORE, Md ...FRANK STOCKL, Agent 

1704 Thames Street 

NORFOLK, Va DAN INGRAHAM, Agent 

54 Commercial Place. 23868 Norfolk 

NEW ORLEANS, La -.CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Raymond 6645 

GALVESTON, Texas „ -..ALEX YURASH. Agent 

321 Twentieth Street 

PORT ARTHUR, Texas ARNST LARSEN, Agent 

131 Proctor Street 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass.™ PERCY J. PRYOR, Acting Secretary 

J. M. NICKERSON, Agent 
288 State Street. Phone Richmond 0827 

Branches 

NEW YORK, N. Y JAMES J. FAGAN, Agent 

70 South Street. Phone John 4539 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, ni._ 810% North Clark Strest 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

Phone Superior 6175 

Branches 

BUFFALO. N. Y _ PATRICK O'BRIEN, Agent 

55 Main Street. Phone Washington 5588 

CLEVELAND, Ohio - E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis _ CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Daily 0489 

DETROIT, Mich CARL WICKARD. Agent 

410 Shelby Street. Phone Randolph 0044 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y 71 Main Street 

IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

ED HICKS, Treasurer. Phone Seneca 0048 

Branches 

CLEVELAND, Ohio JOHN W. ELLISON, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue, W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis _ ...CHARLES DRYER, Agent 

162 Reed Street. Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich- — JAMES HAYMAN, Agent 

410 Shelby StreeL Phone Randolph 0044 

CHICAGO, 111 LEONARD CARTER, Agent 

122 W. Grand Ave. Phone Superior 2162 

MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' UNION 
Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. 9ECORD, Secretary 

35 West Eagle Street. Telephone Seneca 0896 
Branches 

CHICAGO, 111..- - S. R. LITTLE, Agent 

30 No. Wells Street. Phone Dearborn 0892 

CLEVELAND, Ohio - _.E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

308 Superior Avenue W. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis - OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

162 Reed StreeL Phone Broadway 489 

DETROIT, Mich „ 410 Shelby Street 

Phone Randolph 0044 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal 59 Clay Street 

GEORGE LARSEN, Acting Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 2228 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash...- P. B. GILL, Agent 

84 Seneca Street 
P. O. Box 65. Telephone Elliot 6752 

ABERDEEN, Wash JOHN FEIDGE, Agent 

307 South F Street 
P. O. Box 280. Telephone 2467 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN OLSEN, Agent 

242 Flanders Street. Telephone Broadway 1639 

SAN PEDRO, Cal HARRY OHLSEN, Agent 

430 South Palos Verdes Street 
P. O. Box 68. Telephone 1713W 



MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS 

UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary 

68 Commercial Street. Telephone Kearny 8699 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JERRY CLARK, Agent 

P. O. Box 875. Phone Elliot 1138 

SAN PEDRO, Cal._ WILLIAM SHERIDAN. Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 336 
ninued on Page 29) 



UNEMPLOYMENT — A CHALLENGE 




MPROVED machinery in four major 
industries — farming, manufacturing, 
railroading and mining — has eliminated 
about 2,300,000 employees in the last 
eight years, it was revealed in a survey 
of unemployment made by Dr. Harry W. 
Laidler, Vice-President of the National Bu- 
reau of Economic Research. Dr. Laidler's 
survey stressed improved machinery as one 
of the four factors contributing to a per- 
manent unemployment problem. The oth- 
ers, his survey declares, are seasonal unem- 
K.ployment, cyclical unemployment, and, fourth, 
the discrimination in industry against workers 
over 40 years of age. 

Referring to technological unemployment 
resulting from improved machinery, Dr. Laid- 
ler's survey says : 

"Seven men now do the work which form- 
erly required 60 to perform in casting pig iron ; 
two men now do the work which formerly re- 
quired 128 to perform in loading pig 1 iron! One 
man replaces 42 in operating open-hearth fur- 
naces. 

"A brick-making machine in Chicago makes 
40,000 bricks in an hour. It formerly took one 
man eight hours to make 450. 

"In New York from 1914 to 1925 the number 
of workers in the paper box industry decreased 
32 per cent, while the output per wage earner 
increased 121 per cent. 

"It has been estimated there has been a de- 
crease of about 2,300,000 during the last eight 
years in the number of persons employed in 
the four major industries — farming, manufac- 
turing, railroading, and mining. In 1925, for 
instance, there were 600,000 factory wage earn- 
ers less in New England and the middle At- 
lantic states than in 1919. 

The unemployment problem, Dr. Laidler 
finds, is greatly complicated by the tendency 
in industry to discard the middle-aged worker 
on the ground that he cannot be speeded up in 
the same way as can workers in the twenties 
and thirties. "This is particularly true of our 
industries engaged in mass production. One 
Dodge worker expressed it, 'The speed'-up sys- 
tem is so terrific that after a man is ready for 



the hospital he is likely to be cast on the 
industrial scrap-heap to starve.' 

"At the Highland Park plant of the Ford 
Company about three-fourths of the men were 
found to be under 40. It is practically impos- 
sible for a man over 40 to get a job there, 
while men who have reached that age find 
difficulty in holding their jobs. In a recent 
investigation in certain steel mills, it was 
found that the average age of the steel worker 
was not far from thirty. The problem of the 
re-employment of the middle-aged and old- 
aged worker is one of increasing serious- 
ness.'' 

"Nor has this decrease in the number of 
workers been attended by a decrease in prod- 
uct./ While the output in agriculture has gone 
down slightly, that in manufacture and in 
mining has increased about 20 per cent, and 
the number of freight-ton-miles on the rail- 
roads, about 4 per cent." 

Dr. Laidler quotes the findings of other 
economists who declare all industries touched, 
more or less, .by seasonal unemployment, and 
continues: 

"A recent investigation of eight representa- 
tive plants in the men's clothing industry 
showed that over a period of three years the 
equipment was utilized on the average of but 
69 per cent of the possible working time. The 
shoe industry is in a similar situation, where 
sales in some months run as much as 250 per 
cent higher than the average, and in others as 
low as 87 per cent below. In the building 
trades the Hoover engineers some years ago 
estimated that the workers were employed on 
the average about 63 per cent of the year." 

During the last 120 years, the survey states, 
there have been some fifteen cycles of depres- 
sion and prosperity, "coming with a remark- 
able degree of regularity." "Every three or 
four years of late workers have had to tighten 
their belts, and, whether under the Republican 
or Democratic administrations, go on short 
rations until the worst of the times were over." 

While holding that "industrial society must 
be fundamentally reconstructed before the 
challenge of unemployment is fully met," the 



66 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



survey declares that "the situation can and 
should be immediately relieved by a number 
of forward-looking legislative measures." 

The first of the measures proposed by Dr. 
Laidler is the systematic collection of unem- 
ployment statistics by government agencies. 
The second urges the creation of a chain of 
government employment agencies. Private 
employment exchanges are severely criticized 
by Dr. Laidler. A number of such agencies 
investigated, he says, were found to be "in 
collusion with the employer or foreman, who 
agreed to discharge the new worker within a 
short period on condition that the employment 
fee would be divided." 

In support of his recommendation for gov- 
ernment employment exchanges, Dr. Laidler 
says : 

"The Federal government went into the 
business of finding work for the unemployed 
on a large scale during the war, organizing 
the United States Employment Service. From 
January, 1918, to June, 1919, a period of 18 
months during and immediately after the 
World War, they received calls for over 12,- 
000,000 workers; registered over 7,000,000; re- 
ferred nearly 6,500,000 to positions and re- 
ported placements for nearly 5,000,000." 

Three other steps necessary to improve em- 
ployment or provide relief for the unemployed, 
urged in the survey, are: (1) programs of 
public works construction to be planned by 
cities, states, and nation. These programs 
should be elastic so as to permit more exten- 
sive work during periods of industrial depres- 
sion ; (2) unemployment insurance; and (3) 
reduction of working hours. 

"The age at which children should be per- 
mitted to enter industry should be raised from 
14 to 16. The length of the working day 
should be constantly decreased with the in- 
crease in the productivity of labor. The five- 
day week should be introduced into industry 
as rapidly as possible and free vocational edu- 
cation should be extended, so that workers 
from industries in which the demand for labor 
is decreasing may be rapidly fitted for other 
lines of effort." 



MARINE CREDIT UNION, LTD. 

(By C. W. Deal, Secretary, 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California) 



By doing nothing we acquire the habit of 
doing less. 



The Marine Credit Union, Ltd., was or- 
ganized at San Francisco on September 7, 
1929, under the Credit Union Law of the state 
of California. The law provides that credit 
unions may be organized under certain con- 
ditions. One condition required is that it must 
be limited to a specific group. The member- 
ship of the Marine Credit Union is limited to 
"members in good standing of the unions af- 
filiated with the California Marine Council." 
These unions are: 

Masters, Mates and Pilots of America, Local 
No. 40 of San Francisco. 

Marine Engineers Beneficial Association, No. 
35 of San Francisco. 

Marine Engineers Beneficial Association, No. 
49 of San Francisco. 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California. 

The total possible membership is approxi- 
mately 2,000. In addition, the immediate mem- 
bers of their families may join the Credit Union, 
which would possibly raise the total member- 
ship to about 8,000. 

The purpose of the Credit Union is twofold. 

The first is to teach and encourage the mem- 
bers to form systematic savings habits. 

The second is to provide the means by which 
they can borrow money for constructive pur- 
poses at a reasonable rate of interest. We 
mean by this, of course, that the reason for a 
loan must be to benefit the borrower. 

During the very brief life of the Marine 
Credit Union, thirteen loans have been made 
to its members and in almost every case the 
borrower was kept out of the hands of the 
loan sharks. The operating expenses of the 
Credit Union must be kept at a minimum. 
There are no paid officials until the Union has 
established itself so well that a considerable 
amount of funds are being handled, and then 
only the Secretary-Treasurer. Interest rates 
are kept as low as possible and consequently 
dividends will not exceed 6 per cent on shares. 
Shares are worth $5 each. Anyone eligible 
can become a member by buying one share 
at the rate of 20 per cent down and 20 per 
cent each month. He can purchase a maxi- 
mum of 400 shares or his maximum invest- 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



67 



ment can only be $2,000 under the law. In 
this way, the Credit Union can not become 
controlled by any individual. There are nine 
members on the Board of Directors, five mem- 
bers on the Credit Committee and seven mem- 
bers on the Supervisory Committee. The 
members of the Supervisory Committee can 
not be on the Credit Committee or the Board 
of Directors. 

Any one borrowing in excess of $50 must 
furnish at least two co-signers on his note. 
The Marine Credit Union, for the time being, 
has limited loans to $100, believing that in this 
manner, a greater number can be served with 
our limited finances. 

The Credit Union idea originated in Ger- 
many in 1854 and spread to Norway, Den- 
mark and Sweden. In the early part of this 
century, it was brought to this country by 
Edward A. Filene, a wealthy philanthropic 
merchant of Boston, Massachusetts, who be- 
came very much concerned about the deplor- 
able condition of the municipal employees of 
Boston, through the fact that they were being 
ruthlessly exploited by the loan sharks. He 
has subsidized a national effort to have written 
in the laws of the various states, a law per- 
mitting the establishment of Credit Unions. 
Thirty-two states have adopted such laws to 
date. The Postoffice Department has end- 
dorsed the Credit Union plan, and in prac- 
tically every large center in the United States, 
the postoffice employees have a thriving Credit 
Union. We are informed that in San Fran- 
cisco, the postoffice employees have a credit 
union with assets exceeding $40,000. 

While the life of the Marine Credit Union, 
Ltd., has been very brief, we do not know of 
anything, except the successful culmination of 
a wage increase effort, that has created more 
favorable comment among the membership of 
the various marine organizations in this port, 
and we predict that within the next few years 
the Marine Credit Union, Ltd., will be a real 
factor in our life. 



If there is anything that keeps the mind 
open to angel visits, and repels the ministry 
of ill, it is human love. — M. P. Willis. 



Nature created community; private property 
is the offspring of usurpation. — St. Ambrose 



LAW ENFORCEMENT 

(By C. M. Goshorn, Treasurer, 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes.) 

The duty of citizens to yield full obedience 
to all the laws enacted by our duly elected rep- 
resentatives is a tenet of Americanism ex- 
pounded on frequent occasions by sundry 
orators and writers. It is a good American 
doctrine in accord with the fundamental prin- 
ciples of democracy. 

To the common man it would appear that 
government officials should display equal zeal 
and energy in the enforcement of all the laws 
that have been placed upon the statute books. 
However, that is not done in actual practice. 
Contrast the vigorous efforts of government 
agencies to enforce the prohibition laws and 
the admitted lack of any effort in many cases 
of other government agencies to ascertain 
whether Section 13 of the Seamen's Act is 
being obeyed or not. 

Section 13 of the Seamen's Act specifically 
provides that Collectors of Customs may, upon 
their own motion, muster crews of vessels to 
determine if they are complying with the pro- 
visions of that section and shall refuse clear- 
ance to any vessel failing to have the required 
number of able seamen. 

A recent inquiry among all Great Lakes Col- 
lectors of Customs elicited the startling infor- 
mation that not one Collector, upon his own 
motion, has made a muster of a crew of a 
lake vessel since January 1, 1925, to date, for 
the purpose of determining if Section 13 is 
being obeyed or not. 

From the general tone of the replies received 
one is forced to the conclusion that the Col- 
lectors on the Great Lakes apparently possess 
a childlike faith that the shipowners will 
never violate or evade any of the provisions 
of Section 13, and that, therefore, it is unneces- 
sary to check up the crews of vessels, not even 
once in five years. 

Just what there is in the past records of the 
shipowners, particularly those allied to the 
Lake Carriers' Association, to cause the Col- 
lectors to hold them in such high esteem and 
to feel that they need no watching whatsoever, 
remains a mystery. 



Eagles fly alone, but sheep flock together. 



68 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



MORE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION 



Two bills intended to restrict immigration 
into the United States from other countries 
of the Western Hemisphere, including Canada, 
have been introduced in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 

H. R. 8530, by Representative Johnson of 
Hoquiam, Wash., chairman of the House Com- 
mittee on Immigration and Naturalization, 
would set up a quota system under which, for 
every American citizen who emigrates to re- 
side permanently in another country of this 
hemisphere, three immigrants from that coun- 
try would be admitted into the United States. 

The purpose of the Johnson Bill is to reduce 
immigration from North, Central and South 
America by approximately two-thirds, per- 
mitting a total of a little more than 50,000 
annually instead of the 150,000 or more now 
admitted. The object is in harmony with "the 
plea repeatedly made by Secretary of Labor 
Davis for a selective system of immigration 
by authorizing a preference (after all existing 
preferences have been accorded) to persons of 
all nationalities who may be found to be 
specially assimilable into the population of 
the United States." 

H. R. 8523, by Representative Box, would 
place the countries of this hemisphere under 
a quota of "not to exceed 3 per cent of the 
average number of immigrants legally admit- 
ted annually from each of said areas during 
the five fiscal years next preceding July 1, 
l f >_ )( »." and limit the total number annually 
from all countries to 50,000. ' Provisions are 
made to impose restrictions less onerous in 
the case of English-speaking citizens of Can- 
ada. The Box Bill, if enacted, would place 
Canada, Mexico, Central and South America 
and adjacent island countries, such as Haiti 
and Santo Domingo, under quota immigra- 
tion restrictions. The new measure seeks the 
same end as various bills which have been 
pending in former sessions of Congress. 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



We have often been told that wealth does 
not bring happiness — well, we can vouch for 
the fact that poverty doesn't. 



A million laws do not take the place of old- 
fashioned honesty. 



The German Reichstag has passed the third 
reading of the bill for the ratification of the 
convention concerning unemployment indem- 
nity in case of loss or foundering of the ship, 
adopted by the International Labor Confer- 
ence at its second session (Genoa, 1920). The 
bill contains the necessary provisions for bring- 
ing German legislation into harmony with the 
terms of the convention. 

* * * 

Since his appointment, the latter part <>t 
September, 192 ( >, by the Canadian Government 
to organize the fishermen into cooperati 
cieties in the Maritime Provinces, Dr. M. M. 
Coady has already completed his work of or- 
ganization in Cape Breton, along the eastern 
shore from Halifax to Guysboro, and along 
the Northumberland shore from Mulgrave to 

New Brunswick. 

* * * 

The Trustees of the port of Bombay recently 
considered a reference from the Government 
of Bombay requesting their views on the pro- 
posals of the committee appointed by the Cen- 
tral Government to formulate a scheme for the 
establishment of an Indian Sailors' Home in 
Bombay as a memorial to Indian seamen who 
lost their lives during the war. It was decided 
to inform the Government that they welcome 
the proposal and are prepared to make a free 
gift of the plot of land on Masjid Bunder Sid- 
ing Road .selected by the committee as the most 

suitable site. 

* * * 

The following notice was recently published 
in the Hongkong Government Gazette: "It is 
hereby notified that Chinese nationals will be 
permitted to sit at the Board of Trade exami- 
nations for master, first mate and chief engi- 
neer under the same conditions as laid down 
for British subjects. Successful Chinese candi- 
dates will not, however, receive a certificate 
of competency, which can be granted only to 
British subjects, but will receive in lieu thereof 
a letter signed by the Chief Examiner (the 
Harbor Master) certifying that the examina- 
tion has been passed. This letter will not 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



69 



entitle the holder to the rights conferred by a 

certificate of competency." 

* * * 

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution of 
Great Britain has awarded its silver medal to 
Coxswain Richard Payne, of the Newhaven 
motor lifeboat, who already holds the bronze 
medal, and its thanks on vellum to each mem- 
ber of the crew for the rescue of the crew of 
ten men of the Danish schooner Morgens Koch 
on December 7 last. This was the worst day 
of the winter gales, the wind reaching 110 
miles an hour, the highest speed ever recorded 
in the British Isles. The Newhaven motor 
lifeboat was one of fifteen which was called 
out on that day. 

In a letter recently addressed to the Mercan- 
tile Marine Department of the British Board 
of Trade, the Imperial Merchant Service Guild 
stated that they had noticed with some con- 
cern the number of cases which were reported 
during the recent bad weather of ships dis- 
abled by having their hatches stove in, and 
that no doubt the security of hatches in severe 
weather was a subject which was being kept 
prominently before them by the Board of 
Trade experts. In their reply the Board stated 
that the security of hatchways in cargo ships 
was at present being investigated with special 
reference to the recent gales. 

The four-masted ship Garthpool, which now 
lies a wreck off the west coast of Africa, had 
the distinction of being the last deep-sea sail- 
ing ship under the British flag. She was built 
at Dundee in 1891 as the Juteopolis for 
the Calcutta trade, and was afterward owned 
by the Anglo-American Oil Company, a 
Standard Oil subsidiary. Her late owners 
were the Marine Navigation Company, of 
Canada, Ltd., Montreal. The end of this 
well known ship recalls that there are very few 
square riggers left in the world. The two most 
important sailing ship firms today are Capt. 
Gustaf Erikson of Mariehamn, Finland, and 
F. Laeisz G.m.b.h., Hamburg. The latter firm 
owns two large sailing ships of post-war con- 
struction and five of pre-war date, all engaged 
in the nitrate trade from Chile. Captain Erik- 
son is the largest sailing ship owner in the 
world, having 13 large square riggers and four 



smaller sailing vessels. Among his ships are 
such well known windjammers as the Archi- 
bald Russell, Hougomont, Lalla Rookh, Law- 
hill, Loch Linnhe, Olivebank, Herzogin Cecilie, 
Penang and Pommern. The latter two, inci- 
dentally, were owned by F. Laiesz before the 
war. Finnish sailing ships are manned by boys 
and even the masters and mates are very young 
men, all of them very poorly paid. 
* * * 
The executive committee of the Interna- 
tional Transport Worker's Federation at a 
recent meeting in Amsterdam approved appli- 
cations for affiliation from the Estonian Sea- 
men's Union, the Latvian Motor Drivers' 
Union, the Rumanian Railwaymen's Union, a 
Spanish Seamen's Union in Barcelona, and 
the Indian Quartermaster's Union of Calcutta. 
The secretary's report stated that all the larger 
affiliated organizations, comprising altogether 
more than five-sixths of the membership, had 
agreed to the increase of affiliation fees for 
1930 and 1931 in order to carry on a more 
active and systematic propaganda campaign 
in non-European countries. It was decided 
that the next Congress of the federation 
should be held in September, 1930, probably 

in London. . 

MR. FREE'S SUCCESSOR 






Congressman Arthur M. Free, who repre- 
sents the Eighth Congressional District of 
California, will have an opponent in the com- 
ing August primaries in the person of Emmet 
C. Rittenhouse, prominent attorney of Santa 
Cruz. 

Mr. Rittenhouse was at one time a union 
barber and worked his way through Stan- 
ford, where he graduated as a law student. 

In addition to being a prominent Freema- 
son he is Past State Grand Master of the Odd 
Fellows, and a Veteran of Foreign Wars. 

The present incumbent has shown in the 
past too great an activity in the behalf of 
vested interests to suit the workers. His stand 
against the Box Bill to put Mexicans under 
the immigration quota, and his persistent ef- 
forts in the behalf of the shipping interests to 
the detriment of United States seamen, espe- 
cially makes welcome at this time an opponent 
who stands for what the masses stand for. — 
The Union Gazette of San Jose. 



70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 19: 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month in San 
Francisco, by and under the direction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President 

A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

1 'A TRICK FLYNN, First Vice-President 

58 Commercial Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

P. B. GILL, Second Vice-President 

84 Seneca Street, Seattle Wash. 

PERCY J. PRYOR, Third Vice-President 

\Vz Lewis Street, Boston, Mass. 
OSCAR CARLSON, Fourth Vice-President 

70 South Street, New York, N. Y. 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, Fifth Vice-President 

55 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
PETER E. OLSEN, Sixth Vice-President 

49 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

IVAN HUNTER, Seventh Vice-President 

71 Main Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

525 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary-Treasurer 

623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Office of Publication, 525 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 

Subscription price $1.50 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legible, 
written on one side only of the paper, and accompanied 
by the writer's own name and address. The JOURNAL 
is not responsible for the expressions of correspondents, 
nor for the return of manuscripts. 



March 1,1930 



A GAME OF DRAW! 



At the time of going to press the London 
Naval Limitation Conference is still in ses- 
sion. To the uninitiated the conference re- 
sembles a long drawn out game of poker that 
is under suspicion of being just a little crooked. 

Of course, this is not an insinuation that the 
illustrious and distinguished gentlemen who 
play at the Limitation table are crooked. Far 
from it. They play the game in the interests 
of their respective countries and in order to 
fully protect and preserve those interests they 
find it necessary, at all times, to hold an ace 
up their sleeve to be used at the opportune 
moment. 

Great Britain and the United States are 
attempting to abolish the submarine, but 
France, Italy and Japan are opposed to aboli- 
tion. 

Said our own Secretary of State, Stimson : 

The argument that the submarine is a purely de- 
fensive weapon seems to us difficult to reconcile with 



the offensive use which has been made of it at great 
distances from its home ports. The contention that 
it is a less costly weapon which affords a maximum 
of strategic value for a minimum of outlay must be 
considered in the light of the knowledge that the 
submarine is three or four times as costly, ton for 
ton, as the largest type of surface craft and approxi- 
mately twice as costly as the largest ships of war. . . . 

The essential objection to the submarine is that it 
is a weapon particularly susceptible to abuse; that 
it is susceptible of use against merchant ships in a 
way that violates alike the laws of war and the dic- 
tates of humanity. . . . 

We cannot but feel that for this conference ... to 
sanction an instrument of war, the abuses of which 
were directly responsible for calling the western world 
into the greatest European war of history, would be 
a contradiction of the purposes for which we have 
met. 

The British First Lord of the Admiralty sec- 
onded the motion of Secretary Stimson. But 
that is as far as it got. France agreed to 
accept the principles set forth in Articles 1 
and 2 of the Root proposal of 1921. These 
provide : 

(1) A merchant vessel must be ordered to submit 
to visit and search to determine its character before 
it can be seized. 

(2) A merchant vessel cannot be sunk until the 
crew and passengers have first been placed in safety. 

Since it is virtually impossible to provide for 
the passengers and crew of any fair-sized mer- 
chant vessel inside of a submarine, commerce 
raiding under the Root Formula is ruled out of 
order. However, France had an ace up her 
sleeve. The wise men soon pointed out that 
while France is accepting principles, she is still 
keeping her submarines, that she has not ac- 
cepted Article 3 of the Root Formula which 
provides that any submarine commander who 
violated the law shall, if caught, be tried for 
piracy "before the civil or military authorities 
of any power within the jurisdiction of which 
he may be found." 

And so the game of "bluff and call" goes on. 

It seems likely that the London conference 
will discard a few battleships. To all prac- 
tical purposes these floating forts have become 
useless because of airplanes and submarines. 
During the World War these battleships never 
left a harbor unless surrounded by a fleet of 
airplanes, submarines and destroyers. 

The battle of Jutland between the British 
and German navies during the World War 
settled nothing, and neither side showed an 
inclination to renew the fight. The British lost 
6,097 killed and 14 ships of various classes, 
totaling 112,450 tons; the Germans lost 2,551 
killed and 11 ships totaling 59,610 tons. The 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



71 



result was indecisive, although the British 
claimed a victory because the Germans with- 
drew under cover of darkness. Naval experts 
are still quarreling over that fight, but experts 
are fairly well agreed that the German sub- 
marine was England's greatest menace. 

President Hoover in his Federal "Budget at 
a Glance" showed that approximately 72 cents 
of every dollar to be spent by the Federal Gov- 
ernment during the next fiscal year must go 
to pay for past wars and preparedness for any 
that may occur in the future. Of the $3,830,- 
445,231 which Congress has been asked to ap- 
propriate for the fiscal year begining next July 
1, the sum of $2,733,213,283 must be provided 
for payment of principle and interest on the 
public debt incurred to prosecute the war, out- 
lays for pensions, hospitalization and other ex- 
penses incurred in behalf of veterans of former 
wars, and for national defense — the Army, 
Navy, Marine Corps and National Guard. 

These billions of dollars are diverted from 
the construction of roads, health, industry, and 
economic research and the extension and bet- 
terment of education — these are sacrifices to 
Mars which can well make us all pause to 
think. 

Organizing among North Atlantic beam 
trawlers is progressing steadily. Acting Sec- 
retary Pryor of the Fishermen's Union of the 
Atlantic anticipates having a very healthy or- 
ganization before many moons. Once the 
membership is aroused there is nothing that 
will stop them and fishing is a game that the 
average Communist or I. W. W. does not care 
to tackle. It is planned to hold open meet- 
ings in the near future to assist in the general 
work. 



LEVELING WAGES 



This issue of the Journal contains the pro- 
ceedings of the Thirty-second Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
held in the National Hotel at Washington, 
D. C, during January. A special index of the 
convention proceedings will be found in the 
last pages. 



The Alaska Fishermen's Union has voted to 
close its Astoria branch and to transfer the 
Astoria Agent to Seattle as assistant to the 
Seattle Agent. 



A New York contemporary recently pub- 
lished and commented on a tabulation of the 
wages paid to seamen in various European 
countries. The object was to show that Amer- 
ican seamen's wages were the highest in the 
world, and concluded with the doleful state- 
ment that American seamen evidently could 
not see the writing on the wall. 

No explanation of this somewhat cryptic 
statement was vouchsafed by its obvious 
meaning was that a fall in the labor conditions 
of American seamen to the European level 
was inevitable, and therefore the organized 
American seamen were essaying a hopeless 
task in endeavoring to keep their local condi- 
tions up to the present level. 

If we accept that explanation of the ship- 
owners' point of view, it only lands us in 
further difficulties. The general European 
standard of wages and labor conditions, either 
on land or sea, low as they undoubtedly are, 
still stand at the present at a much higher 
level than those in Asiatic countries. Of course, 
it is impossible to generalize on this subject 
because there are so many exceptions. For 
instance, the seamen of Japan, in certain trades 
receive higher wages than are paid on Ger- 
man, French or Italian ships. 

If, by the trend of inevitable and irresistible 
law, American labor conditions must sooner 
or later fall to the average European level, 
then, by the logic of the same argument, Euro- 
pean labor conditions must ultimately descend 
to the Asiatic level — which is the limit of the 
possibility of human existence — as represented 
among those swarming myriads by a couple of 
handfuls of rice per day for food and a couple 
of yards of cloth per year for clothing. 

When the whole industrial world reaches 
that level its purchasing power will be so small 
that there will be very little left to quarrel 
about in the matter of either home or foreign 
markets. Also there would be very little use 
for shipping, except perhaps for tourist pur- 
poses. 

At present the prevailing policy amongst 
the white races of the world is to exploit low- 
priced labor and sell its product where a 
higher standard of living exists, but if all 
standards of living in all countries fell to the 



72 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



same level, commercial exploitation would 
break down for lack of markets. A mere hand- 
ful of people in various countries drawing their 
income from vested rights and coupons could 
not possibly consume the amount of products 
which is turned out by exploited labor. 

Whatever one may think of Henry Ford's 
theory, he, at any rate, has a fairly clear vision 
on this point, for he says that the only pos- 
sible way to cure trade depression is to lower 
prices and raise wages, a doctrine which is 
usually anathema in large business circles. 

The great bulk of the employing classes 
everywhere are still obsessed with the idea of 
capturing markets by reducing wages. As 
long as they have that economic delusion they 
are only hastening towards a common catas- 
trophe. They evidently are incapable of read- 
ing "the writing on the wall," which indicates 
that our twentieth century system of com- 
mercialism is not a permanently established 
institution. To the contrary, it is being 
weighed and is often found wanting. 



Take, for instance, the shabby commercial- 
ism that has been so much in evidence, during 
recent years, in the American marine trans- 
portation industry. 

Many American ship operators are now the 
recipients of exceedingly liberal mail subsidies. 
An illustration of this liberality was presented 
in the House when Representative Patman, of 
Texas, explained that under the terms of a 
certain contract the government would pay 
a steamship company $284,920 a year for 
ten years, the total amount of mail carried 
during the fiscal year 1929 having amounted 
to 42 lb. of letters and 1,262 lb. of package^. 
The line referred to was one contemplated 
from Tacoma to Valparaiso, and if the same 
amount of mail were carried by the Tacoma- 
Valparaiso Line that was carried during the 
fiscal year 1929, the value of the service ren- 
dered on each trip by the steamship company 
to the government would be 61c for letters and 
$1.75 for packages, while for each trip the com- 
pany would receive $16,700, or about $7,000 for 
every dollar's worth of service rendered. Mr. 
Patman added that the steamship Everett had 
received $14,915 for transporting a few pounds 
of mail from Tacoma to Manila, which service 
was worth $7.10. The bill under discussion 



carried $28,000,000 for transportation of for- 
eign mails by water and aircraft of which $5,- 
100,000 was for air transportation. In other 
words, $22,900,000 was for transportation of 
foreign mails by steamship, of which he esti- 
mated that $16,000,000 represented a direct 
subsidy, gift or bonus to the steamship com- 
panies from the U. S. Treasury. 

But even though this subsidy in many in- 
stances is sufficient to pay the entire wage cost 
of operation, shipowners have not voluntarilv 
added a single dollar to the Seamen's pay en- 
velopes. To the contrary, those who profess 
to speak for the subsidized ships now have 
the temerity to suggest a downward leveling 
of wages. One cannot help but admire the 
colossal nerve back of such a proposal ! 



NATURE IS INCORRIGIBLE 



To prove his contention that corn sugar. 
not industrial alcohol, constituted the dry prob- 
lem of the moment, United States Prohibition 
Commissioner James M. Doran reported : 

Of 3,864 stills seized in northeastern states in 1929, 
3,430 were manufacturing the best grade of alcohol 
from corn sugar. Some plants could produce 2,000 
gallons of alcohol per day. 

Of the 15.792 stills seized in 1929 in the whole 
United States, 11,928 were in the South. 

The reformers who gave us the "noble ex- 
periment" have an awful enemy in unrepent- 
ant nature. Notwithstanding Constitutional 
Amendments and laws galore, incorrigible 
nature, with felonious intent, goes right on 
producing the basic substance of alcohol — 
grain and corn and grapes! 

If the "noble experimenters" could only reg- 
ulate nature, how happy they would be ! 



Secretary Olsen of the Alaska Fishermen's 

Union reports that due to fish conservation 
only five boats to each line of filling machin- 
ery will be permitted this season in Bristol 
Bay. As a result about 550 fishermen will be 
deprived of employment compared to last 
season. 



In accordance with time-honored custom, 
the Forty-fifth Anniversary of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific will be celebrated at the 
San Francisco headquarters on March 6, at 
8 p. m. There will be good oratory, excellent 
music and other attractions. 



8 



-ch, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



73 



FOOLING THE PASSENGERS 



L recent issue of Time, the weekly news mag- 
le, contained the following choice item : 
ne foggy twilight last week, New York radio sta- 
s suddenly stopped broadcasting and the air was 
d with SOS calls. While radio listeners won- 
:d what the silence might portend, there was ad- 
istered in the outer reaches of New York Harbor 
t might be called perfect disaster treatment. It 
an when passengers on the British steamship 
1 Victoria, inching along in the soupy mist toward 
muda, heard the bedlam of fog warnings, the 
:e, hoarse blasts of a whistle which seemed alto- 
ler too near. Then the prow of the Clyde liner 
onquin, outbound for Galveston, loomed out of the 
k and buried itself with a mountainous thrust in 
port side of the Fort Victoria. 

inly one occurrence threatened to mar the dis- 
ined success of the rescue work which followed, 
evy of panicky Chinamen from the galleys of the 
' Victoria started to run amuck with kitchen knives. 
armed officer quelled them; the well-regulated 
lg of lifeboats with women and children, then 
I continued. Pilot boats, revenue cutters and 
:r craft stood by to assist. An attempt was made 
ow the foundering vessel to shore, but at length 
bubbling water closed over it. All the passengers 
the entire crew had been rescued. 

"hat reference to the panicky Chinese has 
amiliar ring. When there is a fire aboard 
p, when a collision has taken place, and at 
times when cool heads are most needed — 
n the Chinese members of the crew usually 
i amuck. 

Tiis fact is well known among shipping 
n. It ought to be fairly well known among 

traveling public. And yet, do we ever hear 
<rotest from the dear traveling public? 
Tie men and women who pay their money 

first-class travel at sea seem to be entirely 
:oncerned about the efficiency and suffi- 
icy of the crew. Ship operators do not ad- 
tise the character and caliber of the crews, 
ey cover that always painful subject with 
leavy mantle of silence. It is so easy to 
ide any reference to the crew. The ticket 
;nt can with perfect safety discuss the 
my, salubrious ocean climate, the calm, 
ooth seas, etc., etc. And if for some myster- 
s reason a prospective passenger should in- 
re about the crew then the chances are that 

volatile ticket agent may clinch the sale by 
louncing that the ship under discussion is 
well manned that she is entitled to fly the 
ited States Naval Reserve flag. Of course, 
: passenger does not know that this flag may 

used by ships when only the master and 
y per cent of the officers belong to the 



Naval Reserve. The entire unlicensed per- 
sonnel may be Chinese because the Naval Re- 
serve does not take cognizance of anyone in 
the crew, except the licensed officers. 

Altogether, the manning question is too in- 
tricate for the average passengers. So he pays 
his money and takes his chance ! And the 
shipowner continues to employ his cheap and 
meek and docile Chinese! 



ARE HARD TIMES AHEAD? 



The monthly news letter of National City 
Bank of New York frankly confesses that the 
automobile industry over-estimated the mar- 
ket when it increased the production of cars 
in the first nine months of 1929 over the 
corresponding period of 1928 by 32 per cent. 
It overloaded the dealers, accumulated stocks, 
and was obliged to suddenly cut the scale of 
operations with effects that were sharply felt 
not only in the localities where automobile 
factories were located, but throughout the al- 
lied and dependent industries. 

This candid admission leaves a gloomy at- 
mosphere even in the presence of the numerous 
gentlemen who insist that American prosperity 
has not been dented. 

Those who shout "business as usual" point 
to the ship-building industry which has more 
business in sight than in any other year since 
the war, there being at present time 106 ves- 
sels, representing 366,146 gross tons under 
construction in American yards, exclusive of 
ship construction for the government. The 
prosperous condition of this industry is, how- 
ever, almost wholly due to the new Jones- 
White law granting Treasury loans at a low 
rate of interest up to 75 per cent of the cost of 
new and fast ships, together with nice fat 
mail contracts. 

But there is another set of prosperity fig- 
ures! The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce has sent out an interesting summary 
of foreign trade in 1929 which is certainly re- 
assuring as to our ability to compete in open 
markets. The final figures upon exports and 
imports are not ready, but apparently will not 
be far from $5,300,000,000 for the former and 
$4,450,000,000 for the latter, giving an export 
balance in the neighborhood of $850,000,000. 



74 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, Ml 



Moreover, the marked feature of the trade is 
the growth of manufactured goods, and par- 
ticularly the more advanced products of iron 
and steel, machinery, automobiles, chemicals, 
wood, etc. Exportation of machinery reached 
the enormous total of $600,000,000, making this 
item, next to cotton, the largest in the list. Ma- 
chinery exports were about 20 per cent greater 
in value than in 1928, an evidence of superior- 
ity in methods of production which cannot be 
gainsaid. Exports of automobiles, at $550,- 
000,000, showed an increase of 10 per cent, and 
heavy iron steel products of 12 per cent. 

Even a hard boiled pessimist will have to 
concede that these figures are of a character 
to inspire just a little confidence in the future. 



UNION SEAMEN COMMENDED 

It is a well recognized fact that the most 
intelligent, skilled and reliable workmen are 
usually members of trade unions. The ship- 
ping industry is no exception to that rule. On 
numerous occasions union seamen have shown 
their courage and ability as seamen under 
dangerous and trying conditions. Now we 
can cite one more instance in which our mem- 
bers have upheld the highest traditions of their 
calling. The passenger steamer Wisconsin, 
carrying a full union crew, foundered on Lake 
Michigan on October 29, 1929. The official 
investigation was conducted by Captain Fred 
J. Meno, Supervising Inspector of the Eighth 
District of the U. S. Steamboat Inspection 
Service. His report contains the following 
statement in reference to the crew of that 
vessel: "In connection with this, I am glad to 
express as a part of this record, the opinion 
gained by personal examination of the wit- 
nesses, which was begun at Kenosha within 
thirty hours after the rescue. This is, that 
the officers and crew were seamen of ability ; 
they were well trained and went through this 
trying ordeal with stern calmness and in an 
orderly manner; the control exercised by the 
officers in charge and the obedience and ability 
of the crew explains why the lifeboats were 
loaded and launched so successfully ..." 

Further on in this report Supervising In- 
spector Meno makes this statement: " . . . 
throughout this inquiry I have not been able 
to learn of one failure or one shirker in the 



face of the danger with which they \|| 
confronted." 

The following members of the Sailors' UA 
of the Great Lakes comprised the deck en 
of the Steamer Wisconsin at the time she w 
lost: William Strahan, John J. Rodgers, Geor 
Richardson, Vincent Mcl'hee, Joseph Rodge 
Fred Treuber and Mike Larsen. 



The rider on the Appropriation Bill to ah 
ish the Sea Service Bureau was defeated 
the House of Representative* in the Comm 
tee of the Whole by a vote of 47 to 25. Tl 
does not, however, end that struggle in tl 
Congress. The bill now goes to the Senate. T 
discussion in the Committee of the Whole < 
cupied about an hour in which the Sea Ser« 
Bureau was shown not only to be utterly v( 
of any authorization by law, but its main 
nance was shown to be violating a crimii 
statute. This discussion will, therefore, bq< 
importance to hold the rider on the bill wb 
the Senate discuss the subject. Communis 
tions ought to be sent to the Senators fronj 
seaports where there is a Sea Service Bure* 
with a clear, definite statement that it is < 
stroying the personnel and again driving 
American away from the sea as quickly as- 
comes. 



The La Follette Bill, S. 306, providing 
the abolition of private shipping offic- 
aroused a great deal of interest around 1 
Great Lakes and the campaign for and agaij 
the bill is now on in earnest. Resolutions 
support of S. 306 have been adopted by b< 
the Detroit and Chicago Federations of Lab 
Similar resolutions will be introduced into'i 
central bodies and State Federations at B 
falo, Cleveland and Milwaukee. 



The public that sinks to sleep, trusting 
constitutions and machinery, politicians a 
statesmen for the safety of its liberty, ne' 
will have anv. — Garrison. 



In my early days I constantly made the fc 
ish supposition that conclusive proofs wo- 
change beliefs, but experience dissipated 
faith in man's rationality. — Herbert Spent 



Times change and we change with th 



10 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



75 



WHERE DO WE COME FROM? 



Where did the one hundred million Ameri- 
cans come from? 

It was five years ago that Congress in- 
structed the Secretaries of State, Commerce 
and Labor to ascertain the national origins, by- 
birth or ancestry, of the American people. It 
was an exceedingly difficult task, but what- 
ever the merits or demerits of the resulting 
quota readjustments, the ethnic composition of 
the American people presents a problem of 
enough interest to repay the labors of the 
eminent historians and statisticians who as- 
sisted the three secretaries in exploring our 
national backgrounds. The subcommittee of 
experts has carried on most extensive research 
and has made a detailed study of all available 
sources of information, including all decennial 
censuses of population and annual records of 
immigration ; foreign emigration statistics 
showing emigration by countries and prov- 
inces; census reports of foreign countries giv- 
ing their population at different periods by 
political divisions and linguistic groups ; and 
such other data as could cast some light upon 
our population growth during the last century. 
Local records and histories of various settle- 
ments were consulted. Rates of increase of 
population were calculated for different peri- 
ods and the most reliable statistical methods 
were applied to the problem. 

Ultimately, the following computations were 
arrived at: The total white population, that is, 
94,820,915 persons as enumerated in 1920, were 
divided into two main parts, termed by the 
committee the original native or colonial stock 
and the immigrant or post-colonial stock. The 
first part, numbering 41,288,570 persons, repre- 
sents all those whose ancestors were here in 
1790 when the first census of the United States 
was taken. The "immigrant stock" numbers 
53,532,345 and consists of immigrants as well 
as the children, grandchildren and later genera- 
tions of immigrants who have come to this 
country since 1790. As to the original native 
stock the chief data available was that supplied 
by the census of 1790. But as this gives no 
information on the national origins of the four 
million Americans enumerated in that year, 
classification could be based only on the analy- 
sis of family names recorded by the census, 



distinguishing English, Scotch, Irish, Dutch, 
French, German and others. Subsequently the 
entire original native stock of today had to be 
allotted to various national groups in propor- 
tion to the names contributed by various 
nations to the American population of 1790. 
Thus it has been estimated that of the forty- 
one million "original" Americans 77.2 per cent 
are of English, Welsh, Scotch and North Irish 
descent, 4.4 per cent Irish Free State, 7:3 per 
cent German, 3.3 per cent Dutch, 1.8 per cent 
French, 1.4 per cent Belgian, 0.9 per cent Swiss 
and 3.7 per cent are descended from all other 
nationalities. The "immigrant stock" has been 
distributed among the various national groups 
upon the basis of immigration records and 
census classifications by country of origin, 
adjustments having been made where neces- 
sary for post-war changes in political geog- 
raphy. 

According to the final report, it is estimated 
that the various nations of the world have con- 
tributed to the white population of the United 
States in the following proportions : Great 
Britain and North Ireland 41.4 per cent, Ger- 
many 16.3 per cent, Irish Free State 11.3, 
Poland 4.1, Italy 3.7, Sweden 2.1, Netherlands 
2.0, France 2.0, Czechoslovakia 1.8, Russia 1.7, 
Norway 1.5, and Switzerland 1.1 per cent. No 
other quota country has contributed as much 
as one per cent to America's population. 

In their first report, submitted in 1927, the 
scientists of the State, Commerce and Labor 
Departments admitted that "any racial classi- 
fication based mainly upon names involves a 
considerable element of uncertainty," and in 
the covering letter to the President, Secretaries 
Kellogg, Hoover and Davis made it clear that 
in their opinion "the statistical and historical 
material available raised grave doubts as to 
the whole value of these computations." The 
experts were allowed another year in which to 
check their figures, and new investigations and 
a special study of the origin and occurrence of 
family names, resulted in a second set of fig- 
ures, completed in 1928. After one more year 
the final result of official researches was em- 
bodied in a third report, that of 1929, and sub- 
mitted with the opinion that all available data 
had been utilized and that the figures were as 
nearly accurate as they could be made. 

Those who are opposed to the new immigra- 



11 






76 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



tion quotas contend that there are no data 
available on which even the most learned 
experts could accurately determine our na- 
tional origins. There are, they point out, no 
trustworthy statistics of immigration for 
Colonial days. The only comprehensive data 
are those supplied by the census of 1790. But 
is it, they ask, a reliable source of information 
or just the only one? Moreover, for almost half 
of the people of the United States the only 
basis of "racial classification" is found in the 
names of their ancestors as enumerated in 
that census, and a family name, they urge, is 
hardly a safe criterion in reaching conclusions 
as to the linguistic and national backgrounds 
of a person. Many names are common to two 
or more countries ; many become assimilated 
with the dominant language. 

Immigrants have been coming to America 
for over three hundred years, the opponents 
of the national origins plan contend further, 
while we have statistics only for a little more 
than a century and even these are defective. 
Not until 1820 were any official records of 
immigration kept and the national origins of 
descendants of immigrants who entered this 
country between 1790 and 1820 can only be 
estimated. Not until 1850 were the foreign 
born listed in our decennial censuses by their 
countries of origin and only since 1890 has the 
native born population been classified by 
country of birth of parents. Not even the cen- 
suses of 1910 and 1920 show how many people 
there were in the United States in those years 
who were born in Jugoslavia, Lithuania. 
Czechoslovakia. Finland, Poland, or any other 
state which did not exist before the war. Im- 
migrants from Great Britain and Ireland were 
included in the same brackets and the problem 
has been not only to separate them but also to 
divide our Irish element between the Free 
State and North Ireland. What are the nation- 
alities of the people who are listed in our sta- 
tistics as of Austrian, Hungarian or Russian 
birth or descent? Our people of foreign stock, 
it is contended, were apportioned in accordance 
with a pre-war map and their redistribution to 
conform with the present boundaries of Europe 
involves another element of uncertainty. Fur- 
ther, it is asked, can the most careful estimates 
take account of different rates of fertility in 
different groups at different times or the 



results of the intermarriage and intermingling 
of four, five or half a dozen nationalities? 

On the other hand, the advocates of the 
national origins plan, while admitting that 
many of these elements of theoretical uncer- 
tainty exist and that the sources of information 
are not always adequate, contend that the 
margin of error can be only very slight ; that 
as to those countries whose boundaries have 
been changed by the war the national origins 
computations are probably more accurate than 
the 1890 basis ; that the committee figures are 
practically substantiated by the historians of 
our racial groups, German and Irish; and that 
the committee listened to every criticism made 
and tried to correct its figures whenever there 
was a suggestion of error. 

In presenting both sides of the controversy, 
no lay person can pass judgment on the value 
of the computations which have been made or 
the accuracy of the resulting figures. In many 
cases the criticisms advanced sound plausible 
but it must not be forgotten that they are often 
made for political rather than scientific rea- 
sons. While the task of disentangling our 
national origins may look insuperable, the 
results are vouched for by a committee of sci- 
entists, all men of recognized ability and 
standing. 



LICENSED OFFICERS' CONVENTION 



A labor union convention in which each 
delegate's name was prefixed with the title of 
"Captain" was held in Washington recently. 
It was the general meeting of the National 
( Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots of 
America. 

Representatives came from practically all 
the chief ports of the United States — men who 
handle ships carrying the American flag on 
the seven seas, the Great Lakes and navigable 
rivers. 

The first local of the organization was 
formed in 1885 at a meeting held aboard the 
Steamship Thomas S. Brcnnan, moored at the 
foot of Twenty-sixth Street, New York City. 
During the following two years fourteen local 
unions were instituted at various ports, and 
in 1887 the national organization was insti- 
tuted at a meeting held in Camden, N. J. 

In 1914 the Masters, Mates and Pilots affili- 



12 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



77 



ated with the American Federation of Labor. 
The organization also cooperates with the As- 
sociation of Standard Railroad Labor Organi- 
zations in legislative matters. 

Agreements are maintained with railroads 
operating passenger and freight ships, ferries, 
transports and other steam vessels. 

Only about one-half of the masters, mates 
and pilots in the United States are organized. 

Three independent organizations sent repre- 
sentatives to the convention in the hope that 
all could be merged into one body as the only 
method of obtaining needed reforms in con- 
ditions of employment. 

A committee was finally named to work out 
the details. 

Resolutions were adopted calling for regu- 
lations which will more rigidly safeguard 
navigation. These matters will be taken up 
with the proper governmental authorities. The 
question of adequate compensation for Panama 
Canal pilots was also brought up. The Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor promised to assist 
in carrying out these undertakings. 

Officers were elected as follows : 

President, Captain H. F. Strother, San 
Francisco. 

Vice-presidents: Captains John H. Pruett, 
Kiddepoint, Maine; W. T. Daniels, Savannah, 
Ga. ; B. T. Hurst, Norfolk, Va. ; Samuel G. 
Post, Chicago; E. S. Smith, Cleveland. 

Apprentice Vice-president, Captain Norman 
Deakin, New York. 

Trustees : Captains George W. McVay, 
Providence, R. I. ; George B. Downing, Nor- 
folk, Va. ; Fred C. Boyer, Philadelphia. 

Treasurer, Captain A. V. Devlin, Jersey City. 

Secretary, Captain J. J. Scully, New York. 

It was voted to hold the next convention in 
Washington in 1932. 



AMERICAN CAPITAL ABROAD 



Because half a dozen grasshoppers under a 
fern make the field ring with their importunate 
chink, whilst thousands of great cattle, reposed 
beneath the shade of the British oak, chew the 
cud and are silent, pray do not imagine that 
those who make the noise are the only inhab- 
itants of the field, that, of course, they are 
many in number, or that, after all, they are 
other than the little shrivelled, meager, hop- 
ping, though loud and troublesome, insects of 
the hour. — Burke. 



An example of the depressing effect of 
American capital upon social legislation in 
undeveloped countries may be witnessed today 
in Mexico. The Socialist government of that 
country has framed an enlightened labor code, 
embodying the principles of collective bar- 
gaining and providing safeguards of the most 
advanced type for the workers. This code was 
adopted by the Mexican Chamber of Deputies 
on September 26, and is now before the Con- 
vencion de Industrials de la Republica. The 
body opposed many of the features of the bill, 
such as the closed shop and provisions in 
regard to night work and overtime. The Mexi- 
can business men make the old-time argument 
that the passage of any such legislation will 
bring about economic stagnation. But what is 
more important from the American standpoint 
is the fact that business men from the United 
States are working to defeat the labor code. A 
representative of the Standard Oil Company 
of Indiana recently presented a statement to 
the Chamber of Deputies that oil production 
had fallen off drastically since 1922, and that 
there would be a further curtailment if the 
proposed labor code were adopted. Likewise, 
the chambers of commerce of Lower Cali- 
fornia report that American banks have noti- 
fied them that if this bill is passed no more 
credit will be forthcoming. Even Henry 
Ford's manager in Mexico City states that he 
will close his works if the code goes through. 
In Mexico, the fate of the labor bill seems to 
be attracting more attention that the presi- 
dential campaign. It is a situation which 
should also be closely watched in the United 
States. Certain American business interests 
have long opposed labor legislation in this 
country. Are they to transfer their opposition 
to such legislation to weaker countries? In 
insisting" upon maintaining its oil legislation in 
the face of decreasing production, the Mexican 
government has proved its devotion to far- 
sighted principles. We hope that it will not 
allow reactionary American forces to prevent 
the realization of another important reform — 
The New Republic. 



Good deeds remain, all things else perish. 



n 



78 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO 

(From the Columns of the Seamen's Journal 
March, 1905) 



An Eastern editor says that there will rarely 
be danger on excursion boats if the people 
only "keep their heads." If some genius would 
only give us an infallible prescription which 
will enable people to keep their heads, there 
would be no need for all this talk about the 
necessity of a manning scale, standard of effi- 
ciency, etc. 



The members of the Lake Seamen's Union 
and Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 
Great Lakes are to be congratulated upon 
reaching an agreement with the Lake Carriers' 
Association. The respective committees hav- 
ing arrived at the best possible terms, it is 
likely that the agreements will be ratified by 
the membership at large. Thus peace with 
honor and decent conditions will be assured 
for the season. It is a consummation devoutly 
to be wished. 



The hall at Headquarters of the Sailors' 
Union has recently received a great acquisi- 
tion in the form of a large and splendid model 
of the steamer Queen, of the Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company's line. The model is the 
gift of Captain E. Alexander, who brought the 
original to the Coast, and who is therefore 
very proud of her, a feeling that is shared by 
everyone who appreciates beauty in marine 
architecture. It is needless to say that Captain 
Alexander has, if possible, added to his popu- 
larity among the seamen on the Coast by his 
handsome gift to the Union. The Queen now 
reigns supreme in the fleet of full-riggers that 
graces Headquarters, to be cherished as a 
"thing of beauty and a joy forever." 



It is reported that certain San Francisco 
shipowners have expressed a desire to "equal- 
ize" the wages paid to seamen in a certain class 
of vessels. Of course, there will be no objec- 
tion to any process of equalization, provided 
the move is in the right direction. Any attempt 
to equalize wages toward the bottom will meet 
with strenuous opposition. It might as well be 
distinctly understood by all parties interested 
that no equalizing which has a downward 



tendency will be tolerated by seamen on the 
Pacific Coast. A scheme which will gradually 
raise the wages of the men receiving the lower 
scale toward the top notch scale would be very 
acceptable and an eminently just and sensible 
plan of equalizing wages. 



THE "YELLOW DOG" CONTRACT 



"You can't domesticate a rattlesnake by re- 
moving his fangs, as they will grow again ; 
the only safe way is to shoot him in the head," 
said Andrew Furuseth, President of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union, in reply to a request 
for "constructive criticism" of a "yellow dog'' 
contract study by the National Civic Federa- 
tion. 

"The rattlesnake can not be reconstructed 
so as to be domesticated and useful, nor can 
the anti-union employment contract be recon- 
structed so as to become useful in the evolu- 
tion of humanity toward a higher condition," 
said Mr. Furuseth. 

"The 'yellow dog' contract is neither Ameri- 
can nor new," said the trade unionist. "When 
feudal magnates controlled the land in the 
fourteenth century they found the soil useless 
unless they could compel men to stay on it 
and work under conditions determined by the 
magnates. The then governing powers granted 
this power and feudal serfdom was the result. 
It was resisted by tillers of the soil, who at 
last turned vagrant. Vagrancy was met by 
laws under which the vagrant could be hung. 

"As the purpose of these laws was to tie 
workers to the soil under conditions deter- 
mined by the owner, so it is the purpose of the 
anti-union employment contract to tie workers 
to the factory, the mine and the means of 
transportation. 

"The 'yellow dog' contract is fundamentally 
un-American, un-Christian, tending to the in- 
troduction of individual and group slavery. 

"These contracts can not be enforced by the 
law courts. It is seriously questioned whether 
a single one of them could stand the test that 
a fair judge sitting in law would necessarily 
apply. And so the enforcement of these con- 
tracts is thrown into the equity courts where 
the judge acts according to his conscience — ■ 
like the Roman Tribune, the Roman Emperor 
and the Absolute Monarch — with the right to 



14 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



79 



set aside all law — common, statute and 
constitutional. 

"By using men's necessities and the neces- 
sities of their families, men are forced to enter 
into contracts non-enforceable at law but en- 
forceable in equity. It is hoped and expected 
thus to deprive the worker of his rights as 
an American citizen. If this shall succeed, all 
the glories of America will necessarily pass 
away." 



A STRANGE MIGRATION 



"JUSTICE" IN NORTH CAROLINA 

(By Norman Thomas) 

In Marion, North Carolina, during a long 
and bitter strike, provoked by an intolerable 
speed-up system in unsanitary mills where 
workers toiled for twelve hours a day for 
around $12 a week, there was a little violent 
talk and less violent action by the workers. 
Some goods were forcibly put back in a com- 
pany house to which years of toil had given 
the worker no vested right in law and from 
which he was being dispossessed. The grossly 
inefficient comic opera sheriff whose ineffici- 
ency later resulted in tragedy was threatened 
with sticks. Some stones were thrown. No 
one was killed, no one was even seriously hurt 
at any time. Yet these things constituted riot- 
ing and have sent workers to the infamous 
chain gang. But when six men were killed 
and twenty-four wounded, all shot in the back 
by deputy sheriffs, some of them men of bad 
reputation, the deputies were acquitted. They 
and one or two friends in the employ of the 
company testified that there had been some 
talk by strikers and their friends of shooting 
it out. For this they go scot free. And the 
employer in the defense of whose legal rights 
the blood of the workers was spilled, the em- 
ployer who boasted that he had fooled the 
workers, the employer who told a newspaper 
man, "the sheriff and his men are damn good 
shots"- — he will continue to eat his three meals 
a day in peace and prosperity. His church has 
never suspended or even examined him. It 
was only the workers whose church threw 
them out. Such is justice in state and church 
during the industrial struggle! 



A considerable emigration movement to 
overseas countries has for some time been 
noticeable among the German settlers in the 
Soviet Union, most of whom were established 
on the banks of the Volga. 

These colonies for the most part date from 
the time of Catherine II, who, as Princess of 
Anhalt, granted lands to her compatriots, giv- 
ing them certain privileges, among which were 
those of retaining their religion and their lan- 
guage. In the 150 years that have elapsed 
they have multiplied, and their number is now 
estimated at about 2,000,000. 

Since 1923 some 18,000 of them, belonging 
to the Mennonite sect, have emigrated to Can- 
ada and Brazil. A further group of about 
20,000 men, women and children recently left 
the Volga colonies, and has been camping for 
some weeks in the outskirts of Moscow, await- 
ing permission to leave Russia. The Soviet 
Government is, in principle, willing to grant 
this permission in return for a payment of 200 
rubles for each passport. Of this group 
about 2000, all Mennonites, have already 
crossed the frontier, and are provisionally ac- 
commodated in Germany and Latvia. 

According to the German press, the causes 
which have brought about this emigration are 
religious persecution and the measures for the 
socialization of agriculture applied by the So- 
viet Government. 

The destination of the greater number of 
the settlers is Canada ; the Canadian Govern- 
ment, however, recently decided that owing 
to the position of the national labor market it 
could not admit so large a contingent of immi- 
grants, at any rate during the winter months. 
but that it would reconsider the question next 
spring. 

Meanwhile the position of these emigrants 
is precarious in the extreme, and German pub- 
lic opinion is following with great sympathy 
all the measures taken by the Federal Govern- 
ment, which, up to the present, has allotted 
6.000,000 marks as initial expenditure for the 
accommodation of the emigrants. 



Most of us forget the lucky breaks and re- 
member only the bad ones. 



Deep rivers move with silent majesty, shal- 
low brooks are noisy. 



15 



80 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1930 



WHEN IS A CONTRACT VALID? 

The United States Supreme Court frequently 
lectures workers on the sacredness of contract 
when necessity compels them to sign a "yellow 
dog" contract — whereby they agree not to 
affiliate with a labor union. The same court 
seems to think, however, that there is nothing 
sacred about a contract that bars a public 
utility from raising rates. 

The court ruled that the Los Angeles Street 
Car company can raise rates to 7 cents over 
the city's protest. The franchise calls for a 
5-cent fare. 

Associate Justices Brandeis and Holmes, as 
usual, presented their clear-cut minority opin- 
ions. They stood for contract observance, 
which the majority opinion held was abrogated 
when the legislature gave jurisdiction in these 
cases to the California Railroad Commission. 

The majority held that neither the State 
statutes nor the city charter gave the city the 
right to contract for a fixed fare, but Justices 
Brandeis and Holmes intimated that this was 
a straw man erected by their colleagues, as 
the lower court did not pass on this question, 
and that the case should be referred back. 



ALASKA PACKERS' ASSOCIATION 



The Alaska Packers' Association reported 
net profits of $13.03 per share in 1929, repre- 
senting practically no gain from the previous 
year and declines from 1926 and 1927. Earn- 
ings in 1928 were $13.07 per share, in 1927, 
$14.35 per share, and in 1926, $22.23 per share. 

These profits, however, are more than suffi- 
cient to meet dividend requirements of $10 
per annum, including a $2 extra. 

As a result of the satisfactory earnings, the 
surplus was again increased during 1929 and 
now totals $2,316,834, compared with $1,726,- 
691 in 1928. 

Earnings in 1929 amounted to $749,146, com- 
pared with $726,404 in 1928, $1,189,574 in 1927 
and $1,579,880 in 1926. Of the earnings, $507,- 
500 came from the insurance fund, while the 
remaining $241,646 was from the cannery oper- 
ations. The latter have not been sufficient for 
the past two years to pay dividends on the 
common stock alone, but combined with the 



insurance fund, they have exceeded require- 
ments by a substantial amount. 

The Alaska Packers' Association was in- 
corporated in February, 1893, under the laws 
of California for the purpose of canning salmon 
on the Pacific Coast. It operates thirteen can- 
neries in Alaska and one at Puget Sound. It 
also owns a hatchery in Alaska and maintains 
numerous fishing and salting stations and a 
fleet of steamers and vessels. 

The company is controlled by California 
Packing Corporation, who obtained their domi- 
nating position at the time of organization 
in 1916. 

The pack in 1929 totaled 615,156 cases, this 
consisted of 412,615 cases of red salmon, 130,- 
647 cases of pink salmon, 42,991 cases of chum, 
13,963 cases of sockeye, 10,010 cases of king 
and 4,930 cases of coho salmon. 

The greatest pack was established in 1922 
with an output of 940,507 cases, when sixteen 
canneries were in operation. The 1927 pack 
amounted to 534.^81 cases and in 1928, 641.143 
cases were produced. 

While the pack was slightly smaller, prices 
received were higher, equalizing the deficiency 
and making profits run at corresponding levels 
during the year. 

The present book value of plants, terminals 
and real estate amounts to $5,340,767, to which 
has been added $420,930 for replacements, re- 
pairs and betterments. 

During the past year the company purchased 
the Steamer Dclarof and sold the barks Star of 
Greenland and Star of Iceland and the launch 
Puffin. The book value of the fleet is shown 
at $1,853,253. The vessels have been depreci- 
ated $155,526, and improvements and repairs 
totaling $610,561 have been added. In addi- 
tion to its fishing properties, the company 
owns ninety acres of land on the Alameda 
water front, and 2,188 acres in Yolo County 
near Sacramento. 



NOBLE EXPERIMENTERS! 



Ten of thirty-nine Coast Guardsmen under 
charges of intoxication and stealing liquor 
from a seized cargo, pleaded guilty January 6 
at a general court-martial in New London. 
Connecticut. 



16 



March, 1930 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 81 

AN UNHAPPY MANDATE "IT CAN BE DONE" 



When the Germans were relieved of all their 
colonial possessions the promise was made that 
thereafter, under the mandate system, the rule 
of kindness toward natives would be substi- 
tuted for German ruthlessness. 

The current issue of the Australian Worker 
contains this terrible indictment of the "kind- 
ness" rule in Samoa : 

Nine persons were killed — eight Samoans and one 
policeman — as a result of the unfortunate clash 
between the police and members of the Mau (Samoan 
Native) Association at Apia, Samoa, on December 28. 
Several police were slightly wounded, while about 
thirty Samoans were wounded, many of them seri- 
ously. The police were armed with batons and re- 
volvers, while the Samoans carried walking canes and 
sticks. 

Among those killed was High Chief Tamesese, a 
member of one of Samoa's princely houses, who was 
held in high esteem by the entire Samoan race. High 
Chief Tuimalealifano, another Samoan prince, was 
wounded. The death of High Chief Tamesese will 
cause widespread bitterness between the Samoan 
people and the New Zealand Government. The Ad- 
ministration at Apia committed a serious blunder in 
ordering the police to interfere with the procession 
of the Mau supporters. The procession was of a 
peaceful character, and the trouble started when the 
police attempted to arrest a native for not having 
paid the native tax. 

For years there has been grave discontent in Samoa, 
following the attempt by the New Zealand Govern- 
ment to institute a despotic dictatorship in the terri- 
tory. The natives have been harassed at every turn, 
and their every plea for justice and fair play has been 
answered with bayonet and machine gun rule. The 
New Zealand Government appears to be quite inca- 
pable of carrying out the mandate in accordance with 
the instructions laid down by the League of Nations. 

Commenting on the tragic shooting of the Samoans, 
Sir Joseph Carruthers, a member of the N. S. W. 
Legislative Council, stated last week that the harsh 
administration of the New Zealand Government was 
entirely to blame for all the trouble and ill-feeling in 
Samoa. The killing of High Chief Tamesese was 
particularly unfortunate. Tamesese was a handsome, 
highly educated and admirable citizen. He was a 
grandson of the last Samoan king, and extremely 
tolerant and loving. 

The natives in American Samoa, right alongside the 
country administered by New Zealand, were enjoying 
perfect peace and contentment under their American 
administrators, and unless the New Zealand Govern- 
ment handed back its mandate, the population of 
Western Samoa, both white and native, would ask 
America to annex the territory. A petition was already 
being prepared to effect this end. 

Mr. H. E. Holland, leader of the New Zealand 
Labor Party, last week received a radio message from 
Samoa asserting that the official reports of the riots 
sent out from Samoa were incorrect. It was further 
stated that grave charges were pending, and that the 
Administrator (Colonel Allen) was withholding from 
transmission messages containing a true account of 
what happened. Mr. Holland has urged the New Zea- 
land Prime Minister (Sir Joseph Ward) to lift the 
censorship in order that full information from all 
sources should be available to the public. 



New York garment workers have delivered 
another smashing blow at the sweatshop. 

Last summer they launched a successful 
strike in the cloak industry against this evil. 
They have just ended a similar movement in 
the dress trade and are now shaping their lines 
for a final drive in the children's dress industry, 
the last barricade for the sweatshop in the 
needle trades. 

The garment workers' two victories also pro- 
vide for the union shop, the 40-hour week and 
joint commissions and impartial chairmen to 
adjust disputes. 

This union has brought bright days since 
twenty years ago when shirtwaist and dress- 
makers revolted against shameful work condi- 
tions. That victory was the foundation of the 
present International Ladies' Garment Work- 
ers' Union. 

These workers, in 1909, spoke different lan- 
guages. Many of them were recently arrived 
immigrants and were without union experi- 
ence. The end of their strike marked a turn 
in their lives, and from that time they have 
waged an unceasing struggle against reaction- 
ary employers and professed revolutionists. 

The union, by its genius and solidarity, has 
at last convinced employers that workers can 
aid in rescuing an industry from chaotic con- 
ditions and that they must be considered a 
factor in production. 

Old standards and outlooks in the cloak and 
dress industry are discarded. Exploitation, 
fining systems and sweatshop methods are re- 
placed by reason and decency. 

Organized garment workers can thank them- 
selves for this change. But for their union 
they would still be the victims of exploiters, 
police thuggery and judicial tyranny that has 
often attempted to outlaw their collective acts. 

Their success is an inspiration to every wage 
earner who is prone to be discouraged at forces 
arrayed against them. 

The garment workers prove "it can be done." 



A merry heart doeth good like a medicine. 



Ford Motor Company freight ships in the 
Great Lakes fleet during the past year car- 
ried 3,117,495 tons, a new high record. This 
is an increase of approximately 500,000 tons 
over 1928 and about 1,000,000 tons over 1927. 



171 



82 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1930 



TREE-CLIMBING FISHES 

(By Alfred Fuhrman) 



There are people, born and raised in San 
Francisco, who have never been inside the 
U. S. Mint, and don't know how Uncle Sam 
manufactures his $20 gold pieces. There are 
likewise natives of Los Angeles who never 
heard of the La Brea Asphaltum Pits, located 
in the heart of that city, and of the extra- 
ordinary treasures these pits have yielded of 
prehistoric imperial elephants, tigers, horses, 
etc., and which are now exhibited in the Los 
Angeles Museum. It therefore did not surprise 
the lone wanderer, when arriving at Singapore, 
that the great majority of Caucasians, domi- 
ciled there, ridiculed the very existence of a 
tree-climbing fish. 

That queer creature is a kind of perch, with 
elevated eyes close together. It is called 
Oblong by the Chinese, and named by the 
Malays "Belatcho," meaning thereby that it is 
advanced one step in evolution above the fish. 
It climbs out of the mud at low water, then 
inflates two balloon-like sacks on the sides of 
its head, which give it buoyancy, and enable 
it to skip along the surface of the mud with 
lightning rapidity. It has a membrane on its 
breast, shaped like a soup plate, which acts 
like a sucker plate, and enables it to take a 
firm hold in climbing a tree, while its forefins 
are used like hands to aid in climbing and 
in rapid forward movements. When blown up 
it cannot dive below the surface of the water 
until the air is first expelled and the balloons 
collapse again. It feeds mainly on the insects 
that are found on the mangoroot trees and on 
the young leaves of that tree. They attain a 
length up to eight inches, and are considered 
a delicacy by the Chinese. As they are very 
alert, it takes a Malay to catch them. 

The Lone Traveller, therefore, in company 
with Mr. P., a British rubber planter, engaged 
the services of a Malay boatman, and pro- 



Editor's Note: The Flying Fox was presented by 
Mr. P'uhrman to the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology of 
the University of California at Berkeley. Though this 
museum is the largest of its kind west of Chicago, it 
did not possess a single specimen of the Flying Fox, 
and the gift is therefore most highly prized. 

The Tree-Climbing Fishes were presented to Stan- 
ford University at Palo Alto, where they are likewise 
the only specimens of these queer creatures in the 
great fish collection of the Stanford Museum. 



ceetled up the Serangeon River, near Katong, 
a suburb of Singapore. The very first mango- 
root tree, at the edge of the river at low water, 
yielded good results. The Malay, slowly climb- 
ing the tree, captured four excellent speci- 
mens in the higher branches, and each belong- 
ing to a different species. They were then im- 
prisoned in a tin can with a handful of mud 
thrown in, and the next morning some pictures 
were taken of the largest one on the tennis 
court of the Traveller's residence. The 
creature was placed upon a cocoanut, to which 
it held on by its sucker plate, and which rested 
on a block of wood some four feet above the 
ground. But after several pictures were taken, 
it jumped off and skipped or ran over the grass 
so rapidly that it required the united efforts 
of three persons to catch it again. 

The Traveller then took his captives to the 
Rattle's Museum at Singapore to have them 
properly classified. The Curators of the 
Museum, Messrs. Chason and Smedley, kindly 
assisted in the preservation of the captives, 
which was accomplished by a slow process of 
intoxication, gradually increasing the dose up 
to 75 per cent of pure alcohol, and which 
marked the finis of their earthly careers. 

Only the names of three of them could be 
ascertained, namely: Periophthalmus Koel- 
reuteri, Periophthalmus Schlosseri, and Peri- 
ophthalmus Phya. 

It was suggested by the gentleman of the 
Museum, that the fourth specimen be sub- 
mitted to Professor David Starr Jordan of 
Stanford University, an acknowledged au- 
thority on fishes, for classification. 

The Lone Traveller greatly appreciated the 
kind assistance of the curators of the Raffle's 
Museum, who likewise gave him a fine speci- 
men of the Flying Fox (Pteropus Vampyrus 
Malaccensis), a native of this strange country, 
which, when properly mounted, will measure 
from four to five feet from tip to tip. 

No wonder the Malay Peninsula and the 
Straits Settlements are called the topsy-turvy 
land. 



The best physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet 
and Dr. Merryman. 



Politeness of the mind is to have delicate 
thoughts. 



18 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



83 



CURRENT LEGAL NOTES 

Shipowner Liable for Assault. — A shipowner 
is liable in damages to a seaman for a willful 
assault by a subordinate officer in the further- 
ance of the ship's business, under a decision 
of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second 
Circuit in the case of Cain vs. Alpha S. S. 
Corp., 35 F. (2d) 717. 

The plaintiff, a fireman, brought the action 
to recover damages for an assault by the sec- 
ond engineer, which occurred in a Venezuelan 
port on board an American vessel. It was held 
that the question whether the assault was com- 
mitted in an effort to maintain discipline, or 
whether the affair was merely a private brawl, 
was properly submitted to the jury. 

On the main question, the liability of the 
shipowner, the court, after reviewing the 
authorities, came to the conclusion that the 
owner was liable, stating: 

"While we recognize that the question is 
not free from doubt, we hold that the ship- 
owner is liable for the willful assault of a 
subordinate officer acting as such in the ship's 
business." 

Assumption of Risk. — There is such an obli- 
gation upon a seaman to obey the orders of 
his superiors that he cannot have the freedom 
of action which lies at the base of the doctrine 
of assumption of risk as applied to workmen 
on land. It was held, therefore, in the case of 
Masjulis vs. United States Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation, 31 F. (2d) 284, 
that a seaman does not assume the risk of 
using a rope under orders, notwithstanding 
his objection to its sufficiency, rather than as- 
sume the risk of disobedience. 

Bonus for Staying with Unseaworthy Ship. 

— The Steamship Jacob Luckenbach signed up a 
full crew at San Francisco for a voyage to New 
Orleans via the Panama Canal and back. The 
ship stranded near Costa Rica and was kept afloat 
with great difficulty. She managed to proceed 
to Balboa where other temporary emergency re- 
pairs were made. 

The agent of the steamship and a committee of 
the crew then conferred together, after which it 
was agreed in writing that the company would 
pay each member of the crew a bonus of $100 
if they would sail to New Orleans, at which 



port they would be discharged and paid. This 
the crew accepted and the vessel was brought to 
New Orleans by means of the constant operation 
of the compressed air machinery. 

The men demanded their wages, their bonus 
and transportation or money back to San Fran- 
cisco. The owners tendered them their wages, 
but refused to pay the bonus and the transporta- 
tion back to the port, where it was originally 
agreed to discharge the crew. 

The seamen then entered suit against the own- 
ers of the Luckenbach in the United States Dis- 
trict Court in Louisiana. They claimed that they 
were entitled to their bonus, which had been of- 
fered by the owners as an inducement to abide 
by the obviously dangerous ship; that since this 
bonus was refused them they were entitled to the 
statutory penalty for the delay in the payment of 
the bonus, for such time as the court would con- 
sider equitable under the circumstances; that, 
furthermore, they were entitled to a remission of 
any fines and penalties which were assessed 
against them, and which were orally agreed upon 
between the owners and the crew ; and, fourthly, 
they were entitled to transportation or money to 
carry them back to San Francisco. 

The shipowners insisted that the bonus was ob- 
tained under duress, and that therefore it was 
not valid. 

The court sustained the seamen in the demand 
for the bonus, holding that the ship was obvi- 
ously unsafe and that the seamen were warranted 
in refusing to return; that therefore the induce- 
ment which came from the company in the form 
of a bonus was valid. The court held, however, 
that the statutory penalty for delay in pay re- 
ferred only to wages and could not apply to the 
bonus in question ; that since there was no men- 
tion of any remission of fines and penalties as- 
sessed against the crew in the supplemental 
agreement promising the additional bonus, no 
parol evidence could be introduced to change the 
terms of such agreement ; and as to the question 
whether the seamen were entitled to transporta- 
tion to San Francisco, under the provision of law, 
the court held, this did not apply in this case, 
because New Orleans was not a foreign port, and 
that the statute applied only when seamen were 
thus discharged at a foreign port. 



A good reputation is a fair estate. 



19 



84 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL March, 1930 

THE NEW CHIEF JUSTICE BOOK REVIEWS 



Mr. Hughes goes in as Chief Justice of the 
United States, but the Supreme Court was 
given such a raking over the coals in the Sen- 
ate as it has not had in many a long day. 
The conservatives, of course, were much horri- 
fied by the Senate criticism of the court dur- 
ing the debate over Mr. Hughes' appointment 
and protested mightily. They always decry any 
criticism of the court and seek to make it a 
sacrosanct institution, whose mandates should 
be received with unquestioning approval. 

The view that would place the Supreme 
Court above criticism deserves to be given the 
big laugh whenever expressed. As a matter 
of fact, the Supreme Court is just as much 
subject to criticism as any other branch of the 
government. The court itself would hardly 
dispute this. 

The Senate discussion of Supreme Court 
merits and demerits w r as salutary, especially 
as revealing a deep-seated feeling that the court 
is too much prone to place property rights 
ahead of human rights. This is a feeling that 
the court and its conservative defenders must 
take into account. It is a feeling that is bound 
to grow, unless the court displays a more 
liberal trend than it has in recent years. 



VERY WELL EDUCATED 



The officers and passengers aboard a certain 
passenger vessel were compelled to answ r er 
endless queries of the fair young passenger. 
Being young, when conversation lagged, she 
invariably plied every new acquaintance with 
the query: "And what college did you grad- 
uate from?" 

Finally the Chief Engineer was asked this 
question. He smiled mischievously, then re- 
plied : "My dear young lady, I graduated 
from the stokehole university of marine en- 
gineering." 

"How lovely !" said the fair one. 



Disarmament Parley. — A conference between 
civilized peoples seeking to reduce the size of 
weapons used for killing each other. 



The best work never was nor ever will be 
done for money at all. — John Ruskin. 



HOURS OF WORK ON BOARD SHIP. By the 
International Labor Office (League of Nations). 
Publishers: P. S. King and Son, Ltd., London, 
England. Price $1.50. 

This is a complement to a previous publi- 
cation along similar lines. The present volume 
contains information as to the legislation and 
collective agreements in force in the principal 
maritime nations which replied to the ques- 
tions put by the office and for which the office 
may consequently be said to have authentic 
material. As regards the other countries, the 
information collected has been considerably 
condensed or entirely omitted. Nearly all the 
texts which have been included in this volume 
have been abbreviated, i. e., restricted specially 
to information referring directly or indirectly 
to hours of work on board ship. 

The purpose of this volume, which is to 
facilitate the international discussion and regu- 
lation of the question of hours of work on 
board, was a sufficient guide to the office in 
selecting the classes of navigation and the 
provisions which are of international import- 
ance. There arc naturally very numerous pro- 
visions which have or may have an indirect 
influence on hours of work. As a general rule, 
and subject to exceptions for special condi- 
tions in certain countries, the provisions of this 
kind which have been included are those re- 
lating to the minimum strength of crew-, the 
distribution of day work into watches, the 
minimum number of men in each watch, the 
number of furnaces to be stoked by one man 
or the amount of coal to be handled by him. 
night work, rest periods, pauses, weekly rest, 
etc. Provisions concerning overtime have been 
included, though in most cases it has been 
impossible to go into details. The more im- 
portant provisions which refer to the super- 
vision of the observance of the regulations and 
the penalties for infraction have also been re- 
produced. 

Provisions which, while not actually affect- 
ing hours of work on board, yet deal with 
associated matters, such as, for example. 
annual leave, have unfortunately been omitted. 

In each country where collective agreements 
exist between shipowners and seamen such 
agreements are printed in full, in addition to 
the law on the subject. In countries where 



20 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



85 



there are no collective agreements but where 
working hours are regulated by law only, the 
pertinent sections of such law are given in 
full. 

Collective agreements exist in Great Britain, 
France, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Iceland, 
Australia and New Zealand. 



THE LABOR BANKING MOVEMENT IN THE 
UNITED STATES. By the Industrial Relation 
Section of the Department of Economics of 
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

The results of a lengthy study on labor 
banking are published in this volume. In a 
chapter on the origin of the movement it is 
shown that labor banking as it exists on this 
continent is the product of American condi- 
tions, and owes little to European precedents. 
It is described as labor's answer to the policy 
of the regular banking institutions in support- 
ing the "open shop" campaign of recent years. 
In contrast with the people's cooperative banks 
in Germany and elsewhere, the American labor 
banks are stated to be almost entirely capital- 
istic, investments in stock being "primarily 
for dividend returns and not for eligibility for 
borrowing privileges at unusually low rates. 
The plan for cooperative dividends to saving 
depositors, which has appeared on paper in 
many labor banks, and in practice in three, is 
but incidental to the underlying capitalistic 
form of ownership, control and charges for 
service." The American labor banks also dif- 
fer from the banking department of the Coop- 
erative Wholesale Society of Great Britain in 
their purpose, the latter serving organized 
and unorganized workers as individual con- 
sumers through affiliated retail cooperatives. 
Labor banks, on the other hand, are regarded 
as forming a part of the movement towards 
"labor capitalism," and as the counterpart of 
the parallel movement towards employee stock 
ownership. 

Only those banks in which a majority of the 
stock is owned by trade unions or trade union 
members are considered in the study. The first 
bank of this character in the United States 
opened for business in May, 1920. In 1926 
there were thirty-six labor banks with total 
resources of more than $125,000,000, but in 
1929 the number was down to twenty-two, and 
the closing of at least four more in the near 



future is likely. According to the Princeton 
report only four labor banks, the Hammond, 
New York Federated, Rogersville, and the 
New York Amalgamated, have yielded returns 
sufficient to satisfy the investment require- 
ments of trade unions, regardless of any non- 
financial returns, and that in only the most 
successful, can further use of trade union funds 
be warranted. The final chapter in the book, 
after making many disturbing statements 
about labor banking, ends as follows : 

Like all movements which pioneer new fields of 
social endeavor, labor banking has passed through 
a cycle of growth and decline. After ten years of 
experience, the elements of success and failure can 
be sifted and weighed. Labor's entrance into fin- 
ance early caught the imagination of many students 
of social problems. The accomplishments of the 
successful labor banks have warranted the keen in- 
terest and enthusiasm they have aroused. As a per- 
manent residual, their continued growth will per- 
mit further contributions to democratic banking. But 
it is the labor movement and its leaders who must 
consider gravely both the debits and the credits of 
the experiment. Without the most painstaking ex- 
amination of the experiences of the past, a revival 
of the movement of the post-war years would be both 
dangerous and inexcusable. 



NEW YORK CITY 



New York City, second only to the federa\ 
government in the amount of taxpayers' 
money which it spends, had an income of 
$585,941,000 during the year 1928, according 
to an analysis by Dr. Luther Gulick, director 
of the National Institute of Public Adminis- 
tration, published in the National Municipal 
Review. 

The revenues of New York City are greater 
at present than were the revenues of the na- 
tional government up until 1917, when it en- 
tered the World War, the analysis shows. 
They are greater than the combined revenues 
of the state governments of Pennsylvania, 
California, Michigan, Illinois, Texas, and New 
Jersey, in spite of the great institutional, edu- 
cational and highway programs which these 
states have undertaken. The income of New 
York is enough to maintain the city govern- 
ments of Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, 
Cleveland, Pittsburgh and St. Louis. 



"I forgot" or "I didn't think" is no excuse 
for purchasing non-union goods. Always de- 
mand the union label, shop card, and working 
button. 



21 



86 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



SHIPPING NEWS 



President Hoover has issued an executive 
order prohibiting the importation of parrots 
into the United States, to prevent the spread 
of psittacosis or parrot fever. 

A contract for the construction of two tank- 
ers of 13,450 tons d. \v., has been awarded by 
the Standard Oil Company of New York to the 
Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Corporation. 
The vessels will be 480 x 65.9 x 37 feet; one 
of them will be propelled by a single opposed- 
piston Diesel engine and the other by steam. 

The Panama Mail Steamship Company, San 
Francisco, has asked for tentative bids on three 
18-knot combination passenger and cargo ves- 
sels for operation in the San Francisco-New 
York Service. The cost is estimated at $3,500,- 
000 each. Placing of the order is contingent 
upon the award of a mail contract by the Post 
Office Department. 

According to the returns compiled by the 
Liverpool Underwriters' Association, casual- 
ties to vessels of 500 tons gross and upwards 
last year numbered 8,604, which compares with 
7,516 in 1928, 7,746 in 1927 and 7,578 in 1926. 
Total losses of steamers and motor-vessels 
numbered 185, of 496,631 tons gross, against 
179 of 462,295 tons in 1928, and 162 of 429,092 
tons in 1927. 

The officers and men of the lifeboat crew of 
the Steamer Republic of the United States 
Lines, who rescued the captain and crew of 
Gander Deal on December 5, in mid-Atlantic, 
were presented with letters of appreciation and 
checks by the officials of the company. Presi- 
dent Joseph E. Sheedy of the United States 
Lines Operations, Inc., in a brief talk to the 
men praised their skill, courage and seaman- 
ship and told them that they had upheld the 
traditions of the American Merchant Marine. 

With the opening of the fishing season in 
Alaskan waters, Northwest cannery companies 
operating plants in Alaska are getting crews 
together in Seattle and loading supplies for the 
season. One of the first cannery boats to 
leave Seattle this season for the north will be 
the Perry L. Smithers of the Northwestern 
Fisheries Company, which is to sail March 25. 
This vessel, according to O. Bergseth, mana- 



ger of the company, will go to Orca, Kenai 
and Uyak, taking 250 men, a large cargo of 
supplies and a new cannery tender for one of 
the stations. 

The electric passenger liners now under con- 
struction at Newport News for the Ward Line 
are due for launching in the spring and de- 
livery late in the year. They are to be named 
Morro Castle and Oricntc, and will run between 
Xew York and Havana in less than sixty hours. 
The ships measure 508 x 69.8 feet. The elec- 
tric power plant is to consist of two turbine- 
driven alternators operating at 3,150 r.p.m. for 
propulsion, and four 500-kw., direct-current, 
turbine-driven generators for supplying auxil- 
iary power. The two propelling motors are of 
the synchronous induction type and will de- 
velop a total of 16,000 s.h.p. The designed 
speed is twenty knots. 

The former German piers at Hoboken, 
N. J., yielded the government about $290,000 
during the fiscal year 1929. according to the 
annual report of the Shipping Board. One of 
the piers was assigned to the United States 
Lines when it was sold last spring. Another 
is used by the Munson Line. The remaining 
piers are still used by Shipping Board services. 
Yet the government which makes money out 
of the piers declines to allow the Shipping 
Board which is operating the piers commer- 
cially, to pay taxes to the City of Hoboken on 
the ground that government property is not 
taxable. 

For reasons of economy of management. 
United Dry Docks, Inc., has sold its Xew York 
Harbor Dry Dock plant at Rosebank to 
O'Brien Bros., tugboat operators, who plan I 
to use the plant for docking and repairing their i 
own tugs and barges. United Dry Docks is \ 
also closing down its Alderton plant at the 
foot of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Streets, 
Brooklyn, and has converted the Shewan plant 1 
at the foot of Twenty-seventh Street, Brook- \ 
lyn, into a yacht basin. This takes fourteen 
of the twenty-seven dry docks of the combi- 
nation out of competition for general repair 
work in the port of New York. The company 
will now concentrate its repair operations at 
the Morse, Fletcher, Staten Island Ship- 
building and Crane plants. 

The mouth of the Columbia River, scene of 
the Laurel disaster last year, laid claim to an- 



22 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



87 



other victim during the month when passen- 
gers and crew were removed from the Steam- 
ship Admiral Benson. Although contract has 
been awarded to the Pacific Salvage Company 
for salvage of the hull and cargo, San Fran- 
cisco marine underwriters were skeptical as to 
the possibility of floating the hull. With good 
weather it is believed that the cargo can safely 
be removed. Valuation of the hull of the Ad- 
miral Benson has been set at $450,000, of which 
one-third is written in the American Syndicate 
Co. with the balance in the London and Pacific 
Coast markets, the former carrying the ma- 
jority of the burden. The Admiral Benson car- 
ried 400 tons of general cargo, value of which 
has been estimated between $60,000 and $80,- 
000, all of which is understood to be insured 
on the Pacific Coast. 

The following steamers owned by the U. S. 
Shipping Board have been sold to the Amtorg 
Trading Corporation, New York, for $287,000 
cash, with privilege of transfer to foreign reg- 
istry : Eastern Cross, ex Kirishima Maru No. 6, 
4,390 tons gross, 2,694 net, 6,799 tons d. w., 
steams 9 l / 2 knots, built at Uraga in 1917, now 
at Philadelphia ; Eastern Chief 4,600 tons gross, 
3,578 net, 6,771 tons d. w., steams 9y 2 knots, 
built at Uraga in 1917, now at New York; 
Eastport, 4,385 tons gross, 2,705 net, 6,695 tons 
d. w., steams 9y 2 knots, built at Habu Mitsu- 
gigum Hiroshima in 1918, now at Philadelphia; 
Lake Fitch, 2,713 tons gross, 1,679 net, 4,230 
tons d. w., steams 9y 2 knots, fitted for oil fuel, 
built at Superior, Wis., in 1919, now at Nor- 
folk; and Lake Ferrona, 2,598 tons gross, 1,615 
net, 4,100 tons d. w., steams 9 l / 2 knots, fitted 
for oil fuel, built at Cleveland, Ohio., in 1919, 
now at Philadelphia. The Eastern Cross, East- 
ern Chief and Eastport may not be operated 
to or from U. S. ports for ten years and the 
Lake Fitch and Lake Ferrona for five years. 

Particulars are available of the two Matson 
Navigation Company .liners to be built for the 
San Francisco-Sydney service by the Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corporation for delivery 
February and June, 1932. The general partic- 
ulars are 632 feet o.a., 605 feet b.p. x 79 x 44.6 
feet, 25,885 tons displacement on twenty-eight 
feet draft, guaranteed trial trip speed 20y 2 
knots. There will be nine decks, sixteen water- 
tight compartments with double bottom 
throughout, cruiser stern and rake stem. The 



bulkheading arrangement is such that with two 
of the largest adjacent compartments of the 
vessel flooded the vessel will remain afloat. 
Accommodations have been provided for 620 
first-class passengers, 572 of whom in beds and 
day beds, and 217 tourist class, 137 in beds. 
The cargo space will stow 5,000 tons of dry 
cargo and 1,000 tons of refrigerated cargo in 
six chambers. Special compartments have been 
arranged for mail, express, and specie room for 
bullion. All fuel oil tanks are arranged above 
inner bottom compartments with a capacity for 
7,145 tons, which will be sufficient to bunker 
at San Francisco for the round trip, with a 
surplus of about 17,000 barrels. The fresh 
water tanks have a capacity of 2652 tons. The 
vessel will be propelled by twin propellers and 
the main propelling machinery will consist of 
three turbines and a set of single reduction 
gears on each shaft. 

The contract now held by the Export Steam- 
ship Corporation New York for carrying the 
mails to the Mediterranean and Levant, has 
been extended to include additional sailings to 
the Black Sea. Effective December 10, the 
extension of the contract, which is one of the 
twenty-five contracts awarded under the Mer- 
chant Marine Act, 1928, will provide for forty- 
eight additional trips to Odessa, Batoum and 
Constanza. The contractor is now making 
eighty-four trips to Black Sea and Mediter- 
ranean ports under his original contract, which 
calls for the transportation of mails from Au- 
gust 1, 1928, for a term of ten years. The sup- 
plemental contract calls for one additional sail- 
ing a month (twelve a year) from New York, 
by way of Piraeus, Saloniki and Constanti- 
nople, to Constanza. The new contract also 
calls for three sailings a month (thirty-six a 
year) from New York via Odessa to Batoum. 
This additional contract will provide for the 
construction of six new ships in American 
yards. Four of these ships are already under 
contract. Two of them will be completed by 
the end of 1931 and two by the end of 1932. 
One more ship will be completed by the end 
of 1935 and one by the end of 1936. Additional 
building of two new ships may be authorized 
by the Postmaster General in 1937 and 1938. 
All ships will be of class 5, costing between 
$2,500,000 and $3,000,000 each. Each will have 
a speed of fourteen knots. 



23 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



WORLD'S SHIPPING 



The Holland America Line has abolished 
second class on four of its transatlantic liners 
and substituted tourist third cabin with a re- 
duction of rates. The ships affected are the 
Rotterdam, Veendam, Volendam and Nieuw 
Amsterdam. The Statendam will not be 
changed. 

The Japanese shipbuilding industry is active 
and prosperous. The sum of 50,000,000 yen at 
4.80 per cent interest is made available by the 
Department of Finance through the deposits 
bureau to shipowners not at present receiving 
government subsidies for construction and for 
the purchase of ships under five years old. 
The maximum terms of the loans are thirty 
years. 

Andrew Weir and Company are bringing 
out a series of fast motor vessels for service 
on the Bank Line's U. S.-Far East service. 
The first ship, the Irisbank, is due to sail from 
New York next April, and will be followed 
by the Taybank, Nithbank, Avonbank, Foylc- 
bank and Lagenbank. Several years ago the 
Bank Line replaced practically all of its steam 
tonnage in the Far East trade with motorships. 
The new vessels are expected to show many 
improvements over their predecessors. 

Australia's increased protectionist policy is 
bound to have a profound repercussion upon 
the traffic of the regular lines from Great Brit- 
ain. Although the population of Australia is 
only about six and one half million, it is Great 
Britain's second largest export market. During 
the year 1927-28 Australia's imports were 
valued at £148,000,000, of which Great Brit- 
ain supplied £63,100,000, while the United 
States was responsible for £35,000,000. 
Roughly, Britain's percentage was 39 and that 
of America 24.3, but the respective percentages 
were approximately 60 and 12 in 1913-14, the 
last pre-war year. 

The French meat-carrying fleet, organized 
during the war, is disappearing. In 1916 the 
French Government brought pressure to bear 
on owners to provide refrigerated space and 
several companies accordingly built or 
equipped twenty-five ships aggregating 140,- 
000 tons. In November, 1927, and March, 



1928, in order to placate French cattle breeders, 
a prohibitive duty was imposed, and imports 
of chilled meat fell to 11,800 tons for the 
1928-29 season. As a consequence, the Char- 
geurs Reunis Company has in recent months 
sold or converted seven of their refrigerated 
steamers and other companies are taking 
similar steps. 

A French Presidential decree is published 
sanctioning an agreement concluded recently 
by the Air Minister with the Societe Trans- 
atlantique Aerienne, a subsidiary of the Cie. 
Generale Transatlantique (French Line). The 
company undertakes to maintain a ship-to- 
shore mail service by hydroplanes catapulted 
from the He de France at a minimum distance 
of 150 kilometres from Boston or New York 
on the outward trip, and from Havre home- 
wards. Operation and efficiency premiums 
will be paid by the Government, but the latter 
will be due only when the saving of time in 
the delivery of the mail, compared with the 
ordinary way, will amount to twenty-four 
hours. 

Invitations have been issued on behalf of the 
British Government to the governments of all 
the maritime countries to a conference on Load 
Lines on May 20. The Conference will be 
held in London and is likely to last from four 
to eight weeks. The proceedings, as in the 
case of the International Safety of Life at Sea 
Conference in London last year, will probably 
be private. The Conference will have before 
it as a basis for discussion the report of the 
committee appointed by the British Board of 
Trade in February, 1927, to advise on load lines 
of merchant ships and special load lines for 
steamers carrying timber deck cargoes and for 
tankers, which committee presented a report 
in August last. 

Peace has been restored in the transatlantic 
cargo trade. The Hamburg shipping company, 
Arnold Bernstein, whichopened some time ago 
a general cargo service from Hamburg to New 
York, has reached an agreement with the Ham- 
burg-American Line, the North German Lloyd 
and the United States Lines, according to 
which the Bernstein Company no longer car- 
ries general cargo between New York and Ger- 
man ports, but will confine its general cargo 
service to Antwerp and Rotterdam. Two 
steamers recently acquired by Messrs. Bern- 



24 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



89 



stein are at present being converted into auto- 
mobile transport ships at the Deutsche Werke, 
Kiel. They will be used in automobile trans- 
port from New York to Hamburg. 

Particulars are available of the unfortunate 
casualty sustained in Copenhagen by the 
Steamship Argosy, running on the American 
Scantic Line regular service between New 
York and Scandinavia. While on a voyage 
from the Baltic to New York with a full cargo 
of pulp wood she touched stony ground in the 
Drogden Fairwater, off Copenhagen, and had 
her bottom so badly damaged that she had to 
put into Copanhagen to discharge her cargo 
and for examination and repairs. It was found 
that the steamer had run against a large rock 
in the Drogden Channel, until then uncharted. 
The rock was located, and to prevent further 
mishaps the authorities had it blown up. The 
repairs to the Argosy were executed by the Ho- 
waldt Werke, Kiel, at the price of $37,300. 

The attempt to rationalize the German 
shipbuilding industry by acquisition and com- 
bination of insufficiently employed yards, as 
well as the rationalization of individual under- 
takings, has not succeeded to the extent hoped 
for. The amount of work in hand has shrunk 
still further, and including the Europa, of about 
50,000 tons, now completing at Hamburg, it is 
calculated that 290,000 tons was in hand at the 
beginning of the year. Of the launches last 
year, fifty-three vessels, of 153,699 tons, were 
for German account, and thirty-three vessels, 
of 110,359 tons, for foreign account. On De- 
cember 1 there were fifty-five vessels, of 155,- 
000 tons, under construction for foreign ac- 
count, but only twenty-four, of 150,000 tons, 
(including the Europa), for German account. 
Such substantial foreign orders would be sat- 
isfactory in normal circumstances, but it is 
well known that German shipbuilding prices, 
owing to the tendency of the yards to obtain 
employment at any price, have fallen to such a 
level as can only result in losses. 

During the past ten years Spain has proved 
herself one of the most backward countries 
in building ships for commercial purposes, 
while at the same time she has been making a 
magnificent and costly effort to create a navy 
with a view to regaining her former rank at 
sea. Although the yards at Bilbao can handle 
craft up to 35,000 tons register, the cost of 



building is 30 per cent higher than in other 
European countries. Nor is a system of gov- 
ernment premiums, which enables contractors 
to recoup most of this difference, proving suf- 
ficient to stimulate the industry. In official 
communiques much capital has been made of 
the sale over a year ago of two Spanish-built 
cruisers to Argentina. Still, the only way 
Spain appears to be able to build warships is 
under a costly system of protection and priv- 
ilege, and she is able to sell them only by 
herself financing the sale, as when she lent 
100,000,000 pesetas to the Argentine govern- 
ment for the purchase of the cruisers men- 
tioned. Italy, while possessing neither iron nor 
coal to the same extent as Spain, is successful 
in shipbuilding, and it is therefore alleged that 
no reason exists why Spain should not become 
a shipbuilding country. 

The Roosevelt Line, which is seeking to 
establish the new contract route from Balti- 
more and Hampton Roads to Havre, Bremen 
and Hamburg, is reported to have offered 
$30,000 each for the five Shipping Board ves- 
sels, Independence, Victorious, Eclipse, In- 
vincible and Archer or Steadfast. All are of 
about 12,000 tons d.w., and with the exception 
of the Steadfast, have the turbo-electric drive. 
They were built at San Francisco in 1918 and 
their estimated average speed with their pres- 
ent propulsion equipment is about 10 knots. 
Roosevelt Line proposes to fine the outer 
lines of the vessels by alteration of the bow 
and stern, recondition them, provide accom- 
modations for about 100 passengers each and 
install new engines capable of a speed of 16 
knots. Total cost of reconditioning has been 
estimated at $1,450,000 for. each ship, or a to- 
tal outlay of $7,250,000 for reconditioning, of 
which 75 per cent would be covered by a loan 
from the Shipping Board's Construction Loan 
Fund at 3 per cent. The postoffice specifica^ 
tions for the proposed Baltimore-Hamburg 
mail route provide for the construction of two 
12,000-ton vessels with a speed of 18 knots 
within five years. The mail subsidy would be 
at the rate of $6 a mile, or $30,952 for each 
outward voyage of about 3,869 nautical miles 
between the two ports. The 16 -knot ships 
with which it is proposed to start the service, 
would command a rate of $6 a mile, or about 
$23,214 per outward voyage. 



25 



90 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



LABOR NEWS 



Eleven workers were killed and fifty-four 
injured, many badly, in an explosion February 
18 in the Bayway plant of the Standard Oil 
Company, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Representatives of the railroads appeared in 
opposition to a bill before the New York State 
Legislature providing for the eight-hour day 
and payment of prevailing wages in the work 
eliminating grade crossings. 

The state of Pennsylvania spent $8,451,433 
for almshouses, outdoor relief and relief in 
homes during 1928. The total was divided as 
follows: $1,910,825 for outdoor relief; current 
almshouse maintenance expense, $3,791,983, 
and major improvements, $2,748,725. 

Prison conditions in New York State are 
"antiquated, inefficient and inhumane," in the 
opinion of sixty-four Cornell University pro- 
fessors, who have petitioned Governor Roose- 
velt and the Legislature for reform, and recom- 
mended seven changes in the prison system. 

As Government officials continued to talk 
optimistically of improvements in the indus- 
trial situation, a demonstration by unemployed 
men and women was broken up by the Phila- 
delphia police at the city hall on February 14, 
twelve men and two women being arrested on 
charges of inciting to riot. 

A gavel made from the hand rail of H. M. S. 
Sirius, which was in the battle of Trafalgar, 
has been given the Baltimore Federation of 
Labor as a Christmas present by Arthur S. 
Harding, of Typographical Union No. 12. Mr. 
Harding is a great grandson of Capt. James 
Cooper Harding, who commanded the Sirius 
during that famous battle. 

Peaceful picketing was upheld by the Mary- 
land Court of Appeals in the case of striking 
pocketbook workers who were enjoined from 
picketing by Judge Bond of this city. The 
Bond decision held the strike illegal because 
New York unionists attempted to organize 
Baltimore workers. The Court of Appeals 
held that the strike was lawful, even though it 
originated outside the state. 

The death rate of Americans over 37 has 
increased, although other civilized countries 



show an improvement in death rates at evert 
period of life, said Dr. Eugene Lyman Fisk, at 
a meeting of the Office Executives' Club. Dr. 
Fisk is medical adviser of the Life Extension 
Institute. He intimated that shortened life is 
the price we must pay for our prosperity, and 
that industrial expansion and development is 
sapping our vitality. 

Governor Roosevelt of New York calls upon 
manufacturers and the public to cooperate in 
reducing the number of industrial accidents 
in this state. Last year these injuries and 
deaths throughout the state eclipsed all pre- 
vious figures. The deaths totaled 2,093 and 
the accidents 523,604. In addition to the hu- 
man tragedy involved, it is estimated the losses 
cost the state $90,000,000 annually, of which 
about two-thirds is borne by New York City. 

Two hundred unemployed printers in Los 
Angeles, Calif., were given work through a 
movement of the Los Angeles Local Union 
No. 174, International Typographical Union, 
members of which voted to give up one <lay*s 
work every two weeks. This measure applies 
only to men working in the composing rooms 
of the five Los Angeles newspapers. By this 
voluntary forfeit of a day's work by employed 
members, the 200 idle men are given four 
days' work each week, according to John Dal- 
ton, President of the Los Angeles union. 

The American Association of Engineers has 
opened war on school racketeers that promise 
prospects of $5,000 and $10,000 a year jobs after 
a few weeks of home study. "These racketeers, 
with their 'diploma mills,' are annually grind- 
ing out a grist of thousands of disillusioned 
and victimized young men and women," said 
H. A. Wagner, President of the Engineers. 
"Four times as many men and women are en- 
rolled in correspondence and trade schools as 
in all colleges, professional schools and univer- 
sities combined, or a total of 2,000,000 stu- 
dents," Mr. Wagner said. 

The State Supreme Court of Mississippi up- 
held a decision by the Holmes County Circuit 
Court which awarded $15,000 damages to a girl 
who was insulted while employed in a restau- 
rant. "It was the purpose of the jury in this 
case," said the Supreme Court, "to say to this 
employer and to all other employers that they 
shall not insult their women employees nor 
look down upon them because they happen to 



26 



March. 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



91 



be workers ; and they intended to say it in 
terms loud enough to be well understood. It 
is to be hoped that it will be well understood 
henceforward among all who come into this 
state to do business." 

When industry fails to pay the laborer a 
wage sufficient to keep himself and family in 
comfort, it no longer deserves to exist," P. H. 
Callahan, President of the Louisville Varnish 
Company, told the Religious Education As- 
sociation in convention at Atlanta on Febru- 
ary 14. Without a dissenting vote the New 
York State Assembly adopted on February 18 
a resolution expressing the sympathy of the 
people of New York "to the Christian people 
of Russia in the terrible hours of their agony 
in being denied their right to worship God in 
their country." 

In a report which urged the abolition of the 
almshouse "stigma," the New York State Leg- 
islative Commission on Old Age Security 
recommended that legislation be passed pro- 
viding for the payment of pensions ranging 
from $5 to $70 a month for all needy persons 
in the state seventy years old or over. The 
commission, of which James M. Lynch is the 
labor member, recommends immediate action 
to carry out its program. The report declares 
that many of the needy aged are not adequately 
cared for now, that the almshouse is not a 
satisfactory method of providing relief and 
that the indigent should be provided for out- 
side of institutions where they could continue 
to live among friends and enjoy a sense of 
freedom, self-respect and security. 

A survey of industrial conditions in the 
South, conducted by the A. F. of L. Southern 
organizing committee, shows that the number 
of mill workers throughout the South is far 
larger than at first supposed. The organizing 
committee has completed details for President 
Green's second swing through Southern indus- 
trial cities. Mr. Green started his tour at 
Greensboro, N. C, on February 25. He ad- 
dressed public mass meetings the next three 
days at Durham, N. C. ; Columbia, S. C, and 
Greenville, S. C. On March 1 he will speak at 
Macon, Ga., and the following days at Atlanta, 
Montgomery, Jackson, Chattanooga and Louis- 
ville. Reports to the committee headquarters 
in this city indicate an increased interest in 
organization. Locals in various crafts are be- 



ing organized and new life infused in city cen- 
tral bodies. 

The inhuman 12-hour day and 7-day week, 
popularly believed long since ended in the 
steel industry, are still flourishing. This is 
the finding of Emil M. Hartl and Edward G. 
Ernst, graduate students of Boston University 
School of Theology, who made an investiga- 
tion last summer for the Federal Council of 
Churches. Results of their investigation have 
just been made public. The number of plants 
covered was 155, belonging to 127 companies. 
Almost 27 per cent of the men put in a 7-day 
work week. Over 53 per cent were required 
to work more than eight hours a day. These 
facts are of the highest significance, the Fed- 
eral Council report says, "In view of the pub- 
lic announcement in July, 1923, that the long 
shift in the steel mills was being abolished." 
The 155 plants studied employ approximately 
250,000 men. Of these, 44.6 per cent work ten 
hours; 2.1 per cent work eleven hours, and 6.7 
per cent work twelve hours. 

"America will be as strong as her women," 
said Miss Mary Anderson, director, United 
States Women's Bureau, in a recent address 
"Many women still work ten hours a day and 
much more and many work under unsanitary 
and sometimes dangerous conditions," said 
Miss Anderson. "Women are producers not 
only of economic goods but of future citizens, 
and whatever lowers the vitality and saps the 
energies of women limits their ability to be- 
stow a good health heritage upon their chil- 
dren and undermines the race. One in every 
five women in the country is a wage earner, 
and one in every five wage earners is a woman. 
Essential as it is to safeguard the interests of 
men wage earners, it is even more imperative 
to study the problems of women workers be- 
cause they have been in a weaker position eco- 
nomically than have men, and because in so 
many instances they have a triple role to enact 
— that of breadwinner, home maker and 
mother." 



Many a man thinks that it is his goodness 
that keeps him from crime when it is only his 
full stomach. On half allowance he would be 
as ugly and knavish as anybody. Do not mis- 
take potatoes for principles. — Carlyle. 



27 



92 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



WORLD'S WORKERS 



Both within and outside Great Britain, the 
anti-labor press has been doing its best within 
the last few weeks to belittle the efforts of the 
British Labor Government in respect to the 
combating of unemployment. Hence the re- 
cent action of the British Government in issu- 
ing a statement on the subject is very wel- 
come. The statement makes it clear that the 
scheme which has been proposed by Thomas, 
Minister of Labor, and his colleagues, Mosley 
and Lansbury, will find work for 189,300 per- 
sons for one year. 

Especially since the war, great efforts have 
been made by the native population of the 
Dutch East Indies to establish trade unions. 
These efforts have met with success in indi- 
vidual cases. The Dutch trade union center, 
realizing that it is its duty to give such aid as 
it can to the native trade union movement in 
the Dutch East Indies has decided to send a 
delegation to the Dutch East Indies in 1931, in 
order to establish closer relations with the 
native trade union movement and to examine 
the best methods of promoting this movement. 

The tax on Italian bachelors and Mussolini's 
other measures and exhortations to Italians to 
increase the birth rate are failing of their pur- 
pose. The latest figures show a decline in 
Italy's birth rate, which is good not only 
because the last thing Italy needs is a higher 
birth rate, but also because it shows that even 
Italians put some limits to Mussolini's powers. 
He who claims for himself and Fascism credit 
for everything in Italy may be slightly trou- 
bled to explain why then he should not be 
blamed for the slight increase in the death rate 
which the figures also show. 

Representatives from twenty-three nations, 
including the United States and Argentina 
from the Western Hemisphere, recently held 
an Internatioanl Congress on the Blind at 
Vienna to draw up agenda, elect officers and 
appoint committees for a future international 
conference to deal with questions relating to 
the prevention of blindness and the education, 
employment and general welfare of the blind 
in all parts of the civilized world. An execu- 



tive committee was empowered to decide the 
date and place for the conference and to ap- 
proach the League of Nations for permission 
to hold it under the League's auspices. 

Swedish trade unions made a 72 per cent 
increase in membership during 1928 and have 
continued to advance during the current year, 
the annual report of the National Trade Union 
Center shows. Although 1928 was marked by 
long and hard strikes and lockouts, the unions 
registered a net membership gain of 31,435, 
which with 1929 increases, brings their total 
strength up to the half-million mark. There 
were four million working days lost during 
strikes and lockouts in 1928 and the unions 
paid out more than $2,300,000 in strike bene- 
fits. Like most other countries, the Swedish 
workers have had their troubles with Com- 
munist disrupters. Several unions found it nec- 
essary to expel members of "red" groups 
during 1928. The Communists' drive on the 
unions has now apparently collapsed. 

The Soviet Government marked the occa- 
sion of the eightieth birthday of the famous 
Leningrad physiologist, Prof, [van Pavloff, by 
appropriating 100,000 rubles for the extension 
and improvement of the work of his experi- 
mental laboratory in Leningrad. This act was 
rather noteworthy, because Pavloff is the most 
fearless, open critic of Communist ideas and 
of the Soviet regime at liberty in Russia to- 
day. His thunderous denunciations of the in- 
troduction of a group of Communist members 
into the Academy of Sciences, and of the pol-, 
icy of favoring workers at the expense of alt; 
other classes in admission to the universities, 
have circulated by word of mouth throughout! 
the country. Pavloff's international scientific 
reputation gives him an immunity comparable 
with that which Tolstoy enjoyed under the 
Tsarist regime. 

The Daily Herald, the large daily paper of 
the British trade unions, will shortly be con- 
verted into a private jointstock company. 
The British T. U. C, the present owner of the 
paper, will issue the paper in collaboration withj 
Odhams, one of the best known, best reputed 
and most successful publishing firms of th«j 
country. The president of the undertaking! 
will be J. S. Elias, the head of Odhams, ancj 
with him will be associated E. Bevin, the well- 
known trade union leader. The other three 



28 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



93 



directors nominated by the T. U. C. are 
W. M. Citrine (general secretary of the 
T. U. C), Arthur Pugh and Ben Tillett, all 
three of whom are holding the same post at 
present. The agreements concluded contain, 
of course, provisions which will ensure "for 
all time" the political and economic influence 
of the trade unions. The politics which will be 
promoted under the new management will 
always be those of the T. U. C. and the Labor 
Party. 

The Fascist "Trade Union Movement," 
which has for years been the pride and joy of 
Mussolini and Fascism, has been destroyed by 
violence and fraud. In its place there is a great, 
but ineffectual organization, which has now 
nothing whatever to do with the trade union 
movement. The exponents of the so-called 
revolutionary Fascist Trade Union Movement 
are not the workers, but the employers. The 
trade union reports given in the large news- 
papers, all of which are inspired by the em- 
ployers and the Ministry of Corporations, are 
contented with big words. They write that 
Italy has at last finally solved the social ques- 
tion, that her trade unions are the most per- 
fect and effective institutions of the kind, that 
no country has so large a number of collective 
agreements as Italy, etc., etc. Woe to him 
who dares to say a word to the contrary! 
Under the Fascist regime, so it is said, even 
the employees of racehorse stables have their 
collective agreements, and the owners of these 
stables are on their side organized in a "trade 
union" recognized by law. 

With few exceptions the women of Ger- 
many, no matter what their creed or political 
tendencies, are strong opponents of war. At 
the instigation of the Evangelical World 
Union for International Amity of the Churches 
and the Peace Union of German Catholics, a 
new society has been founded : Die Arbeits- 
gemeinschaft der Konfessionen fur den Frie- 
den (union of workers of all religions for 
peace). This is irrespective of creeds, eco- 
nomics and politics, having only the mutual 
aim of bringing about permanent peace on the 
[ basis of religion and morality. One of the 
new union's first meetings was convened here 
recently by Jewish women in the hall of the 
High School for Music which, large though it 
is, could not contain all who desired to be 



present. The speakers included many who 
are well known in the world of learning, and 
women spoke to women plain truths about the 
horrors of war. Claudia Katz, a doctor of 
chemistry, gave a graphic and terrible picture 
of a future gas war. The latest inventions, 
she said, would prove far more destructive 
than the dreaded phosgene gas. Against such 
a calamity as a gas war all the women in the 
world must unite ; the combat of war must 
begin in the nursery and never terminate until 
the world's peace is established. 



Roster of International 
Seamen's Union of America 



(Continued from Inside Front Cover) 



MARINE COOKS' AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION 

OF THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 86 Commercial Street 

EUGENE BURKE, Secretary 

Telephone Kearny 5955 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock 

J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 
P. O. Box 214. Phone Main 2233 

SAN PEDRO, Cal Ill Sixth Street 

ROBERT BRAUER, Agent. Phone 1317J 



ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal 49 Clay Street 

PETER E. OLSEN, Secretary 

Telephone Sutter 6452 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42 

CHARLES F. HAMMARIN, Agent 
Phone Elliot 3425 

ASTORIA, Ore 2 Astor Street 

PAUL GERHARDT, Agent 
P. O. Box 138. Phone 147 



COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore P. O. Box 281 

CARL S. PRUETT, Secretary 



COQUILLE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
BANDON, Ore F. REIMANN, Secretary 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Cal WILLIAM KAY, Secretary 

2441 K Street 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 

AND VICINITY 
CORDOVA, Alaska P. O. Box 597 

N. SWANSON, Secretary 



MONTEREY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE UNION 
Headquarters 

MONTEREY, Cal 508 Abrego Street 

O. VENTIMIGLIO, Secretary 



ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore E. H. DYE, Secretary-Treasurer 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 
P. O. Box 65 

SEATTLE, Wash 84 Seneca Street 

P. B. GILL, Secretary. Phone Elliot 6752 
branches 

PRINCE RUPERT (B. C), Canada P. O. Box 1675 

J. M. MORRISON, Agent 
Phone Black 241 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska P. O. Box A17 

PETE SWANSON, Agent 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal Room "J," Ferry Bldg. 

C. W. DEAL, Secretary. Telephone Davenport 7928 



29 



94 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



Westerman's 

UNION LABEL. 

Clothier, Furnisher & Hatter 

Alaska Outfitter 

TWO BIG STORES 

Store No. 1 — Cor. Main and First 

Store No. 2 — Westlake and Pine 

SEATTLE 



Bonney-Watson Go. 

Funeral Directors 

Crematory and Columbarium 

1702 Broadway Seattle 



THE HUB 

Shoe and Clothing Company 

UNION MADE HEAD TO 

FOOT OUTFITTERS 

615-617 First Avenue 

Opp. Totem Pole 

Seattle, Wash. 



K. K. Tvete & Sons 

Established 1890 

MEN'S CLOTHING. SHOES, HATS, 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

1300-1302 First Ave., cor. University 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



CARL SCHERMER CO. 

Union Label House 

SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

CLOTHING— FURNISHINGS 

HATS and SHOES 

Pay Checks Cashed 

715 First Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



Phone 263 

NEILS JOHNSON 

"THE ROYAL" 
"THE SAILORS' REST" 

Cigars, Tobaccos and Soft Drinks 
219 EIGTHT ST., HOQUIAM, WASH. 



M. BROWN & SONS 

SAN PEDRO 

Clothing and Furnishing Goods 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Exclusive Agents Florsheim Shoes and Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Clothing and the Best in Oil Clothing and Boots 

See Them at M. Brown & Sons 

109 SIXTH STREET, SAN PEDRO 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



TAXI 



CALL GASPEE 5000 
Red Top Cab Co., of R. I., Inc. 
67 Chestnut St. Providence, R. 



Porter: "This train goes to Buf- 
falo and points east." 

Old Lady: "Well, I want a train 
that goes to Syracuse, and I don't 
care which way it points." — Bond. 



Jortall Bros. Express 

Stand and Baggage Room 
AT 

212 EAST ST., San Francisco 

Phone DAvenport 05 37 



THE 

James H. Barry Go. 

The Star Press 

Printing 

1122-1124 MISSION STRBBT 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



TACOMA, WASH. 



JENSEN 8C NELSEN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods 

Saver's Oil Skin Clothing 
Uniforms, Caps, Hats, Shoes 



110 EAST STREET 
DAvenport 3863 



NEAR MISSION 
San Francisco 



Starkel's Smoke Shop 

Corner 11th and A Street 
TACOMA, WASH. 

Cigars, Tobacco, Smoking Articles, 
Pipe Repairing 

Restaurant and Barber Shop 



MAIN 8000 



GEO. LONEY, Tailor 

High Grade Custom Tailoring 

112 South 10th Street 

TACOMA, WASH. 



A young descendant of the He- 
brew race was broke in a large city. 
He wired his father thusly: "Dear 
Father: I am in the city and broke, 
and have no friends. What shall I 
do? Abie." The father wired back: 
"Dear Abie: Make some friends, 
quick. Your father." — Lehman. 



Phone GArfield 3344 Opposite Matson Bldg. 
Formerly of 125 Market Street 

BEN HARRIS 

No Relation to Joe Harris 

238 Market Street 

WORK AND DRESS CLOTHES 

SHOES, HATS, CAPS 



ABERDEEN, WASH. 



A FULL STOCK OF 

UNION MADE CLOTHING, HAT9, 
SHOES, COLLARS, SUSPENDERS, 
GLOVES, OVERALLS, SHIRTS 

A. M. BENDETSON 
321 East Heron Street - Aberdeen 



UNION LABEL 
SEAMEN'S OUTFITTERS 

NYMAN BROS. 

Bee Hive Store 

Men's Furnishings. Hickory Shirts,' 

Hats, Oil Clothing 

Home of the Union Made 

Co-operative Shoe 

302 So. F Street, Aberdeen, Wash. 

On the Water Front 



THE ROYAL CIGAR STORE 

DOLLMAN Be GOMMBRSON 

Cards, Cigars, Tobaccos, 

Fountain Lunch 

500 EAST HERON STREET 

PHONE 452 ABERDBEN, WASH 



"Yes, my dear," said the sweet old 
lady, "I have been married fifty 
years." 

"For crying out loud!" exclaimed 
the modern maid, "how many hus- 
bands did you have in that time?" — 
Alice. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will any former members of tU 
crew of the steamship "Chuky, 
who now have a claim pending i 
my office or who may be witnose 
in the above case please call or com 
municate with Silas B. Axtcll, 1 
Moore Street, New York City, z 
once. This case is expected to b 
reached for trial in March 1930. 



Pacifist Household 
Little Louise was lost on 
street and was brought into 
police station. The officers tried 
every way to learn her nai 
Finally one of the officers said: 

"What names does your motl 
call your father?" 

"Why," said Louise, very n 
cently, "she don't call him 
name: she likes him." 



Police Commissioner (questioj 
ing applicant): "And now, 
would you disperse a mob?" 

Applicant: "I would pass arot 
the hat." 

Commissioner: "You'll do. 
about your uniform." — Levi. 



30 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



95 



Professional Cards 



Telephone SUtter 6900 



Notary Public-Typewriting 

ANNE F. HASTY 

SEABOARD BRANCH 

Anglo-California Trust Co. 



101 Market St. 



San Francisco 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific since its organization 

H. W. HUTTON 

531 Pacific Building, Fourth and Market Sts. 
SAN FRANCISCO 
Phone DOuglas 315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 
Marine Firemen and Watertenders' 

Union of Pacific 
Marine Diesel and Gasoline Engi- 
neers' Association No. 49 
611 Russ BIdg. Tel. DOuglas 1058 

San Francisco, California 



S. T. HOGEVOLL 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

909 Pacific Building 
821 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



GEORGE F.SNYDER 

A ttorney-at-Law 

Room 1224, Hearst BIdg. 
Third and Market Streets 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone SUtter 7050 



ANDERSON 8c LAMB 

Attorney s-at-Law 

1226 Engineers Bank Building 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 

Personal Injury Attorneys for Seamen on 
the Great Lakes 



Established 1917 by U. S. S. B. 

School of Navigation 

AND NAUTICAL ASTRONOMY 

Lew A. Spalding, Principal 
PERRY BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 



Iron Snake 

The minister was traveling on a 
railroad that shall be nameless. It 
was a slow train, a very slow train. 
The minister was reading the Bible. 

"Find anything in that book about 
this road?" asked the conductor as 
he reached for the minister's ticket. 

"Yes," replied the minister; "it 
says in the first chapter of Genesis 
that 'The Lord made every creeping 
thing.' " 



<f 



Exclusive But Not Expensive" 

Fine Clothes Since 1898! 



ALWAYS 
FAIR 



BOSS 



UNION 
TAILOR 



FURNISHES THIS LABEL 



We use the only 

Label recognized by 

the A. F. O. L. 







In fairness to 

yourself accept 

no other. 



BEAUTIFUL NEW STORE 1034 MARKET ST. gr BL ock A 



RELIABLE TAILOR 

Popular Prices 

TOM WILLIAMS 

26 CALIFORNIA ST., NEAR DAVIS 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Phone DOuglas 4874 



H. SAMUEL 

THB OLD UNION STORE 
Established 1874 

Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods 

Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises, Bags, 

Boots, Shoes, Rubber Boots and Oil 

Clothing, Watches and Jewelry 

Phone KEarny 519 

676 THIRD STREET, near TOWNSEND 

San Francisco 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Joseph Watts (steamship Hilton), 
Luis Pellin (steamship Bristol), 
Villiam H. Clark (steamship West 
"kiechee), Charles J. Thompson 
steamship Syros), Julio Munidaza 
'steamship Eastern Tempest), Ca- 
unero Glavaisich (Coast Guard 
Cutter Manning), Joseph Tore 
(steamship Cape May). 

The above men are requested to 
communicate at once with their at- 
"•nrney, undersigned, a= their cases 
have been settled. Frederick R. 
Graves, 44 Whitehall Street, New 
¥ork City, N. Y. 



Eight Chances Left 

The small boy's head bobbed up 
over the garden wall, and a meek 
little voice asked: 

"Please, Miss Jones, m?- I have 
my arrow?" 

"Yes, dear, certainly," the next 
door neighbor answered. "Where 
did it fall?" 

"I fink," was the reply, "it's stuck 
in your cat." — Country Gentleman. 
31 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskins, Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 EMBARCADERO 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



19 Etnbarcadero 



Foot of Ferry Bridge 



GEO. A. PRICE 

Leading Maritime Haberdasher 

The Best of Everything for the Man That 
Goes to Sea 

Headquarters 

FOR SQUARE KNOT MATERIAL 

BELFAST CORD, PEARL BUCKLES 

BETTER CLOTHES FOR LESS 

BOSS OF THE ROAD 



98 EMBARCADERO 
DAvenport 0594 



202 THIRD ST. 
KEarny 5241 



O. B. OLSEN'S 
RESTAURANT 

Scandinavian and American Cooking 

QUICK SERVICE 
San Francisco California 



Sympathizer: "And did her father 
come between you?" 

Jilted Suitor: "No; behind me." 
— Royal Arcanum Bulletin. 



When in San Francisco 
Do Not Fail to Visit the 

MOHAWK 
RESTAURANT 

109 Steuart Street 

Near Mission 

JACK (FAT) CLARK, Manager 



96 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington 

and Battery Sts., opp. New Custom 

House, San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
my branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
n the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen 
demand a man as a teacher with 
higher attainments than one who has 
only the limited ability of a seaman. 
The Principal of this School, keeping 
this always In view, studied several 
years the Maritime Law, and is now 
in addition to L>eiiig a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred 
subjects, a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There Is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average 
well informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




INFORMATION WANTED 



Will John Livinston who has a 
claim pending against the steamship 
William Perkins, please communi- 
cate with the .undersigned or H. W. 
Hutton of 531 Pacific Bldg., San 
Francisco, Calif. His case has been 
settled. S. R. Axtell. 11 Moore St., 
New York City, X. V. 



INFORMATION WANTED 



Will Colin Kennedy who has a 
claim pending in my office against 
the steamship "Bacoi," please call 
or communicate with the office of 
Silas B. Axtell, of 11 Moore Street, 
New York City. X. Y. 



White Palace Shoe Store 

34 MARKET STREET, ?r^^v!l? Francisco 
JOE WEISS, Prop. 

We have a large stock of Union-made 
shoes for your approval. Also bring 
your old ones and we'll repair them 
neatly while you wait. 




1/ Your Teeth Hurt 

See a Parker Dentist! 

Hundreds of seafaring men have found Parker Dentists 
reasonable in price and strong on service and fine dental 
work. There's an office in every Pacific seaport. 
PAINLESS PARKER DENTIST USING 

E. R. PARKER SYSTEM 

San Diego, Fourth and Plaza; Long Beach, 109% 
E. Ocean Blvd.; San Pedro, 706 Paloa Verdes; San 
Francisco, 1012 Market St., 767 Market St., 1802 
Geary St.; Los Angeles, 550 So. Broadway, 104% W. 
7th St., 432 So. Main St.; Oakland, 1128 Broadway; 
Eureka, 210 F. St.; Portland, Ore., cor. Washington 
and Broadway; Seattle, 206 Union St.; Tacoma, 
1103% Broadway; Bellingham, Holly and Commer- 
cial Sts.; Vancouver, B. C, 101 Hastings St. E.; 
Boston, Mass., 581 Washington St. 



32 




A Great Store 

Built Upon 

Successful 

Service to 

Millions 



HALE BROS. 

INC 

Market at Fifth 
SUTTER 8000 



First Convict: "When John Bun- 
van was in prison, it took him all 
his life to write one story." 

Second Convict: "That's nothing. 
It will take me fifteen years to fin- 
ish one sentence." 



The silent fisherman is the most 
successful. Girls .should remember 
this. 



What looks so cold and miserable 
as a near-beer truck on a winter's 
day ? — Louisville Courier-Journal. 



KODAKS 

Exchanged 1 Bought 
Sold 

Developing and Printing 

SAN FRANCISCO 
CAMERA EXCHANGE 

88 Third Street, at Misaion 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



97 



INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 

OF AMERICA 

Thirty-second Convention 

Washington, D. C, January 13th to 23rd, ingl., 1930 



Official Report of Proceedings 



FIRST DAY 

Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1930. 

The Thirty-second Convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America was called to order by 
President Andrew Furuseth, Monday, January 13, 
1930, at 10 a. m., in the National Hotel, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Committee of the Whole 

After a short address by President Furuseth, the 
Convention was resolved into the Committee of the 
Whole for the consideration of credentials and rules 
of order. 

At 10:35 a. m., the Committee of the Whole arose 
and the Convention was again called to order by 
President Furuseth. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on Credentials: 

Report on Credentials 

The Committee of the Whole having duly examined 
the credentials of the delegates and having deter- 
mined the number of votes to which each delegate 
is entitled under the laws of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, in accord with per capita 
tax payments as shown by the books of the secretary- 
treasurer, hereby recommends that the vote in this 
Convention be apportioned and the delegates seated 
to represent the district and local unions as follows: 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association 30 votes 

Dan Ingraham 30 votes 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 12 votes 

Victor A. Olander 12 votes 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific 20 votes 

Andrew Furuseth .10 votes 

S. A. Silver 10 votes 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 

Union of the Atlantic and Gulf 11 votes 

Oscar Carlson 6 votes 

Ernest Missland 5 votes 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and 

Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes 16 votes 

Ivan Hunter 16 votes 



Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders of 

the Pacific. 

Alaska Fishermen's Union 19 votes 

Peter E. Olsen 19 votes 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific... 16 votes 

Louis Larsen 16 votes 

Fishermen's Union of the Atlantic. 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California 13 votes 

Railroad Ferryboatmen and Harbor Employees 

of New Orleans. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 

Atlantic and Gulf 7 votes 

David E. Grange 7 votes 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 

Great Lakes. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of 

the Pacific. 
Columbia River Fishermen's Protective 

Union - 1 vote 

Eureka Fishermen's Union 1 vote 

Delegates Seated 

The report of the Committee of the Whole on 
credentials was adopted by a unanimous vote and 
the delegates seated accordingly. 

Secretary Olander read the report of the Commit- 
tee of the Whole on rules of order, as follows: 
Rules of Order 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that 
the following rules be adopted to govern the Con- 
vention: 

Rule 1. The Convention shall convene each day at 
9:30 a. m., adjourn at 12 o'clock noon, reconvene at 
2 p. m., and adjourn for the day at 5 p. m. 

Rule 2. All resolutions must be presented to the 
Secretary before 6 o'clock p. m. of the second day 
of the Convention, after which resolutions may be 
introduced only by unanimous consent of the Con- 
vention. 

Rule 3. No resolutions will be accepted unless the} 
are presented in duplicate form. 

Rule 4. Three delegates from any two organizations 
may call for a vote by roll call. 

Rule 5. No delegate shall be allowed to speak on 
any subject longer than ten minutes, nor to speak 
on the same subject twice, until every delegate who 



98 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



desires to speak has had an opportunity to do so, 
and then not more than twice without the consent 
of the Convention. 

Rule 6. Any delegate may be called to order when 
speaking, and shall stop until the point of order is 
decided, and should the decision be against him he 
may appeal to the Convention. 

Rule 7. When a motion is stated by the Chair, it 
is in the possession of the Convention and cannot 
be withdrawn without the consent of the Convention. 

Rule 8. Roberts' Rules of Order shall be the au- 
thority to decide questions and rules of order not 
specified herein. 

The Committee further recommends that the Con- 
vention dispense with the usual appointment of com- 



mittees, except a Committee on Audit, and instead 
refer all resolutions and reports to the Committee 
of the Whole for the drafting of recommendations 
in relation thereto, such recommendations to be acted 
upon by the Convention. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

Report of President 

Vice President Ivan Hunter was called to the chair 
to preside during the reading of the reports of the 
President and Secretary-Treasurer. 

President Furuseth then proceeded with the read- 
ing of his report for the past year, as follows: 



REPORT OF PRESIDENT 
ANDREW FURUSETH 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1930. 

To the Thirty-second Convention of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

Comrades: 

In bidding you welcome to this our Thirty-second 
Convention, I feel bound to remind you that our last 
Convention met here in Washington in February last 
year, and that very little of any serious importance 
has happened nationally since that time. 

The Seventieth Congress adjourned on March 4, 
1929, and since all bills not passed die with the Con- 
gress in which they are introduced, the bills in which 
we were vitally interested at our last Convention 
failed in the last Congress. 

The present Congress, the Seventy-first, was called 
into special session in April to deal with the farmers 
and the tariff. These questions were not disposed 
of in the special session, and are not likely to be 
finished until the latter days of February, if at that 
time. The actions that we sought from the last 
Congress, we are continuing to seek in this, and the 
bills in which we were then especially interested 
have, together with some others, been reintroduced. 
These bills together with a treaty adopted at Geneva, 
Switzerland, and a treaty adopted at London, Eng- 
land, will be individually reported upon later. The 
industrial situation as I saw it then has altered very 
little. 

The Turnover 

The turnover seems to have increased some, and if 
we were to accept the figures given for the 12 ports in 
which the Sea Service Bureau operates, it has doubled 
with reference to able seamen, and in the other per- 
sonnel it seems to have more than doubled. The 
special condition which the Sea Service Bureau 
foster will now, I seriously think, cause them to be 
abolished. In this hope I have submitted a petition 
marked "A," to the Committee on Appropriations 
of the House of Representatives, and also a letter to 
the Sub-Committee on Independent Offices Appro- 
priation Bill, both with the request that appropria- 



tions for the Sea Service Bureau be stopped. (See 
Appendix A.) 

The Young American 

The young American still comes to the sea, but I 
the time he remains grows steadily shorter. He does I 
not like either the wages or the work in which he 
has little chance of learning seamanship. He seems I 
to come because he is idle. There has been no I 
improvement in the wages, notwithstanding the mail 
subsidy, and none is likely, unless the men sailing 
shall come into the Union in sufficient numbers to I 
convince the shipowners that an improvement in the 
wages is necessary in order to get the vessels away | 
on time. 

The Shipping Offices 

The shipping offices continue as they did, though 
the shipping offices on the Pacific have been slightly 
more decent, no doubt owing to the Anderson case. 
I have some hope that the La Follette bill, to bring 
all the shipping into Shipping Commissioner's offices, 
will be given serious consideration at this session. 
The bill will be submitted for your careful consid- 
eration later. 

Collective Bargaining 

As it now stands, there can be neither collective 
nor individual bargaining. Collective bargaining is 
only possible when we have enough men in the 
Union, and in the right temper to become seriously 
effective with owners who refuse to meet us; and in- 
dividual bargaining is not possible in a ship- 
owner's shipping office, where he sets the wages 
and determines the condition, not only of shipping 
and wages, but of nearly all else, through the black 
list. In order to deal successfully with these ques- 
tions, we must have the understanding and the will- 
ingness to practice mutual individual aid. 

Individuals Must Aid 

In order to bring about a condition in which the 
Union will be recognized to the extent that the 
shipowners are willing to meet and bargain collec- 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



99 



tively, we must attain a condition in which the indi- 
vidual seaman is willing to practice mutual aid in: 

(a) The enforcement of existing laws. 

(b) The increase in the membership to a point 
where it is possible to become seriously effective in 
getting grievances remedied, or at least until they 
can be seriously discussed. 

To attain this purpose there must be a strong, 
united determined effort at education: 

(a) About what the Union has done. 

(b) In what it can do. 

(c) In the realization that improvement can only 
come through struggle, which requires fortitude to 
suffer and a courage to fight. 

(d) To provide the Union with sufficient funds by 
the equalization of dues up to the highest at present 
paid, in order that the Union may be capable of 
functioning by leading in these efforts and giving at 
least some protection to the individual man who might 
suffer. 

Deterioration of Skill 

We know of the constantly growing deterioration 
of the personnel as a whole. We know that in any 
kind of struggle or competition victory is not to the 
institution that employs the least efficient and cheap- 
est personnel, but to those in which the human element 
is the most efficient. We therefore know that if 
the United States is to have a merchant marine at 
all it cannot be developed and operated with the kind 
of men of which there are at the present time 
altogether too many. 

Real seamen who are willing to organize cannot 
be defeated by landsmen coming to sea for a short 
period of time or simply using the vessel as a mode 
of transportation from one port to another. The 
shipowners themselves will finally be compelled to 
realize that freight and passengers will go in the 
coastwise and intercoastal trade to the railroads, and 
in the foreign trade to foreign flags unless the 
American shipowner is prepared to render service, 
which can only be rendered by men at least as 
efficient as any of its competitors. 

On this question I have submitted a Memorandum 
marked "B" on Section 13 of the Seamen's Act. The 
Memorandum is in the nature of an appeal and has 
been submitted to the Supervising Inspector General, 
with the hope that the Department will authorize 
him to issue instructions to Inspectors to the effect 
that they shall submit all applicants for new or 
renewed certificates of able seamen to sufficient ex- 
amination in the skilled work of a seaman, to prove 
that the applicant has in fact had three years' service 
at sea on deck, and hence the genuineness of the 
affidavit. (See Appendix B.) 

United action is at all times necessary and indis- 
pensable. It is known to all that there are a large 
number of vessels to which the official representatives 
of the different branches of the Union are denied 
admission. This must be met by the individual agi- 
tation and education of non-union men, by the mem- 
bers of the Union who are on board of such ships. 
The non-Union man must be told why the delegate 
from the Union is not coming on board. When a 
non-Union man understands this and also understands 
that individually he is helpless to change the condi- 



tion, there will be more activity on the vessel, more 
men coming to the Union office, more members in 
the Union, more attendance at the meetings; and 
as a result of these improvements, we shall shortly 
be in a position when the Union men may be able 
to say to the owner, the master or other officer. 
that on vessels where the official representative of 
the Union may not come, they will not sail. We 
shall then also be in a position to protect men who 
are injured, or otherwise denied their rights, by assist- 
ing in obtaining evidence and legal advice necessary 
to protect and maintain such rights. 

We must learn distinctly to understand that there 
is nothing for nothing and very little for a 'alf penny 
to be obtained in this workaday world. We must 
learn that there is no way short of loyal willingness 
to bear each other's burdens, to practice mutual aid. 
to unite all our strength, by which the grievances 
of which we rightly complain can be remedied and 
progress for which we long be attained. We must 
come to understand and to feel that the purposes for 
which we are organized can only be attained by 
unity of purpose, by mutual aid, by mutual confidence 
and a mutual willingness to struggle and to endure. 

Stand Together 

The work to be accomplished is not and cannot be 
the work of a few men. This we must get into our 
minds as a guiding, governing thought and purpose. 
To do it we must stand together on the vessels and 
we must attend the meetings and give the best that 
is in us while we labor. As we get nearer and nearer 
to this standard, individually and collectively, outside 
indifference and the hostility of shipowners — regard- 
less of what country or organization to which they 
belong — will have no power to prevent our real and 
permanent progress. 

It is in this hope induced by such thoughts as 

herein suggested, that in the name of those men who 

feel the wrong but do not as yet seem to realize the 

real situation and the remedy, that I bid you welcome. 

International Labor Conferences 

On the thirteenth of April last I sailed for Europe 
to attend a Conference at Geneva, Switzerland, and 
to do such other things as should be possible. I 
hereby submit, marked "C," a report on "The Mis- 
sion to Europe," a report marked "D", on the 
"Proposed Treaty on Protection Against Accidents 
to Workers Engaged in Loading and Unloading 
Ships," a report marked "E" on "Forced Labor," 
which Senator Blaine used in preparing his amend- 
ment dealing with forced labor in the tariff bill, 
which report he will seek to have made a Senate 
document, and a report marked "F", on the meeting 
at Geneva, October 10, in which were considered 
the hours of labor on board of ships, protection of 
seamen in cases of sickness, minimum requirement 
of professional capacity in cases of masters and other 
officers and engineers, and promotion of the seamen's 
welfare in ports. This report has been written from 
records obtained since my return. This meeting was 
held to prepare questionnaires to be sent to Member 



100 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



Nations, who will answer by signifying their wishes 
in the matter. Questionnaires are already prepared 
and I have copies of them for your consideration. 
(See Appendix C, D, E and F.) 

International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea 
On my arrival back in Washington on September 
9, I found that the Conference on Safety of Life at 
Sea, meeting in London, England, had agreed upon 
a draft Treaty, which if it shall be ratified by the 
United States Senate, will repeal most of the Sea- 
men's Act. I have prepared a Memorandum marked 
"G"", on the proposed Treaty. (See Appendix G.) 
It was printed and sent to all the branches of the 
Union. A copy has been sent to Senator Borah, 
chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of 
the Senate; to Senator Shipstead, Senator La Fol- 
lette of Wisconsin, Senator Claude A. Swanson of 
Virginia, and Senator Hiram W. Johnson of Cali- 
fornia, who are members of the Committee; and also 
a copy, together with the letters, to Senator David A. 
Reed of Pennsylvania, and Joseph T. Robinson of 
Arkansas, who are to meet on the question of sea 
power in a Conference to be held at London, Eng- 
land: also a copy to Mr. A. J. Tyrer, Commissioner 
of Navigation, and to D. N. Hoover, Supervising 
Inspector General, both of whom were members of 
the Conference on Safety of Life at Sea; and finally 
to the President of the United States, who has not 
so far sent the Treaty to the Senate. I have also 
had request from, and have sent fifteen copies to the 
Shipping Board. 

I have also furnished a copy of the report "D" on 
the proposed Convention drafted at Geneva, to Sena- 
tors Swanson and La Follette. This Convention is 
sure to come here, and I have thought it well to 
give them the information. They are hereby sub- 
mitted to you for your action. 

Bills in the Senate 

S. 314. By Senator La Follette. "Relating to 
the payment of advance wages and allotments oi 
respect of seamen on foreign vessels, and making 
further provision for carrying out the purposes of the 
Seamen's Act, approved March 4, 1915." This bill 
was reported from the Committee on Commerce in 
the last Congress without any hearings, and was then 
passed by the Senate unanimously. It is hoped and 
expected that the same will take place in this Con- 
gress. 

S. 306. By Senator La Follette. "To amend cer- 
tain laws relating to American seamen, and for 
other purposes." This bill is to furnish all seamen 
with continuous discharge books, to bring all ship- 
ping into the United States Shipping Commissioner's 
offices, and to do sundry other things very much 
needed. 

S. 2446. By Senator Jones of Washington. "Sub- 
jecting foreign vessels leaving American ports to the 
inspection laws of the United States, and for other 
purposes." 

S. 1549. By Senator Sheppard of Texas. "Relat- 
ing to personal injury suits by seamen." 

S. 2458. By Senator Sheppard of Texas. "For in- 
spection of vessels propelled by internal combustion 
engines." 

S. 1574. By Senator Norris of Nebraska. "To se- 
cure safe working conditions on board of vessels for 



those employed in loading and unloading cargo, and 
for other purposes." This is the longshoremen's 
proposal to Geneva, and if it is to be pressed, it 
needs to be so amended that it will help safety with- 
out hurting the seamen and the merchant marine. 

S. 202. By Senator King of Utah. "To provide 
for the deportation of certain alien seamen, and for 
other purposes." On this bill I have prepared a 
petition and memorial, which is hereby submitted. 

Bills in the House of Representatives 

H. R. 7763. By Mr. Schneider of Wisconsin. This 
is an identical copy of S. 202, introduced by Senator 
King. 

H. R. 121. By Mr. La Guardia of New York. "Fix- 
ing liability of owners of vessels." 1 On this bill I 
have an inquiry from Senator Fletcher of Florida, 
to whom I sent an answer, which I hereby submit 
to you. 

H. R. 6789. By Mr. Free of California. "To amend 
Section 4530 of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States." This bill authorizes the master to suspend 
the half pay in ports. 

H. R. 6790. By Mr. Free of California. "To amend 
Section 2 of the Seamen's Act." The purpose of this 
bill is to give the master the right to select certain 
members of the crew to work as day men. 

H. R. 3827, H. R. 3828 and H. R. 3829. By Mr. 
White of Maine. These bills are introduced by re- 
quest from the Department of State, accompanied 
with reasons submitted in a document, copy of which 
is hereby submitted. These bills deal with consuls, 
masters of vessels and seamen. 

H. R. 3830. By Mr. White of Maine. "Relating to 
carriage of goods by sea." 

In addition to these bills, a bill providing for a 
load line on coastwise, intercoastal and Great Lakes 
vessels has been tentatively drafted in the Depart- 
ment, in response to the following Senate Resolution, 
adopted by the Senate in the last Congress: 

"RESOLVED, That the Secretary of Commerce is 
requested to make a comprehensive study of load- 
line legislation in the coastwise and intercoastal trade 
and on the Great Lakes, and of all types of vessels, 
and to submit his report covering the same to the 
Senate during the month of December, 1929, and to 
accompany such report with a tentative draft of a 
bill to effectuate his recommendations." 

At the last yearly meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation for Labor Legislation, it was proposed and 
very favorably received, that the men working on 
rivers and in harbors, who are seamen within the 
meaning of the law, and therefore come under the 
Jones Act for liability, should be transferred from 
the Jones Act with its liability to the Longshore- 
men's Act with its compensation. We may, therefore, 
expect that such a bill will be introduced. 

Seamen and the Courts 

Reports from Winter S. Martin, Seattle, H. W. 
Hutton, San Francisco, W. J. Waguespack, New Or- 
leans, and Silas B. Axtell, New York, are hereby 
submitted. These reports contain matters which need 
your consideration and action. 

Mr. Jacob L. Morewitz, Attorney-at-Law, Newport 
News, Virginia, has transmitted a record in the case 
of "Xielson, et al. v. Danish Steamship Sonderborg." 
These men shipped at New Orleans to go to a Brit- 
ish possession of North America, and back to a 
port on the coast of the United States. In New 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



101 



Orleans they received advance. In Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, they were arrested for mutiny and dismissed 
after inquiry, but charged with disobedience to law- 
ful command, because they refused to remain with 
the vessel, which, according to the information then 
available, was to go to Europe. When this was 
changed they went back on board. of the vessel and 
the master took them back to the United States 
without having a visa of the crew list by the Ameri- 
can consul. On arrival in Hampton Roads they were 
lield on the vessel because of the captain's neglect. 
They were denied proper medical attention, and they 
were charged with delaying the vessel at Halifax. 
They refused to accept the settlement, which was 
then turned over to the Danish consul by the master, 
and the men sent ashore without any money with 
which to get food or lodging. On their arrival on 
shore they sought out Mr. Morewitz, who began a 
case for them, libeling the vessel on five different 
charges. 

On the question of advance, I reported the matter 
to the Commissioner of Navigation, who communi- 
cated with New Orleans, and in substance obtained, 
through the Shipping Commissioner there, a confes- 
sion that advance was paid. At this writing I expect 
further information from Mr. Morewitz. 

Mr. Morewitz has another case entitled "The Dola 
Lawson," which involves the question of two days' 
pay for one. The case is in the Supreme Court, but 
•decision is expected. This question was carried to 
the Supreme Court because of the plain effort on 
the part of the master to defraud the men of their 
rights. Mr. Morewitz suggests that owing to the 
importance of the case to all seamen, the Union may 
"be willing to pay some amount to aid in the payment 
of expenses. 

I have just received the following radiogram from 



W. R. Spence, General Secretary, the National Union 
of Seamen, London, England: 

"London, January 9, 1930. 
"FURUSETH, 
"Seamanship, Washington. 

"Geneva Maritime Conference on questionnaires 
including Hours of Labor will not be held until 1931. 

"SPENCE." 

I have further to report having received a letter 
from the General Union of Seamen and Longshore- 
men of Cuba. The Union will meet on the fifteenth 
of this month and invited me to come to their meet- 
ing. I sent an answer thanking them for the invita- 
tion but stated it was impossible for me to accept it, 
because our organization was to meet on the thir- 
teenth. I suggest that as a proper act of courtesy, 
this convention send a telegram of greeting to the 
Convention of the General Union of Seamen and 
Longshoremen of Cuba, meeting at Habana, Cuba. 

I close this report and enter this Convention in 
high hopes of future progress. In my judgment, we 
reached the bottom of adversity sometime before 
our last Convention, and as I see it the trend is now 
upward, both industrially and in the matter of legis- 
lation. 

In conclusion, I beg to thank the Union for the 
opportunities that have been afforded me to be use- 
ful, as I hope I have been during this past year, 
and to thank the Executive Board for their kind 
cooperation during the past year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ANDREW FURUSETH, 

President. 

The report of the President was referred to the 
Committee of the Whole. 

Report of Secretary-Treasurer 

Secretary Olander then presented his annual report 
as Secretary-Treasurer, as follows: 



REPORT OF SECRETARY-TREASURER 
VICTOR A. OLANDER 

Washington, D. C, January 13, 1930. Pursuant to the laws of the International Seamen's 

_ , ^.. , _ . , . , Union of America, I respectfully submit this report 

lo the Officers and Delegates, Thirty-second Conven- c . ~ T .<* ... ,, . 

. , _ . , „ . „ . , . . as Secretary-Treasurer. In accord with the usual 

tion of the International Seamen ■ s Union of America. ,. ,, , c ■ . . , , . , ... , 

' ' practice, the yearly financial statement is submitted 

Greeting: first, as follows: 

ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT 
December 1, 1928 to November 30, 1929 

Receipts 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc.: 

Per capita tax on dues $3,077.90 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 597.50 

International Membership Books 56.00 

$3,731.40 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per capita tax on dues $863.60 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 503.40 

International Membership Books 84.00 

— $1,451.00 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per capita tax on dues $2,343.40 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 236.50 

2,579.90 



102 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL March. 1930 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per capita tax on dues $767.20 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 360.60 



Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union: 

Per capita tax on dues $131.50 



1.127.80 



1.703.44 



2.339.50 



1.940.5O 



1.560.74 



Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lak< 

Per capita tax on dues $1,189.50 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 513.94 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per capita tax on dues $2,113.00 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 226.50 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per capita tax on dues $1,738.50 

Per capita tax on initiation fees ... 202.00 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California: 

Per capita tax on dues $1,381.10 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 179.64 

Railroad Ferryboatmen and Harbor Employees of New Orleans: 

Per capita tax on dues $5.70 5.70 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 
Per capita tax on dues and initiation fees: 

Boston Branch (inclu. $120 for mem. books) $626.70 

Baltimore Branch 321.30 

New York Headquarters 36.40 

New York West Side Branch 12.60 

Galveston Branch 6.10 

Norfolk Branch .70 

1.003.80 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per capita tax on dues and initiation fees $378.38 378.38 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

Per capita tax on dues $670.70 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 23.00 



693.70 
131.50 



Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per capita tax on dues $64.20 

Per capita tax on initiation fees 5.00 

69.20 

Seamen's Journal, Receipts from Advertising 1,200.00 

National Union of Seamen (Great Britain): 

Contribution 1,454.25 

Interest on bank deposit.. 270.56 

Miscellaneous, cancelled checks 5.00 



Total Receipts $21,646.37 

Disbursements 

American Federation of Labor, Tax $1,950.00 

Seamen's Journal: 

Printing, mailing etc. (includes printing of convention proceedings) $5,183.01 

News Service 91.39 

Editor's Salary 1,100.00 

6.374.40 

Annual Convention, General Expense 475.41 

Officers' Salary and Expense: 

President, Salary $2,695.00 

Travel Expense (Including European Trip) 738.25 

Total $3,433.25 

Secretary-Treasurer, Salarv 480.00 

Travel (in re Unveiling of La Follette Statue) 112.06 

Total $592.06 4,025.31 

Office Expense: 

Rent, supplies, postage, telephone, etc $1,868.21 

Stenographers 3,720.33 

?,r | 88.?4 



March, 1930 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 103 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books $206.00 

General 159.75 

Organizing Literature 756.12 

1,121.87 

Litigation, Attorneys' Fees, Court Costs, etc 2,703.87 

Cablegrams to National Union of Seamen 61.64 

People's Legislative Service, Tabulating Questionnaires 60.00 

American Federation of Labor, Expense of Delegates to Convention 367.04 

Middle West Foreign Trade Committee, Copies of Proceedings 14.50 

Executive Board Members Traveling 63.00 

National Women's Trade Union League, Yearly Affiliation 5.00 

Floral Piece for Thomas Conway, Vice-President. I. S. U. of A., and traveling 

expense of I. S. U. of A. representative attending funeral 111.84 

Floral Piece for Ed. Anderson, Treasurer, Sailors' Union of the Pacific 25.00 

William B. Wilson Testimonial Committee, Donation 100.00 

National Consumers' League, Contribution 5.00 

Total Disbursements $23,052.42 

Recapitulation 

Cash on Hand, November 30, 1928 $15,128.01 

Receipts, December 1, 1928, to November 30, 1929: 

Per capita tax on dues and initiation fees $18,576.56 

International Membership Books 140.00 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 1,200.00 

Interest 270.56 

Miscellaneous refunds 5.00 

National Union of Seamen, contribution 1,454.25 

21,646.37 

Total $36,774.38 

Disbursements, December 1, 1928, to November 30, 1929 23,052.42 

Cash on Hand, November 30, 1929 13,721.96 

Total $36,774.38 

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT 

The totals of receipts and disbursements of the International office for the past five fiscal years were as follows: 

1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 

Receipts $23,996.33 $19,843.18 $19,464.07 $30,029.44 $21,646.37 

Disbursements 23,569.28 22,482.90 20,611.21 17,600.01 23,052.42 

The increase of disbursements in 1929, as compared Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 

with 1928, is due to convention expense. The con- and Gulf, with headquarters in New York, N. Y., and 

vention did not meet in 1928. The receipt of over branches as follows: 

$10,000 in arrearages in 1928 accounts for the larger New York, N. Y. Norfolk, Va. 

income in that year as compared with 1929. Boston, Mass. New Orleans, La. 

Providence, R. I. Galveston, Tex. 

DISTRICT AND LOCAL UNIONS Baltimore, Md. Port Arthur, Tex. 

The District and Local Unions of the International Fishermen's Union of the Atlantic, with headquar- 

Seamen's Union, grouped by districts, are as follows: t ers in Boston, Mass., and branches as follows: 

Atlantic District Boston, Mass. New York, N. Y. 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc., with Railroad Ferryboatmen and Harbor Employees, 

headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts, and branches New Orleans, La. 

in the following ports: _ ._ ^. 

Pacific District 

Boston, Mass. Norfolk, Va. 

Providence, R. I. Mobile, Ala. Sailors' Union of the Pacific, with headquarters in 

New York, N. Y. New Orleans, La. San Francisco, Calif., and branches in the following 

Philadelphia Pa. Galveston Tex. Pacific Coast tg . 

Baltimore, Md. Port Arthur, Tex. 

,_ . _,. ^., , ttt » tt • San Francisco, Calif. Aberdeen, Wash. 

Marine, Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders Union Seattle, Wash. Portland, Ore. 

of the Atlantic and Gulf, with headquarters in New San Pedro, Calif. 

York, N. Y., and branches as follows: Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union 

New York, N. Y. Norfolk, Va. of the Pacific, with headquarters in San Francisco, 

Boston, Mass. Mobile^ Ala. CaIif and branches as fo n ows: 

Providence, R. I. New Orleans, La. 

Baltimore, Md. Galveston, Tex. San Francisco, Calif. San Pedro, Calif. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Port Arthur, Tex. Seattle, Wash. 



104 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1«J30 



Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the 
Pacific Coast, with headquarters at San Francisco, 
Calif., and branches as follows: 

San Francisco, Calif. San Pedro, Calif. 

Seattle, Wash. 
Alaska Fishermen's Union, with headquarters in 
San Francisco, Calif., and branches as follows: 
San Francisco, Calif. Astoria, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. 
Deep Sea Fishermen's Union, with headquarters 
in Seattle, Wash., and branches as follows: 

Seattle, Wash. Ketchikan, Alaska 

Prince Rupert, B. C. 
Ferryboatmen's Union of California, with head- 
quarters in Oakland. California. 

Monterey Fishermen's Protective Union, Monterey, 
Calif. 

Eureka Fishermen's Union, Eureka, Calif. 
Fishermen's Union of Prince William Sound and 
Vicinity, Cordova, Alaska. 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union, Gold Beach, Ore. 
Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union, As- 
toria, Ore. 

Coquille River Fishermen's Union, Bandon. Ore. 

Great Lakes District 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes, with headquar- 
ters in Chicago, 111., and branches as follows: 
Chicago, 111. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Milwaukee. Wis. Cleveland, O. 

Detroit, Mich. 
Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coal- 
passers' Union of the Great Lakes, with headquarters 
at Buffalo, N. Y., and branches as follows: 
Buffalo, N. Y. Detroit. Mich. 

Cleveland, O. Chicago, 111. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great 
Lakes, with headquarters at Buffalo, N. Y., and 
branches as follows: 

Buffalo, N. Y. Milwaukee. Wis. 

Chicago, 111. Detroit. Mich. 

Cleveland, O. 

SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 
The Seamen's Journal, the official monthly maga- 
zine of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
has the well-earned reputation of being one of the 
best among the labor publications in America. The 
publication is owned and controlled by the Interna- 
tional Union and copies are sent without charge to 
all affiliated district and local unions, and to the 
libraries of various cities, colleges and universities. 
It is issued monthly. The able manner in which the 
paper is edited and managed is a source of pride to 
all officers and members. Founded in 1887 by the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific, it has been the chief 
means of public expression for the American seamen 
since the inception of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. Under the practice which has 
prevailed since the publication of the Journal was 
taken over by the International Union, the editor 
pays the local bills of the paper, excepting printing 
and editor's salary, out of funds received by the 



Journal for advertising. He therefore submits a 
financial statement separate from the financial report 
of the Secretary-Treasurer. Audits of the editor's 
accounts are made by a committee at San Francisco* 
Calif., selected from among the officers of the district 
unions at that port. 

The financial report of the Seamen's Journal, as sub- 
mitted to the International office by PaulScharren- 
berg, editor, is as follows: 

Financial Report of Seamen's Journal 
1929 
Covering 12 issues, from Dec. 1, 1928, to 

Nov. 30, 1929, inc.— Balance on hand Dec. 

15, 1928 $291.09 

Receipts: 

From advertisements $1,462.75 

From subscriptions and extra 
copies 195.52 

1,658.27 

Disbursements: 

Remitted to V. A. Olander $1,500.00 

Paid for bookkeeping, etc 240.00 

Paid for commissions on adver- 
tising 22.50 

Subscription to "Time" 8.00 

1.7 

Recapitulation: 

Receipts (incl. balance on hand). .$1,949.36 
Disbursements 1,770.50 

Balance in commercial checking 
account Brotherhood National 
Bank (recently changed hands 
and now known as City Na- 
tional Bank) Dec. 14, 192Q 78.86 

Cash on hand 100.00 

Balance on hand Dec. 14, 1929 $178.86 

Audited and found correct, 

GEORGE LARSEN. 
PETER E. OLSEX. 
PATRICK FLYNN. 

The difference between the item of $1,500.00 remit- 
ted to the Secretary-Treasurer, as listed above, and 
the report of the Secretary-Treasurer, showing $1,200 
received, is an item of $300,000 received by the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer after the close of the fiscal year 
which ended November 30, 1929. 

The combined accounts of the Secretary-Treasurer 
and the editor give the following information con- 
cerning the total receipts, disbursements and net cost 
of publishing the Seamen's Journal: 

1929 
Expenditures: 

Printing, mailing, etc $5,183.01 

Editor's salary 1,100.00 

News Service 99.39 

Bookkeeping, etc., at San Fran- 
cisco 240.00 

Commissions paid on advertising 22.50 

Total $6,644.90 

Receipts: 

Advertisements $1,462.75 

Subscriptions 195.52 

Total $1,658.27 

Net Cost of Publication $4,986.63 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



105 



The net cost of printing the Journal for the past 
year includes, for the first time, the cost of publish- 
ing the convention proceedings. 

PER CAPITA TAX PAYMENTS 

The payment of per capita tax by the affiliated 
District Unions was made with greater regularity 
during the past year than had been the practice for 
several years immediately preceding that period. The 
regular income of the International Union from per 
capita tax sources was not, however, sufficient to bal- 
ance all expenditures during the last year. Disburse- 
ments exceeded receipts by $1,406.05. A contribution 
of $1,454.25 was received from the National Union of 
Seamen of Great Britain. The two items named 
total $2,860.30, this being the amount by which per 
capita tax returns must be increased in order to meet 
disbursements if we continue to operate on the same 
basis as the past year. An increase of approximately 
1600 in the membership of the International Union 
would solve this problem. In view of the fact that 
this involves only an average increase of less than 
150 members for each of the twelve District Unions, 
without taking into consideration the various affiliated 
local unions, the needed increase in per capita returns 
should not be difficult to attain. 

In this connection, I think it fitting to repeat what 
I have repored to other conventions. The Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America has a much wider 
scope of activities than many other national or inter- 
national unions, yet its per capita tax rate is among 
the lowest, if not actually the lowest, of all. This fact 
should be impressed upon the members. 

There is not a single activity of the International 
Union which can be omitted or even curtailed without 
serious consequences to the members of the Union 
and its various divisions. 

If we relax our vigilance in the national legislative 
field even for a single session of Congress the ene- 
mies of the seamen would gain an advantage that 
would require many years to overcome. 

One of the most costly moves we could make would 
be to foolishly attempt a financial saving by curtailing 
our watchfulness in the field of international law, as 
now being rapidly developed by the League of Na- 
tions and the International Labor Office. 

Withhold only a few issues of the Seamen's Journal 
in an effort to cut expenses and the result would be 
decidedly unfavorable. 

Any curtailment of the meager expenditures in the 
Secretary-Treasurer's office would make effective 
work in that office utterly impossible. That is also 
true of the President's office. As a matter of fact, the 
financial limitations now are such that the best work 
cannot be done. 

There is need for increased expenditures and this 
can only be effectively met by increased per capita 
returns through a larger membership. 
DUES 

The recommendation of previous conventions, that 
the District Unions whose rate of monthly member- 



ship dues is less than $1.50 should increase such dues 
to that amount, is being discussed in such affiliated 
organizations as are not now charging that rate. It 
is safe to predict that the $1.50 rate will prevail in 
practically all District Unions in the near future. 

CHARTERS 

The International Union has issued no charters 
during the past year. An application for a charter 
from the Tillamook County Fishermen's Union, Bay 
City, Oregon, is now pending before the Executive 
Board. 

LEGISLATION 

The International President, as chairman of the leg- 
islative committee, as in past years, has had full 
charge of the legislative activities of the union since 
the last convention. In conformity with the practice 
that has prevailed for many years, he will report to 
the convention on the important and vital subjects of 
legislation, law and court decisions relating to sea- 
men and the merchant marine. 

ORGANIZING ACTIVITIES 

In conformity with instructions of the last conven- 
tion, circulars and other literature calculated to be 
helpful in the promotion of organization among sea- 
men were prepared by the Secretary-Treasurer's office 
and supplied to the various District and Local Unions 
and branches for distribution among non-union sea- 
men. The literature was received with enthusiasm by 
practically all officers of the union and its various 
divisions, when first issued. Requests for additional 
supplies were promptly responded to by the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer's office. The local officers in all ports 
were advised that more would be sent upon request. 
They were urged by letters from the Secretary-Treas- 
urer to keep up a continuous distribution of the circu- 
lars. There are indications, however, that after the 
first few months the interest dwindled. At any rate, 
the requests for further supplies of literature finally 
ceased entirely except as to a few ports. An effort to 
revive this work should be made at once. 

At the convention a year ago it was decided that 
immediately following the widespread use of circulars 
setting forth the necessity for organization, open 
meetings should be held everywhere. It was pointed 
out that there was no need to wait until an officer of 
the International Union would be available as a 
speaker before arranging such meetings. The volun- 
tary services of A. F. of L. organizers, officers of city 
central labor unions and state federations of labor and 
representatives of national and international unions in 
the various ports could be obtained for the asking, if 
local officers would make the necessary inquiries to 
ascertain where trade union speakers could be ob- 
tained. This program was not carried out, due mainly 
to the fact that there was little or no opportunity for 
the International office to direct such work. It is true 
that some meetings were held, but there was no gen- 
eral activity in this respect. It is a subject to which 



106 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



I believe the present convention should give careful 
consideration. 

Under conditions as they now exist, it is the chief 
duty of every District and Branch officer to devote 
the greater part of his time and energy to the prob- 
lem of organizing the unorganized seamen. There is 
no doubt that they are all willing to do their best in 
this respect. They must be encouraged to make 
greater efforts in the future. 

MERCHANT MARINE CONFERENCES 

In accord with the policy of the International 
Union to be represented whenever possible at public 
conferences dealing with the merchant marine, I at- 
tended the meeting of the marine section of the 
Eighteenth Annual Congress of the National Safety 
Council, held in Chicago, September 30 to October 4, 
1929. At that meeting Rear Admiral W. S. Crowsley 
of the Great Lakes Naval Training Station read a 
statement which had been prepared by the late Rear 
Admiral Niblack who, at the time of his death re- 
cently, was the president of the Directing Committee 
of the International Hydrographic Bureau, headquar- 
ters of which are at Monaco, better known as Monte 
Carlo. The character of the statement, which dealt 
with the subject of safety at sea, was such that I felt 
it necessary to enter the discussion for the purpose of 
replying to it, and I therefore addressed the session 
at some length. 

The American Social Hygiene Association held a 
conference on the health of seamen in New York on 
May 28, 1929. I delegated the following officers to 
attend the conference as representatives of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, namely, G. H. 
Brown, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association; M. 
Missland, Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, and David E. Grange, 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 
and Gulf. Robert Bell represented the National 
Union of Seamen of Great Britain. They took an 
active part in the discussions. Their presence at the 
conference was undoubtedly helpful to the cause of 
seamen. 

The annual meeting of the Middle West Foreign 
Trade and Merchant Marine Conference was held in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, November 18 and 19, 1929. 
The International Union was not represented at that 
meeting for the reason that all officers familiar with 
the conference were engaged elsewhere. 

RELATIONS WITH SHIPOWNERS 

The convention a year ago instructed the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer "to proceed in such manner and at 
such time as he may deem wise and proper, to open 
negotiations with the associations of shipowners with 
a view of bringing about conferences between repre- 
sentatives of the union and representatives of the 
shipowners." The convention further decided that 
"if he finds that the associations of shipowners per- 
sist in their antagonistic attitude toward the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America and against the 



rights of seamen to organize, that tfien his reconJ 
mendation to inaugurate a movement to repeal Sec- 
tion 15 of the Shipping Act. 1916, be carried out vig- 
orously." The opportunity for the suggested confer-] 
ence did not materialize and therefore no action was! 
taken with reference to the Shipping Act of 1916. 

On June 29, 1929, while in New York City attend-' 
ing a meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Workers' Education Bureau, as a representative of 
the American Federation of Labor, I conferred with 
Vice-Presidents Pryor and Carlson and with the New 
York officers of the affiliated unions. The consensus] 
of opinion expressed at that meeting was that a] 
communication ought to be sent to the officers of the! 
American Steamship Owners' Association with a view 
of bringing about joint conferences. The Interna- 
tional President was in Europe at the time in con- 
nection with the International Labor Conferences 
held at Geneva, Switzerland. I decided not to ini-l 
tiate any effort toward a conference with the ship- 
owners until the International President returned. 
After his return my time was fully taken up by mat- 
ters relating to the convention of the Illinois State! 
Federation of Labor, of which I am secretary. Imme- 
diately afterward I attended the convention of thej 
American Federation of Labor, after which I wasj 
required to devote practically all of my time to the 
adjustment of a very difficult situation with which the'j 
labor movement in my home city was confronted. 
The entire matter therefore remains exactly as it was 
a year ago. The subject should again be given con- 
sideration and some definite procedure decided uponJ 

THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 

Three years ago the convention adopted a declara- 
tion entitled "For the Development and Support of 
the American Merchant Marine," based upon reports j 
and resolutions adopted at- various previous conven-. 
tions. At the Thirty-first Convention, a year ago,- 
the declaration was reaffirmed, with instructions to< 
add an explanatory footnote indicating that the item 
relating to the Ocean Mail Service Act of 1891 is now 
covered by the mail service section of the Merchant 
Marine Act, 1928. The declaration as thus amended 
is as follows: 

For the Development and Support of the American 
Merchant Marine 

1. Enforce the Seamen's Act. Almost in it- I n- 
tirety that law applies equally to both American and 
foreign vessels leaving harbors of the United States. 
Its enforcement, therefore, will inevitably tend to 
equalize the cost of operation. 

2. The monopoly which the law now gives to 
American shipyards does not produce ships. Amer- 
icans should be permitted to purchase seaworthy ves- 
sels wherever the cost is lowest and to place sttol 
vessels under the American dag without restrictions 
as to the trade in which they may sail. 

3. Repeal the sections of the Tariff Act under 
which a heavy duty is levied on repairs to American 
ships in foreign yards and on supplies purchased in 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



107 



foreign ports and also repeal tariff duties on all ship- 
building materials. 

4. Develop skill among American seamen to the 
point where the crews of American ships will be able 
to give maximum service in the sailing, the upkeep, 
and the repair of American vessels. This is possible 
if the Shipping Board and the associations of ship- 
owners will co-operate with the union. The union 
has urged this for many years. 

5. Develop an American personnel. Employ — and 
thus train — Americans first with the most skilled men 
of other nationalities eligible and willing to become 
citizens. 

6. Cease employing Asiatics in preference to Amer- 
icans and other seamen eligible to citizenship. 

7. Require that seamen be shipped only through 
authorized government shipping commissioners. Abol- 
ish all private discharge books and substitute there- 
fore discharge books to be issued to the seamen by 
the government. 

8. Abolish the unlawful practice of requiring sea- 
men to work twelve to sixteen hours a day in port. 

9. American seamen who have served thirty-six 
months in the merchant service and are otherwise 
eligible should be permitted to enter the navy on 
short-term enlistments of not to exceed one year for 
intensive training. 

10. American railroads should be required to cancel 
any contracts which give preference to foreign steam- 
ship lines as against American ships. 

11. The Ocean Mail Service Law, passed in 1891, 
does not now provide sufficient compensation for the 
service to be rendered to the government. The act in 
question should be revised so as to give proper pay 
for this direct service. (Note — This item is now cov- 
ered by the mail service sections of the Merchant 
Marine Act, 1928.) 

12. The government should be prepared to protect 
and assist such American ships as are made the sub- 
ject of assaults upon their legitimate business by for- 
eign shipping interests acting through so-called con- 
ferences or other forms of conspiracy. 

13. Americans should ship by and travel on Amer- 
ican vessels whenever possible. They should give 
preference to the merchant marine of their own flag. 

14. The union does not favor government owner- 
ship of the merchant marine. 

Adopted, Thirtieth Convention, International Sea- 
men's Union of America, Washington, D. C, Januarv 
10-19, 1927. 

I recommend that the declaration be again reaf- 
firmed, with any revision thereof that the convention 
may consider necessary. 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 
SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA 

The International Conference on Safety of Life at 
Sea, to which I referred in my report a year ago as 
having been proposed by the Government of Great 
Britain to the governments of various maritime na- 
tions, met in London, England, last spring. The con- 
vention and final act drafted at that conference was 
signed at London May 31, 1929. Wherever it is rati- 
fied, that convention will establish certain regulations 
which are to take the place of existing national and 
international laws and treaties and will prevent any 
signatory government from undertaking to enforce 
upon any vessel of any other government any regu- 



lation on the subjects covered by the convention or 
treaty, other than the regulations therein provided for 
as construed or defined by the contracting govern- 
ment to which the vessel belongs. 

If ratified by the United States, the proposed treaty 
will wipe out certain very essential features of the 
Seamen's Act. 

The plenipotentiaries signing this proposed treaty 
represented the following countries: 



Germany 

Australia 

Belgium 

Canada 

Denmark 

Spain 

Irish Free State 



Great Britain and Northern 

Ireland 
India 
Italy 
Japan 
Norway 
Netherlands 



United States of America Sweden 

Finland Union of Socialist Soviet 

France Republics 

At the time the convention was signed at London, 
our International President was attending the Inter- 
national Labor Conference at Geneva, Switzerland. 
It was some time later before authentic copies of the 
proposed treaty were available in the United States. 
In the absence of the President, the duty of examin- 
ing the document and taking any steps that might be 
necessary in relation thereto devolved upon the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer. I attended to that duty with dili- 
gence and care. Upon discovering the dangerous na- 
ture of the proposed treaty, I prepared an analysis 
which I had intended to submit to the President of 
the United States, the Committee on Foreign Rela- 
tions of the Senate and to the friends of seamen in 
the Senate and House. The return of the "Interna- 
tional President made any further activities in this 
respect on my part unnecessary and I therefore sub- 
mitted to him the statement which I had prepared 
and had it published in the Seamen's Journal. It was 
carefully prepared and may prove of service. 

INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP BOOK 

The uniform International membership book, 
adopted several years ago, is not being used by all 
affiliated District Unions. I took occasion to call at- 
tention to this fact during the past year and to 
request that all affiliated District organizations which 
are not already using the uniform membership book 
consider the advisability of doing so. The response 
was favorable in all cases. The Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf immediately 
began the use of the uniform book. Other District 
Unions which have not been using the book up to 
the present indicated that they were disposed to in- 
augurate its use in the very near future. 

The following District Unions now make regular 
use of the International membership book: 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 
Deep Sea Fishermen's Union. 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes. 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 
and Gulf. 



108 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



WATCHES 

Efforts on the part of the affiliated District Unions 
to extend the three-watch system as applicable to the 
deck crew have been carried on persistently through- 
out the past year. The three-watch system, or eight- 
hour day at sea, is mandatory under the Seamen's 
Act as a maximum workday for marine firemen, 
oilers and water tenders, except in emergencies. 

At the last convention, in consultation with the 
delegates, I prepared a statement for the committee 
of the whole, showing the activities of the Union in 
the promotion of the three-watch system. That state- 
ment was adopted by the convention. It is well that 
it should again be brought to the attention of the 
membership, and I therefore submit it herewith, as 
follows: 

The Three-Watch System 

The International Seamen's Union of America has 
carried on a consistent and persistent agitation for 
the shorter workday for all seamen, including all di- 
visions of the crew, and has achieved substantial suc- 
cess in this respect. 

First: In 1915 the International Seamen's Union of 
America brought about the application of the three- 
watch system by law to marine firemen, oilers and 
watertenders. 

Second: Through the agreement of 1917-1919, the 
International Seamen's Union of America brought 
about a shortening of the workday for the deck crew 
and the stewards' department. 

Third: In 1919 the International Seamen's Union 
of America, through the strike which it then con- 
ducted, established three watches in the deck crew or 
the Atlantic Coast. Later this was extended to the 
Pacific Coast. 

Fourth: In 1920 the International Seamen's Union 
of America succeeded in extending the three-watch 
system to passenger vessels and lumber vessels on 
the Great Lakes. 

Fifth: In 1921, during the tremendous wave of un- 
employment which swept the country, the shipowners 
inaugurated a lockout which, due to the vast number 
of idle men who could be and were recruited for sea 
service by agents of the shipowners, resulted in a 
loss of some of the previous gains made by the union 
in relation to working hours on the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts. 

Sixth: In 1923, however, the International Sea- 
men's Union of America succeeded in bringing about 
the restoration of the three-watch system for the deck 
crew on a large number of ships where the workday 
had been lengthened during the lockout of 1921, this 
restoration being accomplished at the conference be- 
tween the United States Shipping Board and the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America in May, 1923. 
The conference was brought about as a result of the 
decision reached in meetings of the union during the 
winter to enforce improvements in wages and work- 
ing conditions, by strike action if necessary, in the 
spring. 

Seventh: In 1926, the International Seamen's Union 
won the now famous O'Hara case before the Supreme 
Court of the United States, thus laying a legal foun- 
dation for the abolition of the system whereby crews 
are worked all day and made subject to call all night, 
which had prevented the placing of regular watches, 
including the three-watch system, on a firm founda- 
tion. 



Eighth: In 1927 the International Seamen's Union 
of America secured a further extension of the three- I 
watch system in the deck crew in a number of in- ■ 
stances, notably on the Pacific Coast. An agreement 
providing for three watches in the deck crew of sand- ■ 
carrying vessels on the Great Lakes for a period of I 
three years was obtained in the same year. 

Ninth: In 1928 the International Seamen's Union 1 
of America obtained the eight-hour day for both deck* 
and firehold crews in San Francisco Bay. This was I 
the result of successful arbitration proceedings by the 
union. During the same year an extension of the 1 
three-watch system in deck crews in the intercoastal I 
trade was obtained. 

Tenth: In February, 1929 (which is the month in I 
which this report was written), the International ■ 
Seamen's Union of America secured the three-watch m 
system for marine firemen and oilers on various har- I 
bor towboats operated by railroad companies in the 
Hampton Roads locality, the men on such harbor I 
vessels not being covered by the law requiring three ■ 
watches for firemen on other classes of ships. At theB 
same time the union secured a substantial reduction 
of working hours of the deck crews on the same har- 1 
bor towboats and also on harbor barges. This be- 1 
came effective February 16, 1929, by the terms of an I 
agreement negotiated with the Chesapeake & OhioB 
Railroad Company. Both white and colored workers 
are protected by the terms of the agreement. 

This record shows that the International Seamen's 
Union, notwithstanding the lockout of 1921, has made M 
substantial progress in the establishment of the three- I 
watch system for both sailors and firemen and is 1 
making gains in this respect steadily. The union is I 
also devoting steadfast attention to the problem of 1 
shortening the workday for the division of the crewsBj 
employed in the stewards' department. 

The agitation for the shorter work day for the 1 
members of the crew will be kept up steadily by theB 
District Unions under the guidance of the Inter-^ 
national Seamen's Union. 

THE SEAMEN OF CANADA 
A year ago T directed the attention of the Con- 1 
vention to condition-, prevailing in Canada as affect-B 
ing seamen. There is comparatively little organiza- j 
tion among Canadian seamen. The Federated Sea-B| 
farers' Union of Vancouver, B. C, has made efforts a 
to extend its activities to the Eastern provinces. 
1 refrain from commenting upon that matter except 
to say that comparatively little progress has been 
made. 

At the last convention, the Executive Board was 
"authorized and instructed to make such investiga- 
tion of the Canadian situation as may be necessary 
to obtain the information needed to determine the 
proper course to be pursued in relation thereto." The 
secretary-treasurer's office has made inquiries through 
the mails with no results of any consequence. I did 
not think it advisable to incur the expense of sending 
a representative to inquire into the conditions at the 
various Canadian ports. 

A short time ago the International Office received a 
letter from the National Union of Seamen of Great 
Eritain stating that the Federated Seafarers' Union 
of Canada had made application for recognition by 
the British organization and for an exchange of trans- 
fers. The British Union requested the advice of the 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



109 



International Seamen's Union in relation to the 
matter. I replied by stating the facts relative to the 
small Canadian organization referred to, and sug- 
gesting that no action be taken by the British Union 
until the matter had been considered by this Conven- 
tion. The subject should therefore be given attention 
by the delegates. 

The existing Canadian situation is a menace to 
seamen. In the matter of law, as relating to seamen, 
Canada is one of the most backward of countries. 
The Canadian shipping law is of such a nature as 
to make it practically impossible for Canadian sea- 
men to engage in a legal strike. For instance, the 
penalty for disobedience of orders, which under the 
United States law is applicable only at sea, is under 
the Canadian law also made applicable in port. Not 
only is the Canadian seaman subject to penalty of 
imprisonment for quitting the ship, for failure to 
obey orders in port and for joining with others in 
refusing to obey the commands of the officers even 
when the vessel is in a safe harbor, but after having 
signed articles he may be seized without the for- 
mality of a warrant and, having been sentenced to 
imprisonment, may then be forced from the prison to 
the ship. He must be surrendered upon demand by 
any person who may give him shelter. Houses may 
be entered without warrant in the search for escaping 
seamen. Enticing to desert and harboring deserters 
is made the subject of heavy penalty. Persons going 
on board a ship without consent of the master are 
subject to be summarily taken into custody by the 
person in charge of the vessel. Any person found 
near any ship and not giving a satisfactory account 
of his presence there, is liable to summary conviction. 
And the climax of this machinery of injustice is found 
in a provision that "There shall be no appeal from 
any conviction or order adjudged or made under this 
Part, for any offence against this Part; and no con- 
viction under this Part shall be quashed for want 
of form." 

The provisions which I have referred to are to be 
found in the Canadian Shipping Act, Part III, relat- 
ing to the ocean trade, and Part IV of the same Act 
relating to the "inland waters of Canada," except as to 
barges and scows on rivers and canals. 

It is not probable that Canadian seamen will be 
able to organize to any extent until some improvement 
is made in the law of that country. I recommend 
that steps be taken to bring this mater to the at- 
tention of the Canadian Trades and- Labor Congress. 

ALLEGED RADICALS 

Under the guise of alleged "radicalism," a group 
of agitators, styling themselves the "Marine Work- 
ers' League," and claiming to be a branch of the 
"Red Internationale," operating under instructions 
from Moscow, are now making systematic efforts to 
prevent seamen from joining the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. The so-called "League" 
held a meeting or conference in New York on August 
17 and another in San Francisco on November 9. 



Ordinarily such movements would be cause for 
little concern. It is significant, however, that these 
self-styled representatives of the "Red Internationale" 
of Moscow should suddenly become active against 
the International Seamen's Union of Amrica, at the 
time when the plenipotentiaries of the Union of So- 
cialist Soviet Republics (Russia) join with the pleni- 
potentiaries of seventeen maritime nations in the pro- 
motion of a proposed treaty designed to force the 
repeal of the American Seamen's Act. I have already 
reported upon that proposed treaty under the head of 
International Conference on the Safety of Life at 
Sea. 

Persons styling themselves "radicals" have on more 
than one instance been found to be working with 
and in the interest of the worst of reactionaries. On 
some occasions this has been due to deliberate dis- 
honesty and hypocrisy and on some occasions to 
crass ignorance. 

In our present defense of the Seamen's Act, it is 
practically certain that we shall have to meet the 
forces of dishonesty as well as the forces of igno- 
rance. This is a matter to which I believe the con- 
vention should give serious attention. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The International Executive Board acted on various 
matters since the last convention, as follows: 

January, 1929: Adopted resolutions urging Fed- 
eral Radio Commission to allocate a clear channel, 
full time and adequate power to Radio Station 
WCFL, Chicago, owned and operated by the Chi- 
cago Federation of Labor. 

May, 1929: Ordered donation of $100 to the Wil- 
liam B. Wilson Testimonial Fund. 

July, 1929: Authorized affiliation with Workers' 
Education Bureau. 

July, 1929: Ordered payment of attorney fee in 
case of Anderson vs. Shipowners. 

September, 1929: Ordered donation of $100 to 
Gompers' Memorial Fund, American Federation of 
Labor. 

September, 1929: Voted to fill vacancy created by 
the death of Second Vice President Thomas Conway 
by moving the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh 
vice presidents up one position and electing a seventh 
vice president. 

October, 1929: Ivan Hunter of Buffalo, New York. 
Secretary, Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and 
Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes, unanimously 
nominated seventh vice president and elected accord- 
ingly. 

SEAMANSHIP 

The International Seamen's Union of America is 
pledged to the development of the highest degree of 
skill and efficiency among American seamen. The 
official declaration adopted at the Philadelphia con- 
vention relating to this subject has been reaffirmed 
at various succeeding conventions. I recommend that 
it be again officially declared that the plan adopted at 
the Philadelphia convention, relating to the promotion 
of skill and efficiency among seamen, is an essential 
part of the program of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 



110 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL March. 193U 

ABLE SEAMEN CERTIFICATES in honor of the late Robert M. La Follette, former 

The records of the U. S. Department of Commerce Senator from Wisconsin and sponsor for the great 

show that since the passage of the Seamen's Act in Seamen's Act. 

1915 and up to June 30, 1929, a total of 167,279 able On April 21, 1929, I participated in the dedication 

seamen certificates have been issued by the U. S. ceremonies of La Follette Park and La Follette Me- 

Steamboat Inspection Service. During the same morial Hall in Chicago by making one of the principal 

period 152,819 "lifeboatmen" certificates were is- speeches. The park and hall are public institutions 

sued. That there is a tremendous labor turnover in erected by the West Chicago Park Commissioners. 

the American merchant marine is clearly proved by Qn April 25, 1929, I delivered an address at the 

the fact that the number of certificates in each case unveiling of the La Follette statue in Statuary Hall 

is far in excess of the number of men employed. at the Nation's Capitol, at the request of Senator 

The table on the next page, compiled by the secre- La Follette. Jr. 

tary-treasurer from the official reports of the U. S. Qn JuiK , {6 upQn the invitation of p^ , a Fol . 

Inspection Service, shows the number oi able seamen ^ j dclivered an addrcM at tIu . grave of thc , ate 

certificates issued at the various ports where the Scnator in Forcst Hi „ c , nR . tery> Madison, Wisconsin. 
U. S. local inspectors have offices. 

J. HAVELOCK WILSON 
"LIFEBOATMEN" CERTIFICATES 

..... T , ,.rr , ., It is with a feeling of deep sadness that I report 
A compilation bv the International Office ot the 

. ' , Al • i , the death of J. Havelock Wilson, president of the 

I . S. Inspection Service reports for the period be- . •; 

. , . , „ , . National Union of Seamen of Great Britain, which 
ginning with the passage of the Seamen s Act in 

* „ 6 , T J? , n ™ , .. . ,, i occurred on April 16, 1929. President Wilson passed 

1915, and up to June 30. 1929, shows that so-called . ^ ' \ 

., .- , . . , , into history as one of the greatest leaders that ever 

"lifeboatmen certificates have been issued as fol- , , _ . . 

espoused the cause of the seamen. It is due him 

?0 "??! to reca ^ tnat °^ a " °^ tne un ' ons of seamen in the 

jq27 " 11*619 world, the National Union of Seamen of Great Brit- 

1918 ..' 5,101 aini which was under his leadership, is the only one 

1919 3,910 that maintained its strength during the period fol- 

}920 ,f'e?o lowing thc close of the World War. Under circum- 

1921 l.i,r | 4>s , . . . , , • ,, , , 

,Q22 17 804 stances which would have impelled other men to 

1923 14,913 see k rest - when his physical health was such that for 

1924 8.673 years he found it necessary to make use of a wheel 

J 925 70-9 chair in moving about from place to place, he ren- 

jq27 " 7746 dered titanic service to the members of the Union 

1928 6.721 by directing its affairs in a manner best calculated 

1929 7,825 to benefit the membership as a whole. It was an 

iTTsTo exhibition of determination and will power seldom 

a met with. In the language of the West, "He died 

ELECTION OF VICE-PRESIDENT with his boots on," that is to say, the end of his 

Ivan Hunter of Buffalo, New York, secretary of mortal career found him in active service. He was 

the Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coal- a great leader, a great man, a great friend. 

passers' Union of the Great Lakes, was elected sev- THOMAS CONWAY 

enth vice-president of the International Seamen's n ,- - 1n9n . . 

T . , * „„ , , . , On Mav 3. 1920, rhomas C onway, secretary of the 
Union of America to fill the vacancv created by the , f . . .. ._. , . _ , 
_ _, • _ J _, Marine Firemen, Oilers. Watertenders and Coal- 
death of Second Vice-President 1 nomas Conway. 1 ne , T . . , . _ T , , 

...„,... , . '., passers Union of the Great Cakes and second vice- 
third, fourth, filth, sixth and seventh vice-presidents . , , , . T t ... TT . . 
' ' ' . . ' president of the International Seamen s Union ot 
were then moved up one position and the vacancy . a . __ . , u 

K . . America, died at Buffalo. New \ ork, following a very 

thus created in the position of seventh vice-president ... u .. . . . 

. * severe illness. He had lived a lite of great useful- 

was filled as herein stated. T 1n1 -, , , , . c ., ^ 

ness. In 1912, when he became secretary of the 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCES Marine Firemen, Oilers. \\ atertenders and Coalpass- 
The International Labor Conferences, held at Gen- ers' Union of the Great Lakes, the affairs of that 
eva, Switzerland, under the auspices of the Inter- organization were in a deplorable condition. Under 
national Labor Office, the labor division of the League his leadership the Union was revived, the confidence 
of Nations, will be reported upon by President of the members restored and its treasury rebuilt. His 
Andrew Furuseth in his annual report to this con- passing is mourned and his memory will long be 
vention. It is therefore unnecessary for the secretary- revered by all who knew him, especially by the sea- 
treasurer to offer any comment regarding the Inter- men of the Great Lakes, 
national Conferences. EDWARD ANDERSON 

LA FOLLETTE MEMORIALS Edward Anderson, for nearly forty years treasurer 

Since the last convention. I have been called upon of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, who served as 

to deliver addresses at three memorial meetings held delegate to several conventions of the International 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



111 



ABLE SEAMEN CERTIFICATES ISSUED BY U. S. LOCAL INSPECTORS 
Tabulation computed by International Seamen's Union of America from Official Reports of U. S. Steamboat Inspection Service 


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112 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL, 



March, 1930 



Union, died at San Francisco on May 17, 1929. He 
was one of the best known members of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. For many 
years he also served as treasurer of the Alaska Fish- 
ermen's Union, the Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Association of the Pacific Coast and the Maritime 
Hall Association of San Francisco. 

Edward Anderson will long be remembered for 
the loyal and unselfish service he rendered to the 
cause of seamen. 

CONCLUSION 

The struggle of the seamen for equality with their 
fellow men on shore goes forward steadily. In the 
forefront of the battle lines is the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. It proclaims the self-evident 
truth that the first essential to human progress is 
freedom. The victory having been won in the halls 
of Congress, the effort now is to reach the hearts 
of the seamen. In order to be truly free, man must 
not only obtain liberty in the legal sense, he must 
actually use it. 

The membership of the International Seamen's 
Union of America know what freedom is and what 
it is for. They invite all seamen to join with them 
so that through the intelligent and united efforts of 
a greater number, the fight for a better life for all 
may be the quicker won. 



Allow me to express my earnest thanks to the 
International president and to the vice-president- and 
the officers of the District and Local Unions and 
branches for the willing cooperation which I have 
received from their hands during the past year. 

Respectfully submitted, 




Secretary-Treasurer. 

The report of the secretary-treasurer was referred 
to the Committee of the Whole, except that part oi 
the report dealing with finances, which was referred 
to the Committee on Audit. 

COMMITTEE ON AUDIT 

President Furuseth appointed the following Com- 
mittee on Audit: Delegates Hunter, Silver and 
Grange. 

The secretary was instructed to send a telegram to 
Vice-President P. J. Pryor requesting him to come 
to the Convention in his capacity as vice-president 
for purposes of consultation relative to conditions on 
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned until 2 p. in. 



FIRST DAY 

Monday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
President Furuseth. 
Roll call. All delegates present. 
The following telegrams were read: 
TELEGRAMS 

"New York, N. Y.. January 13. 1930. 
"Victor A. Olander, Secretary, 
International Seamen's Union, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Members of the New York branch extend fra- 
ternal greetings to officers and delegates and best 
wishes for a successful convention. 

"ADOLF KILE, Agent." 

"Boston, Mass., January 13, 1930. 
"V. A. Olander, Secretary, 
International Seamen's Union. 
Washington, D. C. 

"Headquarters Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Associa- 
tion extend sincere wishes for successful convention. 
Increase in dues carried. Judges of election just 
reported. „ p j PRY OR." 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
delegates who represented the International Seamen's 
Union of America at the recent convention of the 
American Federation of Labor: 



American Federation of Labor 
Report of Delegates 

Washington, D. C, January 13, 1930. 

To the Officers and Delegates, Thirty-second Convention, 

International Seamen's Union of America. 
Greeting: 

The Forty-ninth Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor convened in Toronto, 
Canada. October 7, 1929, and remained in session until 
October 18, 1929. 

On the first day 379 delegates, represent 
International and National Unions, 3 Departments, 
27 State Branches, 46 Central Bodies, 26 Local Trade 
and Federal Labor Unions, and including 5 fraternal 
delegates, were seated. 

The various sections of the Report of the Execu- 
tive Council and the 92 resolutions which were intro- 
duced were referred to fourteen committ- 

Your delegates were appointed for committee duty 
as follows: Furuseth on the Committee on Executive 
Council's Report; Olander on the Committee on Res- 
olutions. 

We introduced four resolutions which, with reports 
on the action taken thereon by the Convention, are 
as follows: 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



113 



"Resolution No. 51, American Federation of Labor, 
by Delegates Andrew Furuseth and Victor A. dan- 
der, International Seamen's Union of America: 

"WHEREAS, The Merchant Marine Act providing 
for a mail pay so much increased as to amount to a 
subsidy, provided that 50 per cent of the crew, exclu- 
sive of licensed officers, carried in vessels sailing under 
mail contracts must be citizens of the United States; 
and 

"WHEREAS, No regulations have been issued to 
see that this part of the law is being obeyed; and 

"WHEREAS, Failure to issue proper regulations 
has resulted and is resulting in evasions of the law, 
and thus preventing the United States from obtaining 
the contemplated benefits intended by the passage of 
the law; therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, By the American Federation of 
Labor, that we respectively request Congress to so 
amend this law as to require the issuance of specific 
regulations of such character as to compel obedience 
to the law on all vessels sailing under mail contracts." 

The resolution was adopted by a unanimous vote 
of the convention, upon recommendation of the Com- 
mittee on Legislation. 

"Resolution No. 52, American Federation of Labor, 
by Delegates Andrew Furuseth and Victor A. dan- 
der, International Seamen's Union of America. 

"WHEREAS, The United States Shipping Board 
is continuing to operate the so-called Sea Service 
Bureau, which was established during the World War; 
and 

"WHEREAS, The said Bureau is destroying the 
skill needed in our Merchant Marine for safety at sea; 
therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, By the American Federation of 
Labor, that the appropriations by Congress for said 
Bureau ought to be abolished and the operations of 
the Bureau stopped, for the following reasons: 

"First: That the said Bureau was established by 
the Shipping Board and that there is no other way 
in which the Bureau may be abolished. 

"Second: That the Bureau is performing part of 
the duty assigned by law to the United States Ship- 
ping Commissioner's offices; that the expense is a 
waste of public money; that the duty may be per- 
formed better and according to law by said Ship- 
ping Commissioners' offices. 

"Third: That the Bureau is settingaside statute 
law and substituting therefor its own ideas of pun- 
ishment, which consists in keeping a deferred list 
— black list — upon which men are placed upon the 
recommendation of the master. 

"Fourth: That the policy results in a turnover 
which makes it impossible to develop skill in men 
employed and is thus preventing the development 
of an efficient personnel." 

The resolution received the unanimous approval of 
the Convention, following a favorable recommendation 
by the Committee on Legislation. 

"Resolution No. 53, American Federation of Labor, 
by Delegates Andrew Furuseth and Victor A. Olan- 
der, International Seamen's Union of America. 

"WHEREAS, The future growth and development 
of the American Merchant Marine depends upon its 
ability to successfully compete with the merchant 
marines of other nations; and 

"WHEREAS, The attempts made in past decades 
to equalize the cost of operation as between American 
and foreign ships by reducing the standards on Ameri- 
can vessels to low leve!s based upon conditions pre- 
vailing in the ports of other nations resulted, first, in 



practically wiping out the American personnel and, 
second, in driving American ships from the overseas 
trade and limiting their operations almost exclusively 
to the American coastwise trade, from which foreign 
ships are barred by law; and 

"WHEREAS, In the passage of the Seamen's Act, 
Congress adopted the policy of seeking to equalize 
competitive conditions in the overseas trade by apply- 
ing American standards to all vessels sailing out of 
American ports; and 

"WHEREAS, In so far as this policy of enforcing 
American standards in American ports has been 
carried out by the government of the United States, 
the effect has been to raise the standards on foreign 
vessels trading to American harbors and thus to create 
a condition favorable to the operation of American 
ships; and 

"WHEREAS, This experience proves beyond a 
doubt that in the interest of the American Merchant 
Marine it is essential that Congress retain full control 
over conditions under which ships are permitted to 
sail out of ports of the United States, it being obvious 
that it is fully as necessary to apply American regula- 
tions to foreign ships doing business in American 
harbors as it is to apply American regulations to for- 
eign merchants doing business in American cities; 
therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, That the American Federation of 
Labor does hereby urge the President and Senate of 
the United States to refrain from entering upon any 
treaty or covenant of any sort with any foreign nation 
or nations the effect of which would be to surrender 
the right of Congress to enact laws to determine the 
conditions under which vessels, foreign as well as 
American, are to be permitted to operate out of 
American ports, or which would have the effect of 
nullifying any of the existing laws of the United 
States governing the operation of merchant vessels." 

The resolution received the unanimous vote of the 
Convention, upon recommendation of the Committee 
on Resolutions. 

"Resolution No. 79, American Federation of Labor, 
by Delegates Andrew Furuseth and Victor A. Olan- 
der, International Seamen's Union of America. 

"WHEREAS, The conservation of our natural 
resources and our scenic assets and opportunities for 
the masses to enjoy outdoor recreation are essential 
to the future prosperity, physical well-being and hap- 
piness of the people of North America; and 

"WHEREAS, Short-sighted greed, carelessness and 
neglect are destroying our forests, obliterating our 
scenic features, polluting our waters and depleting our 
wild life resources; and 

"WHEREAS, The loss of these gifts of nature and 
the restriction of opportunities for hiking, camping, 
boating, swimming, fishing and hunting constitute a 
menace to public health and deprive our youth of 
assets which build character, initiative, self-reliance, 
strong bodies and alert minds; therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, That we strongly urge our respec- 
tive governments to provide adequate machinery and 
more liberal funds for the restoration and protection 
of our natural resources, the cleansing of our rivers 
and streams and the extension of opportunities for 
outdoor recreation." 

This resolution was also adopted by a unanimous 
vote, following a favorable recommendation by the 
Committee on Resolutions. 

Your delegates also participated in the introduc- 
tion of Resolution No. 86, which was signed by dele- 
gates representing forty International and National 



11 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



Unions, in support of Radio Broadcasting Station 
WCFL, owned and operated by the Chicago Federa- 
tion of Labor. The resolution was adopted. 

Delegate Olander joined with the delegate from 
the Chicago Federation of Labor in the introduction 
of Resolution No. 66 proposing an amendment to the 
constitution of the American Federation of Labor, 
designed to give the Federation better control over 
the conduct and affairs of directly chartered local 
unions which are not under the guidance of any 
National or International Union. A substitute amend- 
ment, reported by the Committee on Constitution 
and thoroughly satisfactory to the introducers of the 
resolution, was adopted. 

Among the many important subjects dealt with by 
the Convention were the following: Injunctions; 
Anti-Trust Laws; Immigration; Organizing in the 
South; Unemployment; Convict Labor; Non-Partisan 
Political Activities; Seamen and the Merchant Marine; 
Investigation of Conditions in Cuba; Porto Rico; 
Virgin Islands; Five-Day Week; Workers' Education; 
Public Schools; Illiteracy; Labor Press; Negro Work- 
ers; Old Age Pensions; Tariff; Radio Broadcasting, 
and other matters affecting the interests of the 
workers. 

Fraternal delegates were present from the British 
Trades Union Congress, the Canadian Trades and 
Labor Congress, the Women's International Union 
Label League and the National Women's Trade 
Union League. 

A notable event was the appearance of the Right 
Honorable J. Ramsay MacDonald, Premier of Great 
Britain, who delivered a brief address. 

All officers of the Federation were re-elected, 
namely: 

William Green, President; 

Frank Duffy, First Vice-President; 

T. A. Rickert, Second Vice-President; 

Matthew Woll, Third Vice-President; 

James Wilson, Fourth Vice-President; 

James P. Noonan, Fifth Vice-President; 

John Coefield, Sixth Vice-President; 

Arthur O. Wharton, Seventh Vice-President; 

Joseph N. Weber, Eighth Vice-President; 

Martin F. Ryan, Treasurer; 

Frank Morrison, Secretary. 

Fraternal delegates were elected as follows: 

To the British Trade Union Congress: John J. 
Manning, Secretary of the Union Label Trades De- 
partment of the American Federation of Labor, and 
Thomas E. Maloy of the International Union of 
Theatrical Stage Employees. 

To the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress: 
Adolph Kummer of the International Union of 
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink Work- 
ers of America. 

Boston, Mass., was selected as the city in which 
to hold the next convention of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor. 

On October 18. 1929, the Forty-ninth Annual Con- 



vention of the American Federation of Labor ad- 
journed, sine die. 

Fraternally submitted, 

ANDREW FURUSETH, 
VICTOR A. OLANDER, 
Delegates, 
International Seamen's Union of America! 

A motion was made to approve the report of the 
delegates to the American Federation of Labor. 

After some discussion, the motion was adopted by 
a unanimous vote. 

At 4:40 p. m., the Convention was resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole for the consideration of the 
reports of the President and Secretary-Treasurer. 

At 6:10 the Convention was called to order by 
President Furuseth. 

Secretary Olander reported progress for the Conw 
mittee of the Whole. 

The following telegram was read: 

"Boston, Mass., January 13, 1930. 1 
"Victor A. Olander, 

International Seamen's Union of American, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Fraternal greetings from Boston branch of Marine 
Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of Atlantic! 
and Gulf. May your councils have lasting benefit foil 
all seamen. 

"JOHN FITZGERALD. Agent." 

Introduction of Resolutions 

Resolutions for the consideration of the Conven- 
tion were introduced as follows: 

By Delegates Oscar Carlson and Ernest Miss 
Marine Firemen. Oilers and Watertenders' Union ofi 
the Atlantic and Gulf: Resolution No. 1, relating to 
monthly dues, and Resolution No. 2, proposing an- 
extension of jurisdiction of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

By Delegate David E. Grange, Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Union of the Atlantic: Resolution No. 3. 
for the appointment of a committee to endeavor to 
bring about conference with shipowners; Resolution^ 
No. 4, proposing election of a member of the Rewards' 
department on Executive Board. 

By Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's Union: 
Resolution No. 5, urging equalization of tariff om 
fresh halibut between the United States and Canada; 
Resolution No. 6, urging increase of tariff on froze*' 
halibut; Resolution No. 7, protesting against proposed 
extension of closed season in halibut fishing; Resolfl 
tion No. 8, urging improved government regulations 
for the return of destitute seamen from Alaska; Res? 
olution No. 9, protesting against proposal to give 
foreign fishermen preferential status under the immi- 
gration laws. 

By Delegate Victor A. Olander, Sailors' Union of 
the Great Lakes: Resolution No. 10, to amend Article 
XIII of the Constitution relative to membership 
hooks. 

The resolutions were referred to the Committee 
of the Whole. 

At 6:30 ]>. m.. the Convention adjourned until ( ^:30 
a.m., Tuesday, January 14. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

SECOND DAY 

Tuesday Morning Session 



115 



Washington, D. C, January 14, 1930. 
The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 
The minutes of the first day's sessions were read 
and approved. 

The following cablegram was read: 
CABLEGRAM 
"Habana, Cuba, January 12, 1930. 
"Andrew Furuseth, 
A. F. L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

"Trabajadores Martimos Cuba saludan fraternale- 
mente vuestro Congreso. 

"JUAN AREVALO, Secretary, ^ 
"Union General Organizaciones Maritimas." 
Translation 
"Habana, Cuba, January 12, 1930. 
"Andrew Furuseth, 
A. F. of L. Building, Washington, D. C. 

"Seamen of Cuba send fraternal greetings to your 
Congress. 

"JUAN AREVALO, Secretary, 
"General Union of Seamen Organizations." 

The secretary was instructed to cable the fraternal 
greetings of this Convention to the General Union 
of Seamen Organizations of Cuba. 

The following telegrams were read: 

TELEGRAMS 

"San Francisco, Calif., January 14, 1930. 
"V. A. Olander, secretary-treasurer, 
Convention Hall, 
National Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

"The Sailors' Union of the Pacific extends fraternal 
greetings to the Thirty-second Convention of the 
International Seamen's Union. May your deliberations 
result in greater good to all seamen. 

"GEORGE LARSEN." 

"Norfolk, Va., January 14, 1930. 
"Victor A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
'National Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

"Norfolk branch of Sailors, Firemen and Cooks 
send fraternal greetings. 

"FRED SORENSEN, Agent P. T." 

Secretary Olander reported upon a letter he had 
received from Editor Paul Scharrenberg of the Sea- 
men's Journal relative to the Japan Seamen's Union. 

Upon motion unanimously adopted, the secretary 
was instructed to send a cablegram to the Japan 
Seamen's Union extending the farternal greetings of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 
COMMUNICATION 

The following letter was read and ordered made 
part of the record: 

"Cleveland, Ohio, January 13, 1930. 
"Mr. V. A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 
"Greetings: 

"The members of the Cleveland branch, Sailors' 
Union of the Great Lakes, desire to convey to you 



our fraternal greetings, and to wish you every suc- 
cess in the great work that you are doing for the 
emancipation of the men that you represent. 

"May your deliberations during the session of your 
Convention be fruitful for the men whom you have 
already helped from a state of slavery to that of 
free men, and it is our wish that when the Conven- 
tion concludes, you will have drafted a program that 
will mean the further advancement of the seamen in 
an economic and moral sense. 

"Fraternally yours, 

"E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent, 
"Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes." 
At 10:20 a. m. the Convention was resolved into 
the Committee of the Whole for the consideration 
of pending matters. 

Report of Committee 
At 12:10 p. m., the Convention was called to order 
by President Furuseth. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of 
the Committee of the Whole relating to certain sec- 
tions of the report of the President: 
The Turnover 
Under the caption, "The Turnover," the President 
reports that the turnover in the Merchant Marine 
appears to have become even more serious than in 
previous years, and that the Sea Service Bureau of 
the U. S. Shipping Board is largely responsible for 
the fostering of the. evil conditions that are the cause 
of this tremendous labor turnover, which in the case 
of able seamen is fully 150 per cent annually and in 
other ratings vastly greater. We share the hope of 
the President that Congress will agree to abolish the 
Sea Service Bureau and we recommend that the 
President and the Legislative Committee continue to 
press for the abolition of tnat Bureau. A full explana- 
tion of existing conditions in connection with the 
Sea Service Bureau is set forth in the petition sent 
to the United States House of Representatives by 
President Furuseth. That petition is attached to the 
president's report and is referred to therein as marked 
"A." We recommend that it be published in the 
appendix to the proceedings of this Convention. (See 
Appendix A.) We further recommend that the report 
of the president on the subject of "The Turnover" 
be approved. 

The report of the Committee of the Whole was 
unanimously adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

The Young American 
The president, in his report, states that while young 
native Americans continue to come to the sea, the 
time they remain in the sea service grows steadily 
shorter. The Amrican youth spends a short time 
in the merchant marine and, finding conditions un- 
satisfactory, returns to the shore population where 
he tells of his experiences. Thus the merchant ma- 
rine is building for itself an evil reputation which, 
in time, will cause it to be held in contempt by the 



116 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



American people. The shipowners are "sowing the 
wind" and will surely "reap the whirlwind" unless 
they consent to improvements of wages and working 
conditions on board ship sufficient to meet the Ameri- 
can concept of decency and fairness. We recommend 
approval of the section of the report of the president 
entitled "The Young American." 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 
The Shipping Offices 

Under the title "The Shipping Offices," the report of 
the president makes a brief reference to private em- 



ployment agencies operated by shipowners" associa- 
tions and expresses hope for the passage of the La 
Follette Bill, which is designed to require that all 
shipping of seamen shall be through the offices of 
U. S. Shipping Board Commisisoners. A more com- 
plete reference to that subject will be made in the 
report which will be submitted in relation to the La 
Follette Bill. We recommend approval of the presi- 
dent's report on shipping offices. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

At 12:20 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 
2 p. m. 



SECOND DAY 

Tuesday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 14, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

The following letter was read and ordered incorpo- 
rated in the record: 

"Cleveland, Ohio, January 13, 1930. 

"Mr. Victor A. Olander, Secretary, 
International Seamen's Union of, America, 
National Hotel, Washington, D. C. 

"Dear Comrade: 

"Please convey to the delegates, in National Con- 
vention assembled, the greetings and best wishes 
from the Cleveland branch of the Marine Firmen, 
Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the 
Great Lakes. We earnestly hope that your efforts 
and deliberations will be progressive and beneficial 
to the future growth and prosperity of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, upon which 
the future welfare and happiness of all seafaring men 
so much depends. 

"We all look to you to blaze the trail and chart 
the course for us to build and follow, and may it 
lead us to the final goal and objective, for which 
the Union was organized and has always striven to 
attain. 

"Sincerely and fraternally yours, 

"JOHN W. ELLISON. Agent. 
Cleveland Branch, Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes." 

At 2:10 p. m. the Convention was resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole for the consideration of 
reports and resolutions. 

At 5:35 p. m. the Convention was called to order 
by ['resident Furuseth. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander read the following report of 
the Committee of the Whole relative to the report 
of the President: 



Collective Bargaining 

In that part of his report entitled "Collective Bar- 
gaining," the President emphasizes the necessity for 
carrying forward with great vigor the efforts now - 
being made by all affiliated District Unions to increase 
the membership to the point where an effective strike 
can be inaugurated. When the shipowners find that 
their ships are delayed because the seamen refuse 
to go to sea under present conditions, those condi- 
tions will be changed for the better. We recommend 
approval of this section of the report of the President. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The following radiogram from General Secretary 
Spence of the National Union of Seamen of 
Britain and Ireland was read: 

RADIOGRAM 

"London, January 14, 1930. 
"Olander, 
Seamanship, 
Washington. 

"The National Union of Seamen of Great Britain 
and Ireland send heartiest greetings to their com- 
rades of the International Seamen's Union of America 
and all good wishes for a progressive and successful 
annual Convention. "SPENCF." 

Introduction of Resolutions 
The following resolutions were introduced: 
By Delegate S. A. Silver of the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific: Resolution No. 11, proposing that Sec- 
tion 2 of the Seamen's Act be amended so as to pro- 
vide for the eight-hour day in port; Resolution No. 
12, proposing that Section 2 of the Seamen's Act 
be amended to provide for the three-watch system 
on deck; Resolution No. 13, to consider the advisa- 
bility of establishing a joint branch at Honolu'u. 

The resolutions were referred to the Committee 
of the Whole. 

At 5:45 p. m. the Convention adjourned until f ':30 
a. m. Wednesday, January 15. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

THIRD DAY 

Wednesday Morning Session 



117 



Washington, D. C, January 15, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. 
by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

Third Vice-President Percy J. Pryor, who had 
been sent for by the Convention, reported present and 
was seated. 

The minutes of the second day's sessions were 
read and approved. 

The following telegrams were read: 
TELEGRAMS 

"San Francisco, Calif., January 15^ 1930. 

"Victor A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer. 

International Seamen's Union of America Conven- 
tion, 

Washington, D. C. 

"The Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 

Union of the Pacific extends fraternal greetings and 

well-wishes to all officers and delegates for a very 

successful Convention. 

"PATRICK FLYNN, Secretary." 

"Milwaukee, Wis., January 14, 1930. 
"V. A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 

"The three affiliated Unions of Sailors, Firemen 
and Cooks, Milwaukee branch, extend hearty greet- 



ings to the Thirty-second Annual Convention and 
wish your deliberations prove successful for the good 
and welfare of all concerned. 

"CHARLES BRADHERING, 

"ERNEST ELIS, 

"OTTO EDWARDS, Agents." 

At 9:40 a. m. the Convention was resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole for the consideration of 
reports and resolutions. 

At 12 m. the Convention was called to order by 
President Furuseth. 

Secretary Olander reported that the Committee of 
the Whole had been in session throughout the morn- 
ing considering sections of the report of the Presi- 
dent. 

The following telegram was read: 
TELEGRAM 

"New York, N. Y., January 15, 1930. 
"V. A. Olander, Secretary, 
International Seamen's Union, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Wishing you a successful and harmonious Con- 
vention. May your deliberations bring about closer 
cooperation of all seamen. 

"JOHN WEIMER, Acting Secretary. 
"Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 
At 12:05 the Convention adjourned until 2 p. m. 



THIRD DAY 

Wednesday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 15, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

The Secretary read a telegram from T. J. Ma- 
honey, Port Arthur, Texas, branch, Marine Firemen, 
Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and 
Gulf, conveying to the Convention the fraternal 
greetings of the branch. 

The Convention was then resolved into the Com- 
mittee of the Whole for the consideration of reports 
and resolutions. 

At 5 p. m. the Convention was called to order by 
President Furuseth. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole relating to the report of the 
President. 

Individuals Must Aid 

The Committee recommends that the section of the 
President's report entitled, "Individuals Must Aid," 
be approved. 



•The report of the Committee of the Whole was 
adopted unanimously. 

The Committee reported further: 

Deterioration of Skill 

The deterioration of skill in the merchant marine 
of the United States, as referred to in the report of 
the President, is a matter of very serious conse- 
quence to seamen and shipowners alike. The lack 
of skill — which is due to the employment of inex- 
perienced men — leads to the turning of more and more 
of ships' work to shipyard corporations, rigging con- 
cerns, and stevedore companies employing shore 
workers. The first effect is to reduce the amount of 
work to be performed by the crews, — the seamen, — 
and a consequent reduction of the number of seamen 
employed. The lowering of wages follows as an 
inevitable result during the process of which more 
inexperienced men — landsmen — are brought in to take 
the places of seamen who protest against the reduc- 
tions. The service which the ship is constructed and 
equipped to render cannot then be efficiently per- 
formed. Yet while the wage cost of the crew has 
been reduced, the cost of operation as a whole is in- 



118 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



creased. The business then is certain to go to more 
efficiently operated ships. In the case of American 
ships this course operates to the advantage of for- 
eign ships. 

The development of skill is possible only under 
favorable conditions of employment, including a wage 
rate sufficient to induce men to remain in the sea 
service. This is attainable only by aggressive track- 
union activities, that is to say, by organization and 
united effort on the part of the seamen themselves. 
Your committee recommends that the report of the 
President on the subject of "Deterioration of Skill" 
be concurred in. We further recommend that the 
memorandum relative to Section 13 of the Seamen's 
Act, and reported by the President as having been 
submitted to the Supervising Inspector General of 
the U. S. Steamboat Inspection Service and marked 
"B," be indorsed and printed in the appendix to the 
proceedings. (See Appendix B.) 

The report of the Committee of the Whole was 
adopted by a unanimous vote. 

The Committee reported further: 
Stand Together 

The Committee recommends approval of that part 
of the report of the President under the caption, 
"Stand Together." 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

A motion was made and seconded that when the 
Convention adjourns an adjournment be taken until 
9:30 a. m. Friday morning, January 17, in order to 
give the Audit Committee an opportunity to complete 
the annual audit of the books and to give the dele- 
gates an opportunity to call upon the United States 
Senators and Congressmen relative to pending legis- 
lation affecting seamen. 

The motion was adopted. 



Attention was called to the necessity for taking 
advantage of the opportunity to impress upon the 
Senators and Congressmen the need for the >peedy 
abolition of the Sea Service Bureau of the U. S. 
Shipping Board. 

Secretary Olander stated that in the Committed 
of the Whole he had read a letter from Agent Adolf 
Kile, New York Branch, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association, and President David E. Orange of the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 
and Gulf, stating that at a meeting of the port com- 
mittee in New York a committee had been appointed 
to arrange for a mass meeting, but that it had been 
decided to delay the holding of such meeting until 
after the adjournment of the Convention in the hope 
that some of the officers and delegates can come to 
New York. The letter contained a request for advice 
as to the printing of a circular, copy for which was 
attached to the letter. Secretary Olander further 
reported that the Committee of the Whole had de- 
cided to await arrival of all delegaes and officers 
before taking any action on the matter, and that he 
had informed Agent Kile accordingly. The Secretary 
requested further instructions. 

The matter was discussed at some length and the 
Secretary was instructed to reply by pointing out 
that the International Union has repeatedly urged 
the holding of open meetings for organizing pur- 
poses in all ports; that the proposed circular is of 
a character which makes its use improper and unwise 
in the absence of full consideration and approval by 
the District Unions involved, and, further, that the 
officers and delegates cannot undertake to name any 
definite date when any of them can come to New 
York until the business of the Convention has pro- 
gressed to the point when the time of final adjourn- 
ment can be predicted with some reasonable certainty. 

At 6:10 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 9:3m 
a. in., Friday, January 17. 



FOURTH DAY 

Friday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C. January 17. 1930. 
The Convention was called to order at { ):M) a. m. 
by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 
The minutes of the third day's session were read 
and approved. 

The following cablegram and telegrams were read: 
CABLEGRAM 

"Kobe, Japan, January 16, 1930. 
"Olander, Secretary, 

International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Japan Seamen's Union congratulates Convention 
of your Union. Thanking your cordial greeting. 

TELEGRAMS 
"New York. N. Y., January 16, 1930. 
"Victor A. Olander, 

International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington. D. C. 

"Fraternal greetings from New York Branch of 



the Fishermen's Union. May your session result in 
greater good to all seamen. 

"JAMES J. FAGAN." 

"Hot Springs, Ark., January IS, 1930. 
"The International Seamen's Union Convention, 
American Federation of Labor Bld^ .. 
Washington, 1). ('. 

"Greetings. Accept my most sincere wishes fof 
very successful Convention. 

"GEORGE HANSEN." 

"Seattle, Wash., January 15, 1930. 
"Andrew Furuseth, President, 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 

"The Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific 
sends fraternal greetings and trust that you have a 
successful Convention. The proposed improvements 
in the agreement with the boat owners voted down. 

"P. B. GILL." 

At 9:55 the Convention was resolved into the Com- 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



119 



mittee of the Whole for the consideration of reports 
and resolutions. 

The Convention was called to order at 12:45 by 
President Furuseth. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander reported that the Committee of 
the Whole had been in continuous session throughout 



the morning, having under consideration that part 
of the President's report relating to the proposed 
international treaty concerning safety regulations in 
connection with loading and unloading of ships. 

The Secretary was instructed to send a telegram 
to First Vice-President Patrick Flynn conveying to 
him the fraternal greetings of the Convention. 

At 12:50 the Convention adjourned until 2 p. m. 



FOURTH DAY 

Friday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 17, 1930. 
The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. AH delegates present. 
The following telegram was read: 
TELEGRAM 
"Detroit, Mich., January 17, 1930. 
"V. A. Olander, 

International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Greetings from the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes. Detroit Branch. May this Convention be one 
of progress. 

"CARL WICKARD, Agent." 



The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
of the Whole for the consideration of pending matters. 

At 5:40 p. m. the Convention was reconvened. 
President Furuseth in the chair. 

Secretary Olander reported that the Committee of 
the Whole had been in continuous session during 
the afternoon, having under consideration the colum- 
inous report on the Geneva Conferences and pro- 
posed International treaties. 

The Convention adjourned at 5:45 p. m. until 9:30 
a. m., Saturday, January 18. 



FIFTH DAY 

Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 18, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. 
by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

Secretary Olander reported that Vice-President 
Pryor left for Boston last night. 

The minutes of the fourth day's session were read 
and approved. 

COMMUNICATION 

The following letter was read: 

"Buffalo, N. Y. : January 15, 1930. 
"Mr. V. A. Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
Washington, D. C. 

"Dear Sir and Comrade: 

"The Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 
Great Lakes send fraternal greetings to the delegates 
to the Thirty-second Convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

"It is our earnest hope and desire that you may 
formulate plans that will lead to the upbuilding of 
all the affiliated Unions, so that they will gain strength 
to carry on, and hold intact what they have gained 



to date, and be able to better wages and working 

conditions for the membership at large. 

"Fraternally yours, 

"J. M. SECORD, General Secretary, 

"Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 

Great Lakes." 

The Convention, at 9:35 a. m., was resolved into 
the Committee of the Whole for the consideration 
of pending matters. 

At 12 m. the Convention was reconvened. Presi- 
dent Furuseth in the chair. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary read the following reports of the Com- 
mittee of the Whole in relation to the report of the 
President: 

International Labor Conferences 

Under the caption of "International Labor Confer- 
ences," the President reports briefly on the Confer- 
ences held last year in Geneva, Switzerland, under 
the auspices of the International Labor Office, the 
labor division of the League of Nations. In appen- 
dices, which he refers to as marked "C," "D," "E" 



120 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



and "F," the President submits copies of reports pre- 
sented by him prior to the Convention on the fol- 
lowing subjects: "The Mission to Europe," "The 
Proposed Treaty on the Protection Against Accidents 
of Workers Engaged in Loading and Unloading 
Ships," "Forced Labor," and "Hours of Labor on 
Board Ships." 

These reports contain detailed information on the 
subjects with which they deal. The Committee of 
the Whole has carefully considered each of the re- 
ports herein referred to and submits the following 
report and recommendations thereon: 

The Mission to Europe 

President Furuseth's report on Europe, appended 
to his Convention report and dated December 31, 1929, 
presents an interesting outline of his conferences 
with officers of organizations of seamen in various 
European countries, namely, Great Britain, Belgium, 
Holland, Germany, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, 
his attendance at Geneva, Switzerland, during the 
International Labor Conference, and at the yearly 
meeting of the National Union of Seamen of Great 
Britain and Ireland, at London, England, and the 
conduct of shipping offices at Antwerp, Belgium; 
Rotterdam, Holland, and Bremen and Hamburg, Ger- 
many, with especial reference to the smuggling of 
immigrants into the United States under the guise 
of seamen. Your Committee recommends approval 
of the President's report entitled "The Mission to 
Europe" and its publication in the appendix to the 
proceedings. (See Appendix C.) 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee reported further: 

Proposed Treaty on the Protection Against Accidents 

of Workers Engaged in Loading and 

Unloading Ships 

The report of the President on the proposed treaty 
relating to cargo handling, submitted to the Inter- 
national office under date of October 25, 1929, and 
appended to his report to this Convention, contains 
complete information relative to the action taken at 
the International Labor Conference (the labor division 
of the League of Nations), held in Geneva, Switzer- 
land, May and June, 1929. The report shows that 
a proposed treaty or convention was drafted at that 
conference providing regulations designed to minimize 
accidents in connection with cargo gear and cargo 
handling. 

The National Union of Seamen of Great Britain 
and Ireland assigned a representative to cooperate 
with President Furuseth at Geneva. That repre- 
sentative, Mr. Chris Damm, acted in complete agree- 
ment. 

An attempt made by longshore and stevedore in- 
terests to secure the enactment of a provision to make 
it unlawful to employ the crew of the ship in con- 
nection with work relating to loading and unloading, 
and to create a condition that would lead to the dis- 



charge of seamen in port and their replacement by 
shore workers, was defeated. 

We congratulate the President and his colleague 
at the conference, Mr. Damm of Great Britain, on 
their success in this respect. 

The President, however, points out that the pro- 
posed treaty, as finally drafted, contains one section 
that may be used to exclude seamen. That is Article 
10 which is so worded that contracting governments 
may construe the words "only sufficiently competent 
and reliable persons shall be employed to operate lift- 
ing or transporting machinery," etc., in such manner 
as to permit of regulations to exclude seamen, by 
providing for experience within a given country or 
harbor as a condition of competency and reliability. 
The effect of such construction of the language re- 
ferred to would be to hamper ships and seamen 
alike. The seamen would have little opportunity to 
develop and retain the degree of knowledge and 
skill essential to the efficient and safe operation of 
the ship and would be subject to an even greater 
extent of unemployment than at present. Th' 
large numbers of harbors and landing beaches 
throughout the world in which shore workers ex- 
perienced in the handling of ships' gear and boats are 
unobtainable. Transportation by sea to such places 
would be made impossible if seamen are excluded 
from work in connection with cargoes. A treaty 
apparently based upon conditions prevailing on heavy 
carriers trading between the larger sea ports cannot 
be made applicable to the entire sea trade without 
seriously restricting that trade. 

It is exceedingly unfortunate that an explanatory 
clause, such as "including seamen employed as mem- 
bers of the regular crew of the ship," or some similar 
language, was not included in Article 10 in relation 
to the words "sufficiently competent and reliable 
persons." In the absence of such explanatory lan- 
guage the seamen may be excluded by the regulations 
of any contracting government. We therefore agree 
with the President that the proposed treaty should 
not be ratified by any nation. We recommend that 
the International Seamen's Union of America con- 
tinue, in accord with the position taken by President 
Furuseth, to vigorously oppose ratification of the 
treaty by the United States and, further, that the 
report of the President dated October 25, 1929. relat- 
ing to the aforesaid treaty, be printed in the appendix 
to the proceedings of this Convention. (See Appen- 
dix D.) 

The President also directs attention to the "Draft 
Convention (or proposed treaty) Concerning the 
Marking of the Weight on Heavy Packages Trans- 
ported by Vessels," which does not seem objection- 
able. A copy of this proposed treaty appears at the 
conclusion of the President's report. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

At 12:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 
1 p. m. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

FIFTH DAY 

Saturday Afternoon Session 



121 



Washington, D. C, January 18, 1930. 
The Convention was called to order at 1 p. m. 
I President Furuseth in the chair. 
Roll call. All delegates present. 
The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
I of the Whole for the consideration of pending mat- 
I ters. 

At 5 p. m. the Convention was again called to 
I order by President Furuseth. 

Report of Committee 
Secretary Olander read the following report of 
I the Committee of the Whole in relation to subjects 
I dealt with in the report of the President: 
Forced Labor 
In his report on the subject of "Forced Labor," 
I the President, in accord with the instructions of the 
1 Thirty-first Convention a year ago, deals at length 
j with the sessions of the International Labor Con- 
I ference of the League of Nations at which the question 
I of forced labor was discussed. The subject was 
I originally referred to the International Labor office 
I by the Assembly of the League of Nations at the 
I time the anti-slavery convention or treaty was being 
I drafted under the direction of the Assembly. It was 
I recognized that forced labor is a form of slavery. 
j This being the case in the Assembly of the League, 
it is reasonable to assume that the Labor Confer- 
I ences, in which one-fourth of the delegates are labor 
j representatives, will eventually give serious attention 
I to the forced labor of seamen, which prevails under 
I the laws of every maritime country, except the United 
j States, through the penalty of imprisonment for 
j quitting the service of a ship while under articles or 
j contract. 

When the United States ratified the Anti-Slavery 
I Convention or treaty, drafted by the League of Na- 
t tions, it did so with the following significant reser- 
vation: 
J "That the Government of the United States, ad- 
j hering to its policy of opposition to forced or com- 
pulsory labor, except as a punishment for crime, of 
which the person concerned has been duly convicted, 
adheres to the Convention except as to the first sub- 
division of the second paragraph of Article V, which 
reads as follows: 

" 'Subject to the transitional provisions laid down 
in paragraph two (2) below compulsory or forced 
i labor may only be exacted for public purposes.' " 
The policy of the United States, as set forth in 
the reservation quoted above, is based upon the Thir- 
teenth Amendment to the Constitution which reads 
as follows: 

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except 
as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United 
States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." 

The Government of the United States has, it will 
be seen, taken the position, in connection with its 



ratification of the Anti-Slavery Treaty, that forced 
labor is identical with involuntary servitude as pro- 
hibited by the anti-slavery section of the Constitu- 
tion, namely, the Thirteenth Amendment. 

All officers and members will do well to read with 
care the report of the President on the subject of 
"Forced Labor." 

We particularly direct attention to the following 
. parts of the report: 

1. President Furuseth's letter to Director Albert 
Thomas of the International Labor Office, dated 
Geneva, Switzerland, June 1, 1929; 

2. The Questionnaire prepared by the International 
Labor Office for submission to the governments of 
all nations; 

3. Excerpts from various speeches made at the 
International Labor Conference during the discussion 
of the subject of forced labor. 

The Questionnaire will doubtless result in replies 
from all governments which will throw an interesting 
light upon the different angles from which forced 
labor is viewed by the government authorities of 
the several countries. 

The officers and members of the Union should 
understand that the first approach by the International 
Labor Office to any important question is always 
through Questionnaires addressed to the various gov- 
ernments. The sending out of a Questionnaire on a 
given subject, however, is no guarantee that any 
remedial action will follow. That is indicated by 
the failure of the International Labor Office to bring 
about any action in relaton to the imprisonment 
penalty against seamen for quitting ships, which is 
of general application in all maritime countries other 
than the United States. 

Your Committee recommends that the report of 
the President on the subject of "Forced Labor" be 
endorsed and printed in the appendix to the con- 
vention proceedings. (See Appendix E.) 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 
The Committee reported further: 

The La Follette Bill on Advances 
The La Follette Bill (S. 314), referred to in the 
President's report, is designed to give seamen on 
foreign ships upon arrival in the United States the 
full protection of the American law against advance 
wages and allotment of wages which have been 
forced upon them, other than allotments to actual 
relatives, namely, wife, children, sister, parents, or 
grandparents. A clause in the Seamen's Act as first 
enacted in 1915, which was intended to safeguard 
foreign seamen to the same extent as American 
seamen, was held inadequate for the purpose by the 
United States Supreme Court. The International 
Union was successful in securing the passage of an 



122 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



amendment to the Seamen's Act which it was 
thought would furnish the desired protection. That 
was also held insufficient by the Supreme Court. The 
court ruled that the language of the clause was such 
that, insofar as it effected foreign seamen, it applied 
only in cases of advances and allotments in American 
ports and not to advances or allotments made prior 
to the arrival of the ship in an American harbor. 

The La Follette Bill, S. 314, as introduced in the 
present Congress, is the same as S. 2945, which was 
introduced in the previous Congress and approved 
by the last Convention. It has been drafted with 
the greatest care with a view of accomplishing the 
desired result. 

The Committee recommends that the bill be again 
endorsed and that the efforts to secure its passage 
be pressed vigorously and persistently. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

The La Follette Bill on Shipping Offices 

The La Follette Bill relating to shipping com- 
missioners, shipping offices, discharge books and 
other matters is the most important bill, affecting 
seamen, now pending in Congress. It is known as 
"S. 306, a bill to amend certain laws relating to 
American Seamen, and for other purposes." 

Your Committee submits the following brief des- 



scription of the bill for the record: It is designed 
to require: 

1. That seamen in all trades be shipped only 
through U. S. Shipping Commissioners. 

2. The abolition of all other shipping offices, that 
is, the abolition of all private shipping offices and 
also the Sea Service Bureau of the Shipping Board. 

3. To require that only persons eligible to become 
citizens, if they so desire, may be shipped on Ameri- 
can vessels in American ports. 

4. To extend the right of seamen to collect half pay. 

5. To prohibit discharge books issued by ship- 
owners, substitute discharge books issued by the 
government through U. S. Shipping Commissioners 
and to abolish the so-called character mark. 

6. To provide for extra wages and cost of return 
travel for seamen quitting vessel on which Section 2 
of Seamen's Act is violated. 

7. To increase the liability of shipowners for insuf- 
ficient or inefficient manning and equipment or viola- 
tion of law. 

8. To amend the mutiny section. 

Your Committee recommends that the bill S. 3M 
be again endorsed and that every effort be put for- 
ward to bring about its enactment. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

At 5:15 the Convention adjourned until 9:30 a. in.. 
Monday, January 20. 



SIXTH DAY 

Monday Morning Session 



Washington. 1). C, January 20, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. 
by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 
The minutes of the fifth day's session were read 
and approved. 

1'he following telegram was read: 
TELEGRAM 
"St. Petersburg, Fla., January 19, 1930. 

"Victor A. Olander, Secretary, 
International Seamen's Union Convention, 
Washington, D. C. 

"I extend fraternal greetings to officers and dele- 
gated of International Seamen's Union Convention 
and I express the earnest hope that you may hold a 
most successful and constructive Convention. Hav- 
ing in mind the very great difficulties which the 
officers of your organization meet in all your organ- 
izing and administrative work I extend congratula- 
tions upon the success you have attained and I express 
my appreciation of the loyalty and devotion which 
you have shown to the principles and policies of 
the American Federation of Labor. Please be assured 
that the American Federation of Labor will assist 
you in all your work in every possible way. 

"WILLIAM GREEN, President, 
"American Federation of Labor." 



At 9:45 the Convention was resolved into the Com- 
mittee of the Whole for the consideration of resolu- 
tions and reports. 

The Convention was reconvened at 12 m. President 
Furuseth in the chair. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 

Committee of the Whole: 

Hours of Labor on Board Ship 

The International Labor Conference, held at Ge« 
eva, Switzerland, October, 1929, agreed upon a Ques- 
tionnaire to be addressed to all national governments 
on the subject of "The Regulation of Hours of Work 
on Board Ship." The general character of the Ques- 
tionnaire is indicated by its two opening questions 
which are as follow 'S'. 

"1. Do you consider that hours of work on board 
ship should be regulated internationally by means of 
a Draft Convention? 

"2. Do you consider that, subject to such methods 
of application and such exceptions as the special 
conditions of the shipping industry require, this regu- 
lation should be based on the principle of the eight- 
hour day or the forty-eight hour week contained in 
the Treaty of Peace?" 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



123 



Fifteen main questions and thirty-five sub-questions 
are contained in the Questionnaire. Detailed infor- 
mation on this subject is contained in the report of 
President Furuseth dated December 31, 1929, which 
is referred to in his report to this Convention as 
marked "F." Your Committee recommends that the 
report "F" be printed in the Appendix to the pro- 
ceedings. (See Appendix F.) Your Committee 
further recommends endorsement of the report of 
President Furuseth and approval of his actions relat- 
ing to the International Labor Conference concerning 
"The Regulation of Hours of Work on Board Ship," 
to which the President refers in his Convention 
report under the general title, "International Labor 
Conference." 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The Committee reported further: 

Protection of Seamen in Sickness 

The session of the International Labor Conference 
held in Geneva, October, 1929, decided that a Ques- 
tionnaire be sent by the International Labor Office 
(League of Nations) to all national governments on 
the subject of "The Protection of Seamen in Case 
of Sickness, Including the Treatment of Seamen In- 
jured on Board Ship." The Questionnaire is divided 
in two parts. The "First Part" presents questions 
relating to "The Individual Liability of the Shipowner 
Towards Sick or Injured Seamen" and contains 
twenty-four main questions and a number of sub- 
questions. The "Second Part" deals with "Sickness 
Insurance for Seamen," and contains twenty-five main 
questions and several sub-questions. 

A close watch must be kept on the inquiry and the 
developments which may follow. There appears to 
be a distinct trend towards a further limitation of 
liability. President Furuseth's warnings in this 
respect must be heeded. The subject is reported upon 
fully by the President in his report, dated December 
31, 1929, referred to in his report to the Convention 
as marked "F." Your Committee recommends that 
the aforesaid President's report on this matter be 
endorsed and printed in the appendix to the Con- 
vention proceedings and that his actions in relation 
thereto be approved. (See Appendix F.) 



The report of the Committee was concurred in 
unanimously. 

The Committee reported further: 

"Seamen's Welfare" Conference 

The International Labor Conference in October 
provided for a Questionnaire on the subject of "Pro- 
motion of Seamen's Welfare in Ports," dealing with 
the sale of alcohol and narcotics in shipping areas, 
lighting for docks, special police forces for ports, 
supervision of persons visiting ships, provisions for 
seamen's hotel, libraries, sports organizations, and al- 
lotment of wages. There is danger that the kind and 
degree of port supervision suggested by the Ques- 
tionnaire may be ultimately made so restrictive as 
to interfere with the organization rights of seamen. 
This must be carefully guarded against. The Presi- 
dent presents information in detail on the Question- 
naire in his report dated December 31, 1929, and men- 
tioned in his Convention report as marked "F." 
Your Committee recommends approval of the afore- 
said President's report on the subject of "Seamen's 
Welfare in Ports," and that it be printed in the ap- 
pendix to the proceedings of this Convention. (See 
Appendix F.) 

The Committee's report was unanimously adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

Professional Capacity of Officers 

The President's report also directs attention to the 
action of the International Labor Conference on "The 
Minimum Requirement of Professional Capacity in 
the Case of Captains, Navigating and Engineer Offi- 
cers in Charge of Watches on Board Merchant 
Ships," which has been made the subject of a Ques- 
tionnaire to be sent out by the International Labor 
Office. President Furuseth's December report marked 
"F" deals with this subject. We recommend endorse- 
ment of this part of the President's report and 
approval of his actions on the subject matter and 
that it be printed in the appendix to the proceedings. 
(See Appendix F.) 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

At 12:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 
1 :15 p. m. 



SIXTH DAY 

Monday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 20, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 1:15 p. m. 
President Furuseth in the chair. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
of the Whole for the consideration of reports and 
resolutions. 

At 5:25 p. m. the Convention was reconvened. 
President Furuseth presiding. 



Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander read the following report of 
the Committee of the Whole in relation to the report 
of the President: 

Representation at International Conference 

The decision that seamen may be represented by 
landsmen in the International Labor Conferences, 
even at sessions devoted exclusively to maritime 
questions, is a development which must have a sinister 



124 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1930 



significance for American trade unionists. In the 
United States no person is regarded as a proper labor 
representative unless he or she is officially connected 
with a trade union as an active member, an officer 
or delegate, and no person can be an officer or dele- 
gate of a trade union unless he or she has actually- 
worked at the trade or calling over which the union 
has jurisdiction. A longshoreman is not regarded 
as a proper representative of seamen, nor is a seaman 
considered a representative of longshoremen, and a 
professional man, such as a doctor or chemist, is not 
qualified to pose as a representative of either seamen 
or longshoremen. 

The very reverse is true in many European coun- 
tries and in the Orient. A social worker, a clerk, or 
a professional man may become the president of a 
union of longshoremen, or teamsters, or painters, and 
then may be selected by some central agency of the 
movement to represent other crafts at conferences 
devoted exclusively to matters relating to such other 
crafts. This European and Oriental standard has 
been accepted as a proper basis for representation 
by the International Labor Organization of the 
League of Nations. As a result we find an officer 
of a longshoremen's organization — who is himself not 
much of a longshoreman — seated to represent the 
interests of seamen in the October conference. His 
credentials were challenged, but without avail. The 
so-called "workers" representatives from various 
European countries and from India, China and other 
places in the Orient, not only accept this unfortunate 
and impractical situation, but they actually defend 
and support it. 

Such decision and practice on the part of the 
International Labor Conference should serve as a 
warning to American trade unionists against affiliation 
with the International Labor Office of the League of 
Nations. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously ap- 
proved and adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

International Conference on Safety 
of Life at Sea 
The proposed treaty drafted at the International 
Conference on "Safety of Life at Sea," London, May, 
1929, will, if ratified by the Senate of the United 
States, have the effect of repealing, wholly in some 
instances and partly in other respects, certain vital 
sections of the Seamen's Act, especially as affecting 
foreign ships in American harbors. This applies par- 
ticularly to the able seamen clause, the language 
clause and other manning provisions. 

As an illustration of the purpose of the proposed 
treaty or draft convention we direct attention to the 
following: 

Article 48 
The contracting governments undertake, each for 
its national ships, to maintain, or, if it is necessary, 
to adopt measures for the purpose of ensuring that, 
from the point of view of safety of life at sea, all 
ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned. 
The legislative "joker" is on the words, "each for 



its national ships." The meaning, of course, is that \ 
the right of each government to enact manning regu- 
lations governing ships sailing out of its harbors is ] 
to be limited strictly to its own vessels. 

Regulations XLI and XLII in the proposed treaty 
are designed to completely wipe out all requirement! 
for able seamen in connection with the manning of I 
lifeboats. 

Article 10 requires the repeal of all regulations 
which are not in harmony witli the proposed treaty. • 
A section of that article provides that each govern- 
ment agrees 

(1) to draw up detailed regulations in accordance 
with these general principles, or to bring its existing 
regulations into agreement with these principles. 

In relation to Article 48. the words "to bring its 
existing regulations into agreement with these prin- 
ciples" will, of course, compel the ratifying nations 
to repeal all laws that do not conform to Article 48 ! 
and Regulations XLI and XLII of the treaty. 

Article 54, in connection with Article 10, will require 
the repeal of all inspection laws affecting foreign 
ships, the right of inspection of such vessels being 
limited by Article 54 to "verifying that there is on 
board a valid certificate" issued by the nation to 
which the ship belongs. 

In another article it is provided that among the 
certificates which must be recognized is one to provide 
for "exemptions" from even the proposed treaty 
provisions. 

The ratification of the proposed treaty by the 
United States will place the American merchant ma- 
rine at a great disadvantage in competition with the 
merchant marines of foreign countries. The United 
States is a country of high standards. These stand- 
ards must be applied to its ports, and insofar as 
international law will permit, must be made applicable 
to all vessels, foreign as well as American, sailing 
out of American ports. If this is done and foreign 
ships in American harbors thus compelled to ol>>erve 
American standards, the cost of operation as between 
American and foreign ships will tend to be substan- 
tially equal. 

The United States must retain the right to control 
its own harbors, -to inspect foreign ships in its har- 
bors, to determine the condition under which vessel 
may use its harbors, and to enact laws and regulations 
governing the departure of all vessels from SUCfl 
harbors. The proposed treaty calls for the surrender 
of those rights and its ratification must therefore be 
opposed. We recommend that the report of the 
President on this subject be endorsed and further 
that his memorandum on the subject, as referred to 
in his report, be printed in the appendix to the pro- 
ceedings. (See Appendix G.) 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 

Harbor "Ship Safety" Bill 
Your Committee recommends that the Xorris Bill 
— S. 1574 — relating to ladders, hatches, ship 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



125 



Be., used in connection with loading or unloading 

bargo, be referred to the Legislative Committee for 

fcareful examination with instructions to proceed in 

Luch manner in relation thereto as may be necessary 

|o protect the interests of seamen. 

I The report of the Committee was unanimously 

kdopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

The King-Schneider Bill 

The Committee recommends that the King-Schnei- 
Her Bill— S. 202 and H. R. 7763— be reindorsed. The 
bill relates to the deportation question as affecting 
leamen and for the protection of bona fide seamen. 

The Committee's report was adopted unanimously. 

The Committee reported further: 
The La Guardia Bill 
] The Committee recommends that the La Guardia 
Bill — H. R. 121 — fixing the liability of shipowners, 
be endorsed. 

I The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

I The Committee reported further: 
The Jones Bill 
j The Committee recommends that the Jones Bill — 
B. 2446 — be endorsed providing it is amended to read 
ts follows: 

I "That hereafter every vessel flying a foreign flag 
leaving a port of the United States, or a port in any 
ITerritory under its jurisdiction, shall be subject to 



the laws and regulations of the United States the 
same as domestic vessels." 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
The Sheppard Bill 

The Committee recommends that the Sheppard Bill 
— S. 1549 — be endorsed. The bill is designed to pro- 
tect and extend the rights of seamen in personal 
injury suits. 

The report of the committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
Inspection Bill 

The Committee recommends endorsement of the 
Sheppard Bill — S. 2458 — which is designed to extend 
the inspection laws to vessels propelled by internal 
combustion engines in the same manner as those 
laws now apply to steam vessels, except as to fishing 
vessels. The effect of the bill, if passed, will be to 
repeal parts of the motor boat act of 1910, under 
which motor boats up to sixty-five feet in length 
are not subject to inspection regulations as to man- 
ning and certain other matters, regardless of the 
trade in which such vessels are engaged. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

At 5:50 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., Tuesday, January 21. 



SEVENTH DAY 

Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 21, 1930. 
I The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m., 
»y President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 
J The minutes of the sixth day's proceedings were 
Iread and approved. 

At 9:40 a. m. the Convention was resolved into 
the Committee of the Whole for the consideration of 
Resolutions and reports. 

I At 12:25 p. m. the Convention was reconvened. 
D resident Furuseth in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole as follows: 
Bill to Withhold Wages 
H. R. 6789, a bill proposing to amend the half- 
)ay section of the Seamen's Act by giving the master 
'authority to withhold the payment of wages when, 
n his judgment, such action is in the interest of 
safety to the vessel or her cargo or necessary for the 
reservation of discipline or to avoid delay in the 
ieparture of the vessel from such port or place." 

The bill is a vicious measure which must be de- 
feated. It is sponsored by Congressman Free of 
California. Your committee recommends that the 
[Legislative Committee be instructed to vigorously 
joppose the bill. 



The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

Bill to Emasculate Section 2 

H. R. 6790, a bill introduced by Congressman Free, 
is designed to practically wipe out part of the watch 
provisions of Section 2 of the Seamen's Act by giving 
the master authority to use his own discretion as to 
the application of those provisions as affecting the 
deck crew. The bill is bad and must be defeated. 
Your Committee recommends that the Legislative 
Committee be instructed to oppose the bill H. R. 
6790. 

The report of the Committee was adoted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 
Consular Officers 

H. R. 3827, by Congressman White, deals with 
decisions of American consular officers relating to 
American vessels and seamen. Your Committee rec- 
ommends that we object to the passage of the bill 
until such time as careful examination of it can be 
made by the Legislative Committee to determine its 
full meaning and effect, and we further recommend 



126 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



that the Legislative Committee be instructed accord- 
ingly. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 
The Committee reported further: 

Discharge in Foreign Ports 
H. R. 3828, another White Bill, deals with the dis- 
charge of seamen in foreign ports and will, if enacted, 
endanger the rights of the seamen to return passage 
and maintenance. The bill is dangerous and must be 
opposed. Your Committee recommends that the 
Legislative Committee be instructed accordingly. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported futher: 

Repatriation 
H. R. 3829, another bill by Congressman White, 
proposes to amend Section 4581 of the Revised 
Statutes of the United States, relating to the dis- 
charge, maintenance, and repatriation of seamen in 
foreign ports. The bill requires further study. Your 
Committee recommends that it be referred to the 
Legislative Committee with instructions to examine 
the bill carefully and to take such action in relation 
thereto as may be necessary to protect the interests 
of seamen. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 

Liability 
H. R. 3830 is a bill introduced by Congressman 
White, dealing with the carriage of goods by sea. 
The bill is of considerable length and requires care- 
ful examination and study. Your Committee recom- 
mends that H. R. 3830 be referred to the Legislative 
Committee with instructions to take such action in 
relation thereto as may be necessary to protect the 
interests of seamen. 



The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 
The Committee reported further: 
Load Line 

In response to a resolution passed by the Senate 
in the last Congress, a bill, not yet introduced, has 
been prepared by the Department of Commerce to 
provide for a load line to apply in the coastwise and 
Great Lakes trade. The copy of the bill now before 
the Convention in connection with the report of the 
1 'resident is in the form in which it was submitted 
by the Department of Commerce in a letter dated 
October 12, 1929, addressed "To Shipowners in the 
Coastwise and Great Lakes Trade." We have no 
means of knowing what advice the shipowners have 
given the Department in relation to the proposed 
bill, nor the extent to which the Department is being 
guided by such advice. It is significant that the 
Department of Commerce appears to have sought ad- 
vice only from shipowners and has not sent any in-' 
quiry to organizations of workers whose lives are at 
stake. 

A load line law equal to the load line law r< 
passed to govern vessels in the foreign trade (which 
is on the statute books but is not yet in operation) 
should be enacted to safeguard the lives of the men 
in the Coastwise and Great Lakes trade. 

Your Committee recommends that the matter be 
referred to the Legislative Committee with instruc- 
tions to proceed accordingly, that is, to insist upon 
a load line law for the Coastwise and Great lakes 
trade equal to the load line law already enacted for> 
the foreign trade. 

The report of the Committee was unanimous! 
adopted. 

At 12:40 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 
2 p. m. 



SEVENTH DAY 

Tuesday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 21, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 2 p.m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
of the Whole for the consideration of pending matters. 

At 5:35 p. m. the Convention reconvened. Presi- 
dent Furuseth in the chair. 

Report of Committee 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Seamen and the Courts 

Under the caption "Seamen and the Courts" the 
President refers to reports received by him from 
certain lawyers, namely, Mr. Winter S. Martin of 
Seattle, Washington; Mr. H. W\ Hutton of San Fran- 
cisco, California; Mr. W. J. Waguespack of New- 



Orleans, La., and Mr. Silas B. Axtell of New York 
X. Y. Your Committee recommends that the lawyers 
reports be printed in the appendix to the proceed- 
ings for the information of officers and members oi] 
the Union. (See Appendix H.) 

In the matter of lawyers' fees, court costs ancj 
other expense in connection with litigation, youi] 
Committee recommends that the present policy o 
the International Union be continued, that is, I 
liability will be assumed in such matters unle-> th< 
case has been initiated by the Union, except in cases^ 
in which the Executive Board considers interven 
tion by the Union to be necessary and wise. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by ; 
unanimous vote. 

At 5:40 p. m. the Convention adjourned until " a. m 
Wednesday, January 22. 



[arch, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

EIGHTH DAY 

Wednesday Morning Session 



127 



Washington, D. C, January 22, 1930. 

I] The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m., 

w President Furuseth. 

t.\ Roll call. All delegates present. 

The minutes of the seventh day's session were read 
Ipd approved. 

M The Convention, at 9:45 a. m., was resolved into the 
Ifommittee of the Whole for the consideration of the 
Import of the Secretary-Treasurer and other matters. 
I At 1 :40 p. m. the Convention was reconvened, 
[[resident Furuseth in the chair. 

Report of Committee 

I Delegate Silver read the following reports of the 
jlommittee of the Whole relating to various divisions 
f the report of the Secretary-Treasurer and resolu- 
jons: 

Seamen's Journal 

I Your Committee is in hearty accord with the re- 
prt of the Secretary-Treasurer on the Seamen's 
journal, the official magazine of the International 
jeamen's Union of America. Our Journal is rec- 
gnized throughout the country as one of the best 
If labor publications. It adheres strictly to the prin- 
ciples and policies of our International Union as de- 
termined by the Conventions. We compliment the 
jditor upon the able manner in which he has edited 
Ind managed the paper. 

I Your Committee recommends approval of the re- 
port of the Secretary-Treasurer on the Seamen's 
Journal, including the financial report of the editor 
Is submitted in this part of the Secretary-Treasurer's 
{eport. 

J The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
Inanimous vote. 
I The Committee reported further: 

Per Capita Tax Payments 

J It is gratifying to note, as reported by the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, that per capita tax payments are now 
being made by the District Unions during the year 
kdth greater regularity than in past years. We hope 
for further improvements in this respect. It will, we 
relieve, be a relatively simple matter to bring about 
he comparatively small increase in membership 
necessary to bring per capita payments up to the 
fame level as disbursements. We agree with the 
Secretary-Treasurer that it would be folly to attempt 
o restrict or narrow the activities of the Interna- 
ional Union in an effort to reduce expenses. The 
nanifestly wise course, as stated by the Secretary- 
freasurer, is to increase the income of the union. 
We desire to emphasize the fact, presented in his re- 
port, that while the activities of the International 
Seamen's Union of America cover a wider scope than 



many other national and international unions, its per 
capita tax rate is not only far below the average, but 
is among the very lowest, if not actually the least 
of all. Your Committee recommends approval of the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer on the subject of 
"Per Capita Tax Payments." 

The report of the Committee was adopted: 

The Committee reported further: 
Dues 

In connection with the encouraging report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer on the subject of monthly dues, 
your Committee is glad to record the fact that since 
the last Convention two additional district unions 
have increased the rate of monthly dues to the figure 
recommended by the International Union, namely, 
$1.50 per month. The two district unions referred 
to are the Marine Firemen's, Oilers' and Watertend- 
ers' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, and the Eastern 
and Gulf Sailors' Association. It is pleasing to note 
that the Secretary-Treasurer anticipates that uniform- 
ity will be attained on this question in the near fu- 
ture. Your Committee recommends that his report 
on the subject "Dues" be approved. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 

In connection with the subject of "Dues," reported 
upon by the Secretary-Treasurer, your Committee 
gave consideration to Resolution No. 1, which is as 
follows: 

Resolution No. 1 

By Delegates Oscar Carlson and Ernest Missland, 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of 
the Atlantic and Gulf. 

WHEREAS, The monthly dues at present differ in 
the three districts, this having a tendency to bring 
about disputes and dissatisfaction amongst our mem- 
bers, especially when a member transfers into an- 
other district organization where the monthly dues 
are higher. This dissatisfaction, we believe, can be 
eliminated by having our international organization 
establish a uniform monthly dues; therefore, 

RESOLVED, That this Convention amend Section 
1, Article XII to read as follows: "Monthly dues in 
district and local organizations shall be one dollar 
and fifty cents per month." 

Your Committee is of the opinion that while uni- 
formity of monthly dues as between the various dis- 
trict unions of sailors, firemen and stewards is thor- 
oughly practicable as well as eminently desirable,' it 
would be unwise at this time to enact a constitutional 
amendment which would also compel not only the 
district union of fishermen, but also the smaller locals 
of that craft, to conform to the same rate. Such ac- 
tion, under present conditions, would make uniformity 



128 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1930 



too rigid. The Committee therefore recommends that 
Resolution No. 1 be non-concurred in. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
Organizing Activities 

Under the caption "Organizing Activities," the 
Secretary-Treasurer reports on the work of his office 
in the preparation and distribution of organizing 
literature to the various district unions and branches, 
in accord with the instructions of the last Conven- 
tion. These activities have met with universal ap- 
proval throughout the International Union. They 
should be continued during the ensuing year. 

Your Committee recommends that the Secretary- 
Treasurer be authorized and instructed to provide the 
district unions and branches, through the Interna- 
tional office at the expense of the International 
Union, with circulars and other organizing literature 
of the kind and in the amount which in his judg- 
ment is calculated to bring about the best results. 

District union and branch officers should feel free 
to call upon the Secretary-Treasurer's office for such 
material, the distribution of which should be carried 
on persistently at all ports. It is to be regretted, as 
reported by the Secretary-Treasurer, there seems to 
have been a disposition on the part of some branch 
officers to become lax in this respect, as indicated by 
their failure to send for additional supplies which 
they had been informed were available. The Sec- 
retary-Treasurer, however, has suggested to the Com- 
mittee that this seeming laxity may be largely due 
to the fact that branch officers have not been ac- 
customed to deal direct with the International office 
in such matters and that they therefore hesitated to 
make the necessary requests for fear of asking more 
than they were entitled to. There is no reason for 
any hesitancy on this score. If the demand should 
prove to be greater than the supply, the district and 
branch unions will be so advised. 

Organization results only from agitation and edu- 
cation. The moment the non-union seaman becomes 
informed to the point where he understands what the 
union has done in the past, what it is doing in the 
present and what it can do in the future, he will he 
transformed into a union man. His curiosity must 
be aroused sufficiently to cause him to make in- 
quiries and then he must be given the correct in- 
formation. Officers and members alike should give 
careful thought to the best method of approach to 
non-unionists. We must all exercise patience, toler- 
ance and persistency. There are, however, many 
thousands of non-union men and they cannot all be 
reached by the officers of the Union, nor can all 
of them be reached personally by the members of the 
organization. In order to carry on the process of 
agitation and education, in a sufficiently wide scope 
to reach a great number of the non-unionists, it is 
necessary to give wide circulation among them of 
printed matter calculated to awaken their interest. In 
this, the officers must have the help of the members, 
afloat as well as ashore. Every member of the or- 



ganization should be urged to take with him. wher- 
ever he goes, circulars and other union literature 
which he can give to or place within reach of non- 
union seamen. 

The Secretary-Treasurer points out that the pro- 
gram of meetings for organizing purpose*, recom- 
mended by the International convention last 
was not carried out by the district unions. There 
appears to be a tendency to restrict the holding of 
such meetings to times and places when and where 
the services of the International President, the In- 
ternational Secretary-Treasurer or some of the In- 
ternational Vice-Presidents are available as speakers. 
This, of course, does not apply to all divisions of our 
movement, but it is true of an altogether too large 
proportion thereof. A few more or less spasmodic- 
meetings, hurriedly called because of the availability 
of one or more of the International officers, can have 
little effect. It is much like attempting to harvest a 
crop before the seed is sown. The widespread use of 
literature, setting forth the necessity of organization, 
should be the first step. This should be followed by 
open meetings whenever in the judgment of the local 
officers it appears that non-unionists are sufficiently 
interested to attend. It is not necessary to await 
the availability of International officers for speakers 
before arranging such meetings. The Secretary- 
Treasurer rightly points out that the American Fed- 
eration of Labor organizers, central body and state 
federations of labor officials, and even National and 
International officers of other unions, will gladly -erve 
as speakers at organizing meetings called by our 
union. These officers can be relied upon to support 
the principles and policies of the I. S. U. of A. This 
is true in practically every port where the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union is represented. Tin- willing- 
ness of the A. I". of 1.. to aid in making our organiz- 
ing campaign a success is clearly indicated by the 
fact that President William Green of the A. 1 I ' I . 
has furnished our International ofhec with a liberal 
supply of organizing literature without cost. The 
Secretary-Treasurer has been assured of additional 
assistance from this source. It is certain that the 
moment local aid is needed from the A. F. of I... ap- 
propriate instructions will he issued to central body 
officials and volunteer organizers by President I 

Your Committee recommends that the Secretary- 
Treasurer be instructed to bring these facts to the at- 
tention of all district union and branch officer*, and 
to insist, first, on the widespread distribution of or- 
ganizing literature; second, the holding of organizing 
meetings, under circumstances set forth in this re- 
port, with the assistance of local central body officials 
and other local trade union officials. 

We further recommend, first, that all district union 
and branch officers be required to report to the 
Secretary-Treasurer the time and place of the hold- 
ing of such meetings, the name* of the speakers and 
the number of seamen in attendance; second, that the 
Secretary-Treasurer be instructed to include in his 
report to the next convention a statement indicating 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



129 



the number of such meetings held at each port, in 
order that the membership at large can be given an 
opportunity to know just what response has been 
made by district and local officers to the recommen- 
dations of this Convention. 

We further recommend approval of that part of 
the Secretary-Treasurer's report appearing under the 
title "Organizing Activities." 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

Sea Service Bureau Hearing 

President Furuseth reported that he had received 
notice that the Sea Service Bureau appropriation 



would be considered at a hearing to be held at 3 p. m. 
by the Sub-Committee on Independent Offices Ap- 
propriations, of the Committee on Appropriations of 
the House of Representatives. He stated that, in 
accord with the policy of the International Union 
and the instructions of the convention, it was neces- 
sary for him to attend the hearing for the purpose of 
urging that the appropriation be denied and the Bu- 
reau abolished. 

It was thereupon agreed that the delegates should 
accompany the President to the hearing. 

At 2 p. m., the Convention, under suspension of 
the rules, adjourned until 5 p. m. 



EIGHTH DAY 

Wednesday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 22, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 5 p. <m. by 
President Furuseth. 

The President reported that at 3 p. m. he had 
appeared before the Sub-Committee on Independent 
Offices, of the Committee on Appropriations of the 
Plouse* of Representatives in opposition to the Sea 
Service Bureau. He stated that he was accompanied 
by the delegates and had found the chairman of the 
sub-committee to be hostile to the claims of the sea- 
men. 

The report of the President was accepted. 



At 5:30 p. m. the Convention was resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole for the consideration of 
pending matters. 

The Convention was reconvened at 6:30 p. m. 
President Furuseth in the Chair. 

Secretary Olander reported that the Committee of 
the Whole had made substantial progress in its con- 
sideration of the Secretary-Treasurer's report and 
that the delegates had expressed a determination to 
hold a night session. 

The Convention then, at 6:35 p. m., adjourned 
until 7:30 p. m., under suspension of the rules. 



EIGHTH DAY 

Wednesday Night Session 



Washington, D. C, January 22, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order in night ses- 
sion at 7:30 p. m. by President Furuseth. 

Roll Call. All delegates present. 

The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
of the Whole for the consideration of the report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer and various resolutions. 

At 9:45 p. m. the Convention was called to order 
by President Furuseth. 

Report of Committee 

Delegate Silver read the following reports of the 
Committee of the Whole on the report of the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer and on resolutions: 

Merchant Marine Conferences 

In his report on "Merchant Marine Conferences," 
the Secretary-Treasurer advises that the International 
Union was represented during the past year at two 
national conferences dealing with matters directly 
affecting the mechant marine and seamen, namely, 



the Conference of the American Social Hygiene As- 
sociation, on the health of seamen, held in New York 
last May, and, second, the Marine Section of the 
Eighteenth Annual Congress of the National Safety 
Council, held in Chicago last October. 

We heartily approve the action of the Secretary- 
Treasurer in delegating some of the New York offi- 
cers to represent the International Union at the New 
York Conference which he could not attend. The 
effect of their attendance was good. The partici- 
pation of the Secretary-Treasurer in the discussion 
at the Congress of the National Safety Council in 
Chicago was, we believe, decidedly necessary and 
will have good results. 

Your Committee recommends that the report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer on this subject be endorsed 
and the policy of the International Union to be rep- 
resented, whenever practicable, at all national confer- 
ences dealing with merchant marine affairs be re- 
affirmed. 



130 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee reported further: 

Relations With Shipowners 

The Secretary-Treasurer in his report on the sub- 
ject "Relations With Shipowners" directs atten- 
tion to the action of the last convention in which 
he was instructed "to proceed, in such manner and 
at such time as he may deem wise and proper, to 
open negotiations with the associations of shipowners 
with a view of bringing about conferences between 
representatives of the union and representati\ 
the shipowners," and, further, "if he finds that the 
associations of shipowners persist in their antagonis- 
tic attitude toward the International Seamen's Union 
01 America and against the rights of seamen to or- 
ganize, that then his recommendation to inaugurate a 
movement to repeal Section 15 of the Shipping Act, 
1916. be carried out vigorously." 

The Secretary-Treasurer reports that the oppor- 
tunity for the suggested conferences did not material- 
ize, due in part to the fact that, as stated in his 
report, he decided not to initiate efforts towards a 
conference with the shipowners during the absence 
of the International President, who, in accord with 
the instructions of the last Convention, was attending 
the Geneva Conference of the International Labor 
Office of the League of Nations. Other duties required 
his full time after the return of the President. 

Your Committee recommends that the instructions 
of the Thirty-first Convention, as referred to herein, 
be re-enacted by this Convention as applicable to 
present and future. The principle of collective bar- 
gaining for which the Union stands, and which is one 
of" its major reasons for existing, cannot be made 
applicable except through recognition of the union by 
a conference with shipowners to discuss terms and 
conditions of employment. The constitution of the 
International Union specifically provides for such 
procedure. We should continue to make it clear, by 
deed as well as words, that the failure to carry out 
the principle of collective bargaining in the merchant 
marine must be laid at the door of the associations 
of shipowners and cannot be charged against the 
Union. 

The International Seamen's Union of America 
stands for peace and progress in the American mer- 
chant marine. The associations of shipowners ap- 
pear to stand for turmoil and retrogression, seem- 
ingly because of a manifestly erroneous notion that 
somehow they can profit by confusion. Too many 
of them appear to thoughtlessly believe that money 
alone is sufficient to operate ships, notwithstanding 
the historical fact that the disappearance of the na- 
tive personnel from the ships of any country in- 
evitably leads to the ultimate destruction of its mer- 
chant marine. The so-called "Americanization of 
crews,'' as now carried on, especially by the U. S. 
Shipping Board, is nothing more than a process of 
elimination of skilled seamen, both native and natur- 



alized, and the substitution of unskilled natives under 
conditions against which they quickly rebel to such 
an extent that they leave the sea entirely after a 
or two, and the encouragement of the entry 
of foreign seamen, extending even to Orientals. The 
crews will become truly Americanized only when the 
associations of shipowners recognize the need for 
and agree to the application of American standards 
on board their ships. 

At the Thirty-first Convention, the Secretary- 
Treasurer directed attention to the fact that "In the 
American merchant marine the right to organize for 
mutual aid and advancement i> reserved mainly for 
shipowners, by virtue of the law and the attitude of 
the United States Shipping Board, which has held 
that it cannot enter into agreements with trade 
unions in relation to wages and working conditions. 
not only sanctions, but actually participates in agree- 
ments between and with private shipowners for the 
purpose of maintaining rates and profits. Under the 
law — as construed and administered by the Shipping 
Board, the man who is a shipowner has greater rights 
of organization than the man who is a seaman. The 
law in question i> Section 15 of the Shipping Act 
of 1916." 

Under Section 15 of the Shipping Act of 1916, as 
reported by the Secretary-Treasurer a year ago, the 
shipowners are permitted to organize for the pur- 
pose of fixing and regulating rates and fan 
the giving and receiving of special rates, accommo- 
dations, or other special privileges or advantages; 
controlling, regulating, preventing, or destroying 
competition; pooling or apportioning earnings, losses 
or traffic; allotting ports or restricting or otherwise 
regulating the number and character of sailings be- 
tween ports; limiting or regulating in any way the 
volume or character of freight or passenger traffic 
to be carried; or in any manner providing for an 
exclusive, preferential, or cooperative working ar- 
rangement, providing only that they report such 
agreements or arrangements to the Shipping Board 
and receive the approval of that Board. The language 
which your Committee has used in this paragraph 
as outlining the organization rights of the shipowners 
under the law referred to, is not an opinion of the 
Committee but is the actual language of the law 
itself. The shipowners, therefore, may, upon report 
to and approval by the Shipping Board, carry on 
activities which, in the absence of the particular 
section of the law quoted by the Secretary-Treasurer, 
v/ould be criminal conspiracy and punishable by both 
fine and imprisonment 

The special privileges accorded the shipowners in 
this respect are not limited to the Shipping Act of 
1916. The Secretary-Treasurer has called the atten- 
tion of your Committee to the fact that additional 
special privileges are conferred upon the shipowning 
fraternity by Section 29 of the Shipping Act of 1920, 
wherein they are released from the anti-trust laws 
in order to permit them and the insurance com- 
panies with which they are affiliated to organize and 



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131 



act in a manner which, in the absence of Section 
29 of the Shipping Act of 1920, would render them 
liable to criminal prosecution and to punishment by- 
fine and prison sentences. The Section is as follows: 
Sec. 29 (a) That whenever used in this section — 

(1) The term "association" means any associa- 
tion, exchange, pool, combination, or other arrange- 
ment for concerted action; and 

(2) The term "marine insurance companies" means 
any persons, companies, or associations, authorized 
to write marine insurance or reinsurance under the 
laws of the United States or of a State, Territory, 
District, or possession thereof. 

(b) Nothing contained in the "anti-trust laws" as 
designated in section 1 of the Act entitled "An Act 
to supplement existing laws against unlawful re- 
straints and monopolies, and for other purposes," ap- 
proved October 15, 1914, shall be construed as de- 
claring illegal an association entered into by marine 
insurance companies for the following purposes: To 
transact a marine insurance and reinsurance business 
in the United States and in foreign countries and to 
reinsure or otherwise apportion among its member- 
ship the risks undertaken by such association or any 
of the component members. 

The Secretary-Treasurer has also directed the at- 
tention of 'your Committee to another government ac- 
tivity in aid of organizing activities among shipowers, 
namely, the National Conferences of American Ship- 
owners, sponsored by the U. S. Shipping Board, in 
January, 1928, and January, 1929. The agenda of 
the 1929 conference, as set forth in the last annual 
report of the U. S. Shipping Board, indicates the 
nature of the meeting, and is as follows: 

Reduction of differential between shipbuilding costs 
here and abroad. 

Methods of increasing patronage for American 
ships. 

Discriminating duties in indirect trade. 

Extension of coastwise laws to Philippines. 

Mail contracts. 

Government aid to American cargo ships. 

Panama Canal tolls. 

Marine insurance. 

Disposition of the Government's laid-up fleet. 

Establishment of foreign-trade zones in ports of the 
United States. 

Americanization of crews. 

Merchant Marine Naval Reserve. 

Safety of life at sea. 

Load line legislation. 

Marine engineering development and research. 

The agenda of these Shipowners' Conferences, 
organized and sponsored by the United States gov- 
ernment through the Shipping Board, shows that it 
dealt with a number of matters of direct concern to 
seamen. 

Thus, the government, through its laws and agencies 
officially encourages and aids the shipowners to 
organize and act for the advantage of private ship- 
owning interests. While the seamen, of course, have 
the legal right to organize, they are accorded no 
exemption or privileges such as have been conferred 
upon the shipowners and neither are they invited by 
the Shipping Board to meet and confer upon matters 
affecting their interests. This discrimination between 
citizens flouts the American standard of equality 



and justice in a most shameful manner. It should 
not be permitted to continue. Equality of the right to 
organize must be established. If the shipowners con- 
tinue to use their own rights and privileges of organi- 
zation, as they are now doing, to prevent the seamen 
from organizing to protect and advance the interests 
of the men who serve on board the ships, then Con- 
gress should be urged to repeal the laws thus wrong- 
fully used by the shipowners. One way or another, 
there must be an equalization of rights. The Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America does not ask 
either from Congress or the public any such special 
privileges for the seamen as have been conferred on 
the shipowners. The Union, however, does demand 
and will insist upon a square deal from the shipowners 
for the men who labor in the merchant marine. 

If the shipowners will not voluntarily recognize 
their duties in this respect, the Union will seek the 
aid of Congress and the general public to remove 
the artificial power conferred upon the owners by 
law in recent years. 

It is to be hoped, however, that there are to be 
found in the shipowning fraternity leaders of suffi- 
ciently broad vision to see and understand that the 
present condition of inequality cannot long endure 
and who have enough energy and strength to induce 
their associates to adopt policies and practices that 
will give full recognition to the organization rights 
of seamen. To this end, on lines that will fully 
recognize the public interests and duty and will up- 
hold the rights of all concerned, the International 
Seamen's Union of America and its various divisions 
are willing to meet and confer with representatives 
of associations of shipowners for the purpose of 
bringing about agreements on terms and conditions of 
employment in the American merchant marine. 

Your Committee recommends that the report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer on the subject of "Relations 
with Shipowners" be approved. 

The report of the Committee, was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee reported further: 

In connection with the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port on "Relations with Shipowners," your Commit- 
tee has given consideration to Resolution No. 3, 
which reads as follows: 

Resolution No. 3 

By Delegate David E. Grange, Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Union of the Atlantic: 

"WHEREAS, Very recently the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, through its President, Mr. William 
Green, has declared for peace and industry; and 

"WHEREAS, It is just as essential for us to have 
peace in industry as it is to have peace among na- ' 
tions; and 

"WHEREAS, The International Seamen's Union 
of America has done nothing to the present with a 
view of establishing peaceful and friendly relations 
with the American shipowners and operators; and 

"WHEREAS, We feel, and do believe, that by 
establishing peaceful and friendly relations with those 
for whom we must labor, especially after trying almost 



132 



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March, 1930 



every other means and failing to accomplish any 
worthwhile thing- for those whom we represent or the 
organizations themselves, therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, That this convention hereby places 
itself on record as favoring peaceful and friendly 
relations with the employers and that a committee 
of five be appointed for the purpose of interviewing 
the American Steamship Owners' Association and 
other private shipowners, with a view of establishing 
some form of understanding between them and the 
various District Unions." 

Your committee desires to point out that, contrary 
to the assertion contained in the third "Whereas" of 
the resolution, the International Seamen's Union of 
America has repeatedly expressed not only a willing- 
ness, but a desire to bring about the establishment of 
collective bargaining on a trade union basis with 
American shipowners and operators. 

We are in full accord with the manifest intent of 
the resolution and its introducer, but we feel that the 
language used in the resolution is susceptible to 
meanings not in full harmony with that intent, nor 
with the purpose of the American Federation of La- 
bor as outlined by President Green. As a substitute 
for the resolution, and in accord with the intent of 
the introducer as we understand it, subject to the 
observations and recommendations made in that part 
of our report relating to the report of the Secretary- 
Treasurer on the subject "Relations with Shipown- 
ers," your committee recommends that a committee 
of five be appointed, with the Secretary-Treasurer as 
chairman, to endeavor to bring about conferences be- 
tween representatives of the International Union or 
its district unions with representatives of shipowners, 
either national, district, or local, in accord with the 
laws of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica, for the purpose of bringing about agreements on 
a trade union basis relating to terms and conditions 
of employment and mutual recognition of the right 
to organize. 

Your committee further recommends that the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer be empowered to determine the pro- 
cedure to be followed in so far as that determination 
may rest with the International Seamen's Union. 

The report of the committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

President Furuseth announced the appointment of 
the following as members of the committee, as pro- 
vided for by the action of the Convention, to serve 
with the Secretary-Treasurer to endeavor to arrange 
conferences with shipowners, namely: Percy J. Pryor, 
Secretary, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association; 
Oscar Carlson, Secretary, Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf; David 
E. Grange, President, Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
.Union of the Atlantic and Gulf; Paul Scharrenberg, 
Editor, Seamen's Journal. 

Delegate Silver continued the presentation of the 
report of the Committee of the Whole, as follows: 
American Merchant Marine 

Under the caption, "American Merchant Marine," 
the Secretary-Treasurer directs attention to the dec- 
laration entitled "For the Development and Support 



of the American Merchant Marine," based upon re- 
ports and resolutions adopted at various conventions. 
The declaration, which has been prepared by the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer for the use of district and branch 
offices of the Union was adopted at the Thirtieth 
Convention in 1927 and re-affirmed at the convention 
a year ago, with instructions to add an explanatory 
note indicating that Item 11, relating to the Ocean 
Mail Service Act of 1891, is no longer applicable for 
the reason that in the ocean mail service section of 
the Merchant Marine Act of 1929 the rates of com- 
pensation were greatly increased. In view of the in- 
creased rates now in force, your committee recom- 
mends that Item 11 be eliminated from the declara- 
tion and that in lieu thereof, as Item 9, the following 
be inserted: 

"Establish working hours on board ship compatible 
with American .standards by extending the three- 
watch system to include the deck crew as already 
established by law in the engine department, and pro- 
vide for an eight-hour day. as applicable to thi 
ards' department at sea and to the entire crew in 
port." 

It is understood that the old Section 9 and the fol- 
lowing sections shall he renumbered. 

The committee recommends that the declaration be 
re-affirmed with the amendment herein provided for. 

The report of the committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 11 

By Delegate S. A. Silver, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific: 

"WHEREAS, The five-day working week is rap- 
idly gaining recognition of late, and the average 
workday for labor ashore does not generally exceed 
eight hours; and 

"WHEREAS, We seamen are still compelled to 
work, while the ship is in safe harbor, under a law 
calling for a nine-hour day; and 

"WHEREAS, In innumerable instances, on a day 
of departure and on a day of arrival, we are called 
upon to work, without any extra compensation, from 
twelve to fourteen hours a day; therefore, be it 

"RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, that Sec- 
tion 2 of the Act of March 4, 1915, in reference to 
nine hours' working day, be so amended that on a 
day of departure, or on a day of arrival, or while the 
vessel is in safe harbor, eight hours, inclusive of the 
anchor watch, shall constitute a day's work; except 
on Saturday, when four hours shall constitute a full 
day's work, and be it further 

"RESOLVED. That the Legislative Committee is 
hereby instructed to proceed to have the intent and 
purpose of this resolution enacted into law." 

The committee recommended adoption of Resolu- 
tion No. 11. 

The report of the committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The committee continued its report: 
Resolution No. 12 

By Delegate S. A. Silver, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific: 

"RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, that Sec- 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



133 



tion 2 of the Act of March 4, 1915, in reference to 
two watches, be so amended that the sailors shall, 
while at sea, be divided into at least three watches; 
and be it further 

"RESOLVED, That the Legislative Committee is 
hereby instructed to proceed to have this amendment 
enacted into law." 

The committee recommended that Resolution No. 
12 be adopted. 

The report of the committee was concurred in by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The committee continued its report. 

International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea 

We heartily commend the action of the Secretary- 
Treasurer in the steps he took during the absence of 
the President and chairman of the Legislative Com- 
mittee in the preparation of a comprehensive analysis 
of the dangerous draft convention or treaty drawn 
up at the International Conference on Safety of Life 
at Sea, at London, last May. His analysis was pre- 
pared for presentation to the President of the United 
States and the Senators and Congressmen as an 
emergency measure to warn against the proposed 
treaty. It was not thus presented, he reports, for 
the reason that President Furuseth, who, as chairman 
of the Legislative Committee, is charged with the 
duty of attending to such matters, returned to Wash- 
ington from the Geneva Conference in time to attend 
to it. The analysis, however, is a matter of record 
in that it was published in the Seamen's Journal. It 
will be of service in the campaign to prevent ratifica- 
tion of the treaty. The Convention, having already 
expressed its opposition to the treaty, in acting upon 
the President's report thereon, no further action in 
relation to it is required at this time, other than to 
approve the report of the Secretary-Treasurer on the 
subject and the committee recommends that this be 
done. 

The report of the committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The committee reported further: 

International Membership Book 

It is pleasing to note, as reported by the Secretary- 
Treasurer under the caption, "International Member- 
ship Book," that the uniform membership book of the 
International Union has met with favor to the point 
where its use in all divisions of the organization will 
be universal in the near future. Your committee rec- 
ommends that the Secretary be instructed to continue 
to press upon all affiliated unions the wisdom of 
adopting the uniform International membership book, 
and we further recommend that his report on this 
subject be approved. 

The report of the committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The committee continued its report as follows: 

In connection with the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port on membership books your committee has taken 



into consideration Resolution No. 10, which reads as 
follows: 

Resolution No. 10 

By Delegate Victor A. Olander, Sailors' Union of 
the Great Lakes: 

"RESOLVED, That Article XIII of the Constitu- 
tion of the International Seamen's Union of America 
be amended to read as follows: 

ARTICLE XIII 

Certificate of Membership 

"The membership books issued by the District and 
Local Unions shall be of the same general form and 
shall, upon application, be supplied to said District 
and Local Unions by the International Seamen's 
Union of America, through the Secretary-Treasurer, 
under regulations approved by the Executive Board. 
Certificates of membership shall always remain the 
property of the Union." 

Your committee recommends that Resolution No. 
10, amending Article XIII of the Constitution of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, be adopted 
by the Convention. 

The report of the committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the convention, and the Constitu- 
tion was declared amended in accord with Resolution 
No. 10. 

The committee continued to report: 
Watches 

Under the caption "Watches," the Secretary-Treas- 
urer reports that the agitation for the extension of 
the three-watch system to the deck crew has been 
carried forward steadily by all District Unions and 
branches during the past year. A statement prepared 
at the Thirty-first Convention showing the activities 
of the Union in the promotion of the three-watch sys- 
tem should be made available to the District Unions 
and branches in the form of a printed leaflet or circu- 
lar for distribution among seamen. 

In view of the action of this Thirty-second Con- 
vention on Resolution No. 12, by the adoption of 
which the Legislative Committee is instructed to pro- 
vide for the introduction of a bill in Congress to 
amend Section 2 of the Seamen's Act in such manner 
as to extend the three-watch system to the deck crew, 
an eleventh item may be inserted in the statement on 
the three-watch system to read as follows: 

"In January, 1930, the International Seamen's 
Union of America initiated a movement for legisla- 
tion to amend Section 2 of the Seamen's Act in such 
manner as to provide for extension of the three- 
watch system to the deck crew, on the same basis as 
that section now provides three watches for firemen, 
oilers and watertenders." 

Your committee recommends that the report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer on the subject of watches be 
approved and that all District Unions be urged to 
continue the agitation for three watches on deck. 

The report of the committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Convention then, at 10:15 p. m., adjourned 
until 9:30 a. m., Thursday, January 23. 



134 



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March, 1930 



NINTH DAY 

Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 23. 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. 
by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

The minutes of the eighth day's session were read 
and approved. 

The Convention was resolved into the Committee 
of the Whole for the consideration of the report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer and other matters. 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention was reconvened, 
President Furuseth in the chair. 

Report of Committee 

Delegate Silver read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on the report of the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer: 

The Seamen of Canada 

Under the caption "The Seamen of Canada," the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer directs attention to 
the fact that there is comparatively little organization 
among Canadian seamen. Such inquiry as the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer has been able to make by mail, in 
response to the instructions of the last convention, 
have yielded little information upon which to deter- 
mine the best policy to be pursued by the Inter- 
national Union in relation to the Canadian seamen. 
Branches of the District Unions whose headquarters 
are in the United States have been established in 
Canada from time to time but have not survived. An 
attempt to maintain a district union of Canadian sea- 
men on the Great Lakes, which gave signs of promise 
some years ago, proved futile. The charter granted 
to Canadian seamen on the Pacific Coast not long ago 
under the name National Seamen's Union of Canada, 
brought no results of consequence. After a short 
existence, that union disbanded and the few men that 
comprised its membership joined the Vancouver 
organization known as the Federated Seafarers' 
Union. During the past two years the Federated Sea- 
farers' Union of Vancouver has been endeavoring to 
extend its activities to Montreal and other Eastern 
ports. In connection with this attempt to initiate 
organization activities in Canadian Atlantic ports the 
union in question has sought recognition from and 
exchange of transfer privileges wth the National 
Union of Seamen of Great Britain and Ireland. 

If the Federated Seafarers' Union of Canada, as 
the organization is now named, gives any indication 
of sufficient strength to maintain representation at 
Montreal or other ports in the Atlantic District, it 
might be wise for the Executive Board to take that 
organization into consideration in possible arrange- 
ments for one general Canadian district of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, or for three 
Canadian districts, that is, a Canadian Atlantic Dis- 
trict, a Canadian Great Lakes District and a Canadian 



Pacific District. It will be advisable to consult with 

any other organization of seamen which may now 
exist in Canada before undertaking any of the sug- 
gested arrangements. The question of whether tin- 
three divisions of the craft, namely, the sailors, fire- 
men and cooks, should have separate district organ- 
izations, or should be requested to join a single 
district union, is a matter that can only be determined 
after inquiry and perhaps actual experiment. 

Your committee recommends that the Executive 
Board be instructed to continue its study of the 
Canadian situation and that the Board be authorized 
to make such arrangements for the organization of 
seamen in Canada, in the matter of a charter or char- 
ters, as it may deem necessary to accomplish the 
desired results. 

Until some better arrangements than now exist 
can be brought about in Canada, it would be unwise 
for the National Union of Seamen of Great Britain to 
grant transfer privileges to existing Canadian organ- 
izations. Your committee recommends that the 
National Union of Seamen of Great Britain be so 
informed. 

The condition of the seamen of Canada, indicated 
by their status under the laws of that country, as 
described in the report of Secretary Olander, is 
deplorable to say the least. It is imperative that steps 
be taken to bring the facts of the situation to the 
attention of the Canadian people, the great majority 
of whom are undoubtedly unaware of the sort of laws 
their parliament has enacted to enslave the seamen. 
The Secretary recommends that the matter be imme- 
diately brought to the attention of the Canadian 
Trades and Labor Congress, which is the Canadian 
branch of the American Federation <\i Labor. 

Your committee is in full accord with the Secretary- 
Treasurer on this subject and we recommend that he- 
be authorized and instructed to lay the matter before 
the officers of the Canadian Trades and Labor Con- 
gress at such time and in such manner as he may 
deem proper. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 
Alleged Radicals 

The Secretary-Treasurer very properly uses the 
title "Alleged Radicals" in his reference to the so- 
called "Marine Workers' League." In its announce- 
ments, that so-called "League" claims to be charged 
with the work of organizing a new union of 
seamen as a branch of the Red Internationale. We 
agree with the Secretary-Treasurer that some sig- 
nificance must be attached to the fact that the self- 
styled representatives of the Red Internationale of 
Moscow called the meetings or conferences, which 
they have recently held at some of the American sea- 



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135 



ports, after the proposed treaty on safety of life at 
sea — a misnomer — had been signed by the represent- 
atives of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics and 
seventeen other nations. The proposed treaty is 
designed to wipe out certain important sections of the 
American Seamen's Act and thus to operate in the 
interests of European shipowners. 

The only organization qualified to inform the 
American public concerning the Seamen's Act and to 
carry on agitation in support of that Act is the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. The "Marine 
Workers' League" suddenly springs into at least 
verbal activity in an open and avowed attack upon the 
International Seamen's Union. Always its leaders 
proclaim themselves as "radicals." Thus we find the 
shipowners in Europe and alleged "radicals" in 
America making common cause against the American 
seamen. The activities of these two oddly mated 
groups cannot be the result of mere coincidence. The 
participation of the Russian representatives in the 
proposed treaty, coupled with the claim of the 
■"League" leaders that they represent the Red Inter- 
nationale in America, lends color to the charge now 
being made that the Russian representatives are a 
conscious part of the conspiracy. 

The International Seamen's Union has never in- 
dulged in any criticism with reference to the activities 
of the Russian government within its own country. 
The Union has never endeavored to act as a political 
instructor for its members. When, however, we find 
official Russian government representatives and Red 
Internationale representatives working hand in glove 
with European shipping interests against the inter- 
ests of the American seamen and the United States 
as a maritime nation, we are justified in issuing a 
warning against the activities of those alleged "rad- 
icals," just as we have frequently warned against the 
activities of the reactionary shipowning interests of 
Europe as well as those of America. 

What is there that is "radical" about the "Marine 
Workers' League" or any of its officers? When and 
where have they ever sought or ever talked about 
changes in the interests of seamen, other than upon 
soap boxes at street corners mouthing words that 
proclaim their ignorance of the conditions under 
which seamen live and work? They promise to bring 
about the enforcement of the Seamen's Act, yet in 
their publications where their own printed word 
exposes them, they show that they know nothing 
about the Act. 

The Seamen's Act is a product of the activities of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. All 
of the world knows that to be true. The alleged 
"radicals" seek to cover that fact under a barrage of 
noisy words. They talk of a return to the conditions 
which the seamen worked under in 1920, a consid- 
erable part of which was lost as a result of the strike 
of 1921. Lest we forget, let us ask the question, 
"What were the alleged 'radicals' doing in 1921?" 
Here is the answer. They were acting in exactly the 
same way as they are acting today — as wreckers 



against the International Seamen's Union of America. 
While the shipowners were fighting the Union in 1921 
by locking out its members, the alleged "radicals" 
were "boring from within" for the purpose of dis- 
couraging and scattering the membership. The com- 
bination of reactionary shipowners and alleged 
"radicals" in 1921 succeeded in their joint tactics 
against the Union and the price the seamen were 
compelled to pay was a reduction of wages and a 
lengthening of the working hours. 

In every Congress during recent years, bills have 
made their appearance intended to emasculate the 
rights of the seamen. Yet at no time has any repre- 
sentative of either the alleged "League" or the Red 
Internationale appeared at the national capital to 
either assert or to defend the rights of seamen. 

There are pending today several menacing bills in 
the present Congress. But nowhere is there any 
sight of a single alleged "radical" of the "League" 
who is so much as turning a hand in an effort to stop 
these dangerous measures. The "League" leaders 
loudly rail against the Sea Service Bureau of the 
Shipping Board and promise its abolition if the sea- 
men will join their alleged organization. The Sea 
Service Bureau cannot be abolished except through 
action by Congress or the United States Shipping 
Board. The Shipping Board having refused to act, 
the hope lies in action by Congress. Where were 
the alleged "radicals" of the "League" when the 
hearing took place yesterday, January 22, 1930, on 
the Sea Service Bureau appropriation before a sub- 
committee of the Committee on Appropriations in 
the House of Representatives? Probably on some 
soap boxes on the street corners in New York 
making false promises to whoever would listen to 
their slippery tongues. Certainly they did not appear 
before the Congressional committee to urge the abo- 
lition of the Sea Service Bureau. It remained for 
the officers of the International Seamen's Union of 
America to perform that duty for the American 
seamen. 

In all the literature printed in the name of the 
so-called "Marine Workers' League" there appears 
no word of the 'dangers confronting the American 
seamen through legislative action. Why not? Per- 
haps because most of the alleged "radicals" who lead 
the "League" are ignorant of what is taking place. 
That is the most charitable view. The seamen must 
be warned against these "blind leaders of the blind" 
who are so ignorant of what has happened and is 
happening as affecting the interests of the seamen. 
Yet all are not ignorant, There are undoubtedly those 
who are deliberately seeking to turn the attention of 
the American seamen towards improbable revolution- 
ary thoughts for the purpose of making those seamen 
easy victims of the present-day reactionary interests 
that have wronged them so deeply in the past. 

There is no danger that the members of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America will be led astray 
by these alleged "radicals." There is, however, a 
grave danger which we recognize fully, that the unin- 



136 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



formed non-union seamen, made desperate by the 
unfair conditions under which they are compelled to 
live and work, may be led astray by the "will-o'-the- 
wisp" promises which the so-called "radicals" are 
now loudly shouting. 

It is therefore the duty of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America and of all its officers and 
members to carry on a more active campaign of 
information and education among American seamen. 



This will be done. Your committee recommends that 
the Executive Board be authorized to take whatever 
steps it may deem necessary to promote a campaign 
of trade union education among seamen during the 
coming year. 

The report of the committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Convention then, at 12:20 p. m.. adjourned 
until 2 p. m. 



NINTH DAY 

Thursday Afternoon Session 



Washington, D. C, January 23, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

Committee on Audit 

Chairman Hunter of the Committee on Audit read 
the following report of the Committee: 

Washington, D. C, January 23, 1930. 

The undersigned members of the Committee on 
Audit of the Thirty-second Convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America respectfully 
submit the following report: 

We have carefully examined books, vouchers, can- 
celled checks, books and statements for the fiscal 
year, December 1, 1928, to November 30, 1929, and 
find same correct as published in the report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

We have further checked accounts for the month 
of December, 1929, finding it correct and correspond- 
ing with bank statements for that month. 

We have further checked accounts to and includ- 
ing January 10, 1930, and found it correct. 

We have verified cash in hand by telegram from 
First National Bank, Chicago, which states that there 
was on deposit to the credit of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America at the close of business 
January 13, 1930, the sum of $13,644.75. Difference in 
Secretary-Treasurer's books and bank is shown by 
outstanding checks. 

We further find that the books, etc., were kept along 
straight business lines and are a credit to the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IVAN HUNTFR, 
S. A. SILVER, 
.D. E. GRANGE, 
Committee on Audit. 

The report of the Committee on Audit was adopted 
unanimously. 

At 2:10 p. m. the Convention was resolved into the 
Committee of the Whole for the consideration of the 
pending matters. 

At 6 p. m. the Convention was reconvened. Pres- 
ident Furuseth in the chair. 



Report of Committee 

Delegate Silver read the following reports of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Executive Board 

The Committee recommends approval of the actions 
taken by the Executive Board during the past year 
as reported by the Secretary-Treasurer in his annual 
report to the Convention. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
Seamanship 

The Committee recommends endorsement of the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer on "Seamanship" 
and re-affirmation of the education plan referred to 
in the report. That plan, which was originally adopted 
at the Philadelphia Convention in 1921, is an essential 
part of the program of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. The Committee continued its report. 
Able Seamen Certificates 

The tabulation showing the number of able seamen 
certificates issued at the various ports, 1915 to 1929, 
submitted by the Secretary-Treasurer in his report, 
is the only complete compilation which has been pub- 
lished, so far as your committee knows. It has been 
compiled by the Secretary-Treasurer from the official 
annual reports of the United States Steamboat 
Inspection Service and offers startling proof of the 
tremendous turnover of able seamen in the American 
merchant marine. The publication of the tabulation 
should be continued from year to year, as in the 
past, because of its value for information purposes. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The Committee continued its report as follow-: 
"Lifeboatmen" Certificates 

The Secretary-Treasurer rightly uses quotation 
marks in his reference to "lifeboatmen" certificates 
in connection with his tabulation showing the num- 
ber of such certificates issued during the period 1915 
to 1929. The term "lifeboatmen" does not mean 
actual lifeboatmen, or men trained or accustomed to 
handle small boats or oars. It means simply certifi- 
cates, usually issued with little regard to experience 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



137 



or knowledge of lifeboats, which enable the Inspec- 
tion Service and the shipowners to proclaim to a 
trusting public that so-called "certified lifeboat- 
men" are on board. If the use of the term "life- 
boatmen" is to be continued in law and practice it 
should be made to mean something more than it 
does at present. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee continued its report: 
•Election of Vice-President 

The action of the Executive Board in filling the 
vacancy which occurred since the last Convention in 
the office of vice-president and which is reported upon 
by the Secretary-Treasurer under the caption stated 
above has already been endorsed by the Convention 
in action taken on the part of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer's report in which the actions of the Executive 
Board during the past year are recorded. No further 
action on the subject is necessary. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee continued to report as follows: 
La Follette Memorials 

Your committee recommends that the action of the 
Secretary-Treasurer in responding to requests to 
deliver addresses at memorial exercises in honor of 
the late Robert Marion La Follette, sponsor for the 
Seamen's Act, be endorsed. It is fitting that a repre- 
sentative of the International Seamen's Union of 
America should be present on such occasions to voice 
the gratitude of the organized seamen for the great 
service rendered to seamen by the late senator. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee reported further: 

The Passing of Great Comrades 

The passing of J. Havelock Wilson, president of 
the National Union of Seamen of Great Britain, who 
died last April, "leaves a lonesome place against the 
sky" which can never be filled. 

In the death of Thomas Conway, vice-president of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, last 
May, the delegates assembled here have lost a per- 
sonal friend and the Union a loyal and intelligent 
officer. 

The death last May of Edward Anderson, treas- 
urer of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific and a dele- 
gate to several conventions of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, took from our midst a loyal 
fellow worker known and honored among the men 
of our craft. 

In memory of these great brothers and comrades, 
we call upon the delegates to rise and stand for a 
brief space in silent meditation on the great service 
rendered to seamen by J. Havelock Wilson of Eng- 
land, Thomas Conway of Buffalo and Edward Ander- 
son of San Francisco. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The delegates thereupon arose and stood in silence 
for a few moments in memory of J. Havelock Wilson, 
Thomas Conway and Edward Anderson. 



Delegate Silver continued the reading of the report 
of the Committee of the Whole as follows: 
Conclusion of Secretary's Report 

In a final comment on the report of the Secretary- 
Treasurer your committee desires to emphasize by 
repetition the language of one of the closing para- 
graphs of that report, as follows: 

"The struggle of the seamen for equality with their 
fellow men goes forward steadily. In the forefront of 
the battle lines is the International Seamen's Union 
of America. It proclaims the self-evident fact that 
the first essential to human progress is freedom. The 
victory having been won in the halls of Congress, the 
effort now is to reach the hearts of the seamen. In 
order to be truly free, man must not only obtain lib- 
erty in the legal sense, he must actually use it. The 
membership of the International Seamen's Union of 
America know what freedom is and what it is for. 
They invite all seamen to join with them so that 
through the intelligent and united effort of a greater 
number, the fight for a better life for all may be the 
quicker won." 

The words indicate the high duty which the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America is charged to 
perform. May the great organization which the offi- 
cers and delegates at this Convention have the honor 
to represent continue to press onward with increased 
vigor and energy in the performance of its proud 
work. 

The report of the Committee was unanimously 
adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 2 

"By Delegates Oscar Carlson and Ernest Missland, 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of 
the Atlantic and Gulf. 

"WHEREAS, Little or no attempt has been made 
to reorganize the licensed men in either of the three 
districts into a bona fide labor organization, since the 
disastrous strike of 1921, with the exception of an 
attempt made by the Hoisting Engineers, a shore 
organization, to organize the marine engineers sailing 
out of the port of New York. This ended in failure 
after a considerable amount of money had been spent, 
as the marine engineers, it seems, did not believe in 
affiliating themselves with this organization of shore 
workers; and 

"WHEREAS, Officers of independent organizations 
of licensed men, both on deck and in the engineroom, 
have expressed themselves as being in favor of affiliat- 
ing with the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica, and we believe such affiliation will result in closer 
cooperation, and mutual assistance to all parties 
involved; therefore 

"RESOLVED, That this Convention apply to the 
American Federation of Labor for jurisdiction over 
all seamen in the United States, whether licensed or 
unlicensed, and that Section 2 of Article 1 of our 
International Constitution be amended to comply with 
this resolution." 

The Committee recommended that Resolution No. 2 
be non-concurred in. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 
Resolution No. 4 

The committee reported that the introducer of Res- 
olution No. 4 had requested permission for its with- 
drawal. The request was granted by the Convention. 

The Committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 5 

"By Delegate Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's 
Union of the Pacific. 



138 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March. 1930 



"WHEREAS, There is at present a 1 cent per 
pound duty on fresh halibut shipped into British 
Columbia from American vessels and there is a duty 
of 2 cents per pound for fresh halibut shipped into 
the United States by Canadian vessels; and 

"WHEREAS, This differential in the duty is 
deducted from the price offered by the dealers to the 
fishermen employed on Canadian vessels, many of 
whom are American citizens; and 

"WHEREAS, This differential permits the dealers 
to juggle the prices offered and to switch the fish 
into any country which best suits their purpose and 
is causing great hardships to the fishermen; therefore, 

"RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, respect- 
fully request Congress to equalize the duty on halibut 
in a fresh state, shipped into Canada by American 
vessels and fresh halibut shipped into the United 
States by Canadian vessels, by reducing the present 
tariff imposed on fresh halibut shipped into the United 
States by Canadian vessels 1 cent per pound." 

The Committee recommended the adoption of Res- 
olution No. 5. 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The Committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 6 

"By Delegate Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's 
Union of the Pacific. 

"WHEREAS, There is now being shipped into the 
United States a large amount of frozen halibut caught 
in foreign waters by foreign vessels; and 

"WHEREAS, This practice is growing year by 
year and if permitted to continue will work great 
hardships upon the American fishermen, because these 
foreign concerns, owing to cheap labor, are able to 
land this frozen halibut in the United States at 
figures that cannot possibly be met by American deal- 
ers and fishermen if they are to be permitted to live 
according to American standards; therefore, 

"RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's 
Union of America in convention assembled, that we 
respectfully request Congress to take the necessary 
steps to have the duty on frozen halibut entering into 
the United States increased to a figure that will meet 
the situation, namely, an increase sufficient to make 
the rate not less than 5 cents per pound." 

The Committee recommended concurrence in Res- 
olution No. 6. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by the 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The Committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 7 

"By Delegate Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's 
Union of the Pacific. 

"WHEREAS, It is reported that the International 
Fisheries Commission will recommend that the closed 
season for halibut be extended so that a three and 
one-half months closed season will be in effect, 
instead of three months, as is now the case; therefore 
be it 

"RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, is 
opposed to such extension of the closed season in the 
halibut fishing, because the present closed season is 
sufficient for the purpose for which it was established 
and the proposed extension will cause too long a 
period of idleness among the fishermen in the winter 
months." 

The Committee recommended adoption of Resolu- 
tion No. 7. 



The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee continued its report as follows: 
Resolution No. 8 

"By Delegate Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's 
Union of the Pacific. 

"WHEREAS, The present law provides that desti- 
tute seamen in Alaska shall be sent to the nearest port 
on the continent of the United States; and 

"WHEREAS, The present mode of -sending these 
nun is to send them in the Steerage, where no blan- 
kets are furnished and the food is in many cases unfit; 
and 

■ "WHEREAS, The vessels trading out of Seattle to 
Alaska have no second-class accommodations; there- 
fore, 

"KKSOLVED, That the Convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America take proper steps 
tc have this evil remedied." 

The Committee recommended that Resolution No. 8 
be adopted. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee reported further: 
Resolution No. 9 

"By Delegate Louis Larsen, Deep Sea Fishermen's 
Union of the Pacific. 

"WHEREAS, An article appears in the December 
issue of the 'Pacific Fisherman' indicating the Fish- 
ing Vessel Owners' Association intends to request the 
Federal Government to grant to fishermen a preferen- 
tial status in the matter of entering this country; and, 

"WHEREAS, There are now and has been an over- 
supply of fishermen engaged in the catching of deep 
sea fish and more are coming in under the present law 
than there is room for; therefore, 

"RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, that we 
strongly protest against the admission of foreign fish- 
ermen under preferred status." 

The Committee recommended adoption of Resolu- 
tion No. 9. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote of the Convention. 

The Committee reported further as follows: 
Resolution No. 13 

"By Delegate S. A. Silver, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific. 

"WHEREAS, The City of Honolulu, in the Terri- 
tory of Hawaii, is a midway point between the United 
States and the Far East, and is rapidly becoming a sea- 
port that is regularly visited by an increasing number 
of ships in the ever-growing Orient trade; therefore 
be it 

"RESOLVED, That this Convention shall endeavor 
to obtain the consensus of opinion of various delegates 
on the advisability of establishing a joint branch at 
Honolulu under the auspices of the International 
Seamen's Union of America." 

The Committee recommended that Resolution No. 
13 be referred to the Executive Board with authority 
to take such action in relation to the subject matter 
as the needs of the future may require and the laws, 
policies and finances of the International Union and 
the District Unions will permit. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

At 6:15 p. m. the convention, under suspension of 
rules, adjourned until 7:30 p. m. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



139 



NINTH DAY 

Thursday Night Session 



Washington, D. C, January 23, 1930. 

The Convention was called to order in night ses- 
sion at 7:30 p. m. by President Furuseth. 

Roll call. All delegates present. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Japan Seamen's Union 

The Committee of the Whole has had under con- 
sideration a request from the Japan Seamen's Union 
which was brought to the attention of the committee 
by the Secretary-Treasurer. He informed the com- 
mittee that he had received a letter from the editor of 
the Seamen's Journal, Paul Scharrenberg, who re- 
cently attended a meeting of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations in Japan. Editor Scharrenberg wrote that 
the officers of the Japan Seamen's Union, with whom 
he conferred, desired to have two matters brought to 
the attention of the Thirty-second Convention of the 
International Seamen's Union, namely: 

First — The Japan Seamen's Union desires to put 
an end to the prevailing custom on Japanese ships in 
American harbors whereby shore liberty is denied to 
all members of the crew except licensed officers. 

Second — That the Japan Seamen's Union is very 
much concerned about cheap labor competition from 
China and India and proposes to stimulate organiza- 
tion among seamen in both of those countries. 

The Japan Union officials were under the impres- 
sion that the American Union was either favorable to 
or had actually brought about the enactment of a 
supposed law which prevented Japanese sailors from 
securing shore liberty in American harbors. Editor 
Scharrenberg, however, made it clear to them that 
there is no such law and that the International Sea- 
men's Union of America stands squarely for the free- 
dom of seamen regardless of nationality or race. 

We recommend that the Secretary-Treasurer be 
instructed to inform the Japan Seamen's Union that 
it will receive hearty and willing cooperation from 
the International Seamen's Union of America in any 
effort that may be made to assert the rights of shore 
leave in American harbors on behalf of any and all 
bona fide Japanese seamen. 

We further recommend that the Secretary-Treas- 
urer be instructed to convey to the Japa.i Seamen's 
Union the good wishes of this Convention for the 
success of the efforts which are being made by the 
Japan Seamen's Union to encourage organization 
among seamen in China and India. 

Finally, your committee recommends that the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer be authorized and instructed to seek 
information from the Japan Seamen's Union as to 
how we can best cooperate with that organization. 

The report of the committee was adopted by a 
unanimous vote. 



Election of Officers 

The Convention, by unanimous vote, decided to 
proceed with the election of officers. 

Vice-President in the chair. 
President 

Andrew Furuseth, of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, was nominated for President. There being 
no further nomination the Secretary, under instruc- 
tions of the Convention, cast the unanimous vote of 
the Convention for Andrew Furuseth as President 
of the International Seamen's Union of America for 
the ensuing year, and he was declared elected ac- 
cordingly. 

President Furuseth in the chair. 

First Vice-President 

Patrick Flynn, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Pacific, was nominated 
for the office of First Vice-President. There were 
no further nominations. In accord with instructions 
of the Convention the Secretary cast the unanimous 
vote of the Convention for Patrick Flynn as First 
Vice-President of the International Seamen's Union 
of America for the ensuing year, and he was declared 
elected accordingly. 

Second Vice-President 

P. B. Gill, of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, was 
nominated for the office of Second Vice-President. 
There were no further nominations. Pursuant to in- 
structions of the Convention the Secretary cast the 
unanimous vote of the Convention for P. B. Gill as 
Second Vice-President of the International Seamen's 
Union of America for the ensuing year, and he was 
declared elected accordingly. 

Third Vice-President 

Percy J. Pryor, of the Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association, was nominated for the office of Third 
Vice-President. There were no further nominations, 
and in compliance with the instructions of the Con- 
vention the Secretary cast the unanimous vote of the 
Convention for Percy J. Pryor as Third Vice-Presi- 
dent of the International Seamen's Union of America 
for the ensuing year and he was declared elected 

accordingly. , „. - ., 

Fourth Vice-President 

Oscar Carlson, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, was 
nominated for the office of Fourth Vice-President. 
There were no further nominations, whereupon the 
Secretary, under instructions of the Convention, cast 
the unanimous vote of the Convention for Oscar 
Carlson as Fourth Vice-President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America for the ensuing year, and 
he was declared elected accordingly. 
Fifth Vice-President 

Patrick O'Brien, of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes, was nominated for the office of Fifth Vice- 



140 



THE SEAME 



President. There were no further nominations. The 
Secretary, in accord wtih instructions of the Conven- 
tion, cast the unanimous vote of the Convention for 
Patrick O'Brien as Fifth Vice-President of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America for the ensuing 
year, and he was declared elected accordingly. 
Sixth Vice-President 

Peter E. Olsen, of the Alaska Fishermen's Union, 
was nominated for the office of Sixth Vice-President. 
There were no further nominations. The Secretary, 
in accord with instructions of the Convention, cast 
the unanimous vote of the Convention for Peter E. 
Olsen as Sixth Vice-President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America for the ensuing year, and 
he was declared elected accordingly. 

Seventh Vice-President 

Ivan Hunter, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes, 
was nominated for the office of Seventh Vice-Presi- 
dent. There were no further nominations. The Sec- 
retary, in accord with instructions of the Convention, 
cast the unanimous vote of the Convention for Ivan 
Hunter as Seventh Vice-President of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, and he was de- 
clared elected accordingly. 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Victor A. Olander, of the Sailors' Union of the 
Great Lakes, was nominated for the office of Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. There were no further nominations. 
L T pon motion, unanimously adopted, President Furu- 
seth cast the unanimous vote of the Convention for 
Victor A. Olander as Secretary-Treasurer for the 
ensuing year, and lie was declared elected accord- 

i,,gly - Editor 

Paul Scharrenberg, of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, was nominated for Editor of the Seamen's 
Journal. There were no further nominations and the 
Secretary, under instructions of the Convention, cast 
the unanimous vote of the Convention for Paul 
Scharrenberg as Editor of the Seamen's Journal for 
the ensuing year, and he was declared elected accord- 
ingly. 

Legislative Committee 

Andrew Furuseth, of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, was nominated as the first member of the 
Legislative Committee. There being no further nom- 
inations he was declared elected. 

Victor A. Olander, of the Sailors' Union of the 
Great Lakes, was nominated as the second member 
of the Legislative Committee. There being no further 
nominations he was declared elected. 

Patrick Flynn was nominated as the third member 
of the Legislative Committee. There being no further 
nominations he was declared elected. 

Ivan Hunter, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes, 
was nominated as fourth member of the Legislative 
Committee. There being no further nominations he 
was declared elected. 

Percy J. Pryor, of the Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association, was nominated as the fifth member of 



N'S JOURNAL March, 1930 

the Legislative Committee. There beiiiL: no further 
nominations he was declared elected. 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor 
Upon motion duly seconded and adopted the Con- 
vention decided to send three delegates to the Con- 
vention of the American Federation of Labor. 

Andrew Furuseth was nominated as first delegate 
to the American Federation of Labor Convention and 
there being no further nominations he was unani- 
mously elected. 

Victor A. Olander was nominated as second dele- 
gate to the American Federation of Labor Convention 
and there being no further nominations he was unani- 
mously elected. 

Percy J. Pryor was nominated as third delegate to 
the American Federation of Labor Convention and 
there being no further nominations he was unani- 
mously elected. 

Committee on Education 
Paul Scharrenberg, Victor A. Olander and Percy J. 
Pryor were unanimously re-elected as members of 
the Standing Committee on Education. 
Date of Next Convention 
The Convention, by unanimous vote, decided that 
the next Convention shall convene on tin second 
Monday in January. 1931, unless postponed b} action 
of the Executive Board. 

Convention City 
Washington, D. C, was, by unanimous action, 
selected as the city in which to hold the next Con- 
vention. 

Printing of Proceedings 
The Convention, by unanimous vote, ordered the 
proceedings printed in a Convention edition of the 
Seamen's Journal and the Secretary-Treasurer was 
instructed to proceed accordingly. 
Officers' Salaries 
The Convention decided by unanimous vote that 
the salaries of the officers shall remain thi 
during the past year, namely, the President, $52.50 
per week; the Secretary-Treasurer, $10 per week, 
and the Editor, $100 per month. 
Donation 
Tile Convention, by Unanimous VOte, ordered a 
donation of $140.00 from the funds of the Interna- 
tional Union to the Marine Cooks and Steward-" 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 
Minutes 
The minutes of the ninth day's session, completing 
the record of the Convention, were then read and 
approved. 

Adjournment 
Whereupon the Thirty-second Convention of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, at 10:05 
p. m., Thursday, January 23, 1930, adjourned sine die. 
Fraternally submitted, 




tarv. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 141 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 

Affiliated with American Federation of Labor 



CONSTITUTION 
1930 

As amended by the Thirty-Second Convention, 1930 



PREAMBLE 



Recognizing that organization is the only means by 
which the Seaman may hope for amelioration and 
final emancipation from the many evils attending our 
calling, and for the purpose of furthering organiza- 
tion, strengthening it where it already exists and 
bringing into closer relations the component parts of 
our calling, we have organized the International Sea- 
men's Union of America; and having in view that we 
are migratory, that our work takes us away in dif- 
ferent directions from any place where the majority 
might otherwise meet to act; that meetings can have 
present only a fraction of the membership; that the 
absent members, who cannot be present, must have 
their interests guarded from what might be the results 
of excitement and passions aroused by persons or con- 
ditions, and that those who are present may act for 
and in the interest of all, we have adopted this Con- 
stitution. 

CONSTITUTION 



ARTICLE I 
Name, Membership and Jurisdiction 

Section 1. This organization shall be known as 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Sec. 2. Eligible for membership shall be bona fide 
seamen, other than licensed officers working as such, 
namely: Sailors (all men employed in the deck depart- 
ment), Eiremen (all men employed in the engine 
department), Cooks (all persons employed in the 
steward's department) and Fishermen, all of whom 
must be eligible to become citizens of these United 
States. 

Provided: That no one shall be admitted to mem- 
bership, or if admitted be permitted to remain mem- 
bers, if they are members of or advocating principles 
and policies of any dual organization or any organi- 
zation hostile to the International Seamen's Union of 
America, its aims and purposes. It claims jurisdic- 
tion over such work as the maritime law provides that 
Seamen may be required to perform, and over such 
work as fishermen usually do in connection with 
catching and handling of fish. 

ARTICLE II 

Powers 

Section 1. The powers of this organization shall 
be Legislative, Executive and Judicial, with such lim- 



itations and in such form as the convention shall 
from time to time provide in the constitution and 
laws enacted, and such constitution and laws shall be 
binding upon all members and upon any Union, Dis- 
trict organization, or district, into which such mem- 
bers may be formed. 

Acceptance and retaining of a charter shall be 
deemed to constitute a full agreement to such con- 
stitution and laws. Any violation of the constitution 
and laws shall work forfeiture of such charter subject 
to decision of the convention, or, between conven- 
tions, of the Executive Board. Provided: that pow- 
ers not specifically granted shall be deemed to be 
withheld unless inherent in and necessary for the 
exercise of powers specifically granted. 

ARTICLE III 

Form of Organization 

Section 1. In order to establish better unity in 
accomplishing the purposes for which this organiza- 
tion is formed, and for the purpose of administration, 
divisions, based upon difference in work performed, 
and districts, shall be formed which shall be known 
by their locality: The Atlantic and Gulf District, the 
Great Lakes District, the Pacific District, and such 
other districts as from time to time it may be expe- 
dient to form. 

Sec. 2. The districts shall be composed of Sailors, 
Firemen, Cooks and Fishermen, organized and char- 
tered separately, with headquarters and such branches 
as each District Union shall from time to time deter- 
mine, and under such laws, not inconsistent with the 
International Constitution, as each shall from time to 
time deem expedient. Each such district union shall 
have a permanent presiding officer, elected for not 
less than six months, to preside over meetings at 
headquarters and shall be represented in District 
Committees for consultation upon all matters of com- 
mon interest.-,. 

Sec. 3. The District Committee may call the mem- 
bership of the different unions together in joint meet- 
ings for the purpose of listening to reports, or ad- 
dresses made with the view of education, the better 
cooperation between the District Unions, the districts, 
and the better understanding of the purposes of the 
International. 

Such joint meetings shall not vote upon any ques- 
tion that. may be brought before it. Voting shall be 
done in and by the District Unions. 



142 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



ARTICLE IV 

Official Publication 

For the purpose of education and organization the 
International Seamen's Union of America shall pub- 
lish a monthly publication to be known as the Sea- 
men's Journal. The editor of the Seamen's Journal 
shall be elected at each annual convention, and he 
shall be entrusted with the editorial and business 
management subject to the control of the Executive 
Board and the annual conventions. 

ARTICLE V 

Convention and Representation 

Section 1. Conventions shall be held yearly or at 
such time and place as the previous convention may 
determine. 

Sec. 2. Representation at the convention shall be 
based upon the per capita tax paid for the fiscal year. 
For the purpose of determining the number of mem- 
bers in a District or Local Union, the monthly rate 
of per capita tax shall be multiplied by twelve, and 
the total amount paid for the fiscal } r ear shall be di- 
vided by the product of such multiplication. Organiza- 
tions more than three months in arrears when the 
convention meets shall not be entitled to representa- 
tion at the convention unless exempt from payments 
under Article XIY. 

District or Local Unions shall be entitled to one 
delegate for 200 members or less, two delegates for 
500 members or more, three delegates for 1000, and 
one delegate for each additional thousand members. 

Sec. 3. A District or Local Union shall be entitled 
to one vote for 100 members, or majority fraction 
thereof. When more than one delegate represents 
the District or Local Union the votes shall be appor- 
tioned between them as equally as possible. 

Sec. 4. Delegates shall have the same qualifica- 
tions as the elective officers of the organization rep- 
resented and shall be elected by each organization. 
Provided, no one shall be seated as a delegate in the 
convention who is delinquent in, or who has been 
expelled from any District or Local Union. In case 
a vacancy in the regularly elected delegation occurs 
between the election of delegates and the convention, 
the various organizations shall have the power to fill 
such vacancies. 

Sec. 5. The President, Secretary-Treasurer and 
Editor shall always attend the conventions. If not 
delegates they shall have voice, but no vote in the 
proceedings of the convention. Their expenses -hall 
be paid out of the International funds. 

Sec. 6. — District or Local Unions should send at 
least one delegate to the convention, and shall defray 
the expenses of such delegates as they send, unless 
as specified in Section 5. 

Sec. 7. The Secretary may make arrangements at 
the convention city to have daily proceedings printed. 

Sec. 8. All resolutions must be presented to the 

Secretary before 6 o'clock p. m. of the second day of 

the convention unless by unanimous consent of the 

convention. 

ARTICLE VI 
Powers of the Convention 

Section 1. The Convention shall pass upon creden- 
tials, audit all accounts, elect officers and represent- 
atives. It shall have the power to provide for 
organizers, adjust grievances, hear and act upon all 
measures that may be brought before it by any officer 



or accredited delegate; to hear, act upon and to finally 
determine any appeal. 

ARTICLE VII 

Officers and Election 

Section 1. The officers oi the Union shall consist 
>.>i one President, seven Vice-Presidents, and one Sec- 
retary-Treasurer. They shall be elected at the annual 
convention for the term of one year. 

See. 1. All vacancies occurring between conven- 
tions shall be filled by the Executive Board. 

ARTICLE VIII 

Duties of Officers 

Section 1. The President shall attend and preside 
over the meetings of the convention. He shall enforce 
due observance of the constitution and by-laws of 
the Union. He shall submit a report to the convention 
annually, and to the Executive Board, the District 
Unions or the District Committees as often as may 
be necessary. He shall be chairman of the Executive 
Board. He shall have authority to travel to any port 
or city within the jurisdiction of the International 
Union for the purpose of attending to the business 
of the organization, and shall perform such other 
duties as the convention or the Executive Board shall 
from time to time assign to him. His wages shall be 
determined by each convention. 

Prior to the meeting of each convention the Pres- 
ident shall appoint a committee on audit and creden- 
tials. This committee shall meet with the Secretary- 
Treasurer in the convention city on the Saturday 
morning prior to the opening of the convention for 
the purpose of auditing the books, preparing a report 
upon credentials and apportionment of the vote, hav- 
ing such report ready for the convention. 

In the event of a vacancy occurring in the office 
of President between conventions, the First Vice- 
President shall perform the duties of President. 

Sec. 2. The Secretary-Treasurer shall attend all con- 
ventions of the International Union and shall keep 
accurate record of proceedings. He shall have charge 
of the seal and the records of the International Union. 
He shall receive and receipt for all moneys and pay 
all bills for and on behalf of the International Union. 
He shall keep correct account of all receipts and 
expenditures and retain all receipted bills and shall 
submit a report to the convention. The fiscal year 
shall be the period beginning December 1 and ending 
November 30. 

He shall be Secretary of the Executive Board. On 
request from two or more members of the Executive 
Board he shall submit to the members a motion that 
the Board meet to act upon some stated situation or 
question; he shall submit to the members by mail or 
wire any question requiring action by the Board. He 
shall keep a record of business transacted and meet- 
ings held and shall make reports of the Board's 
actions a part of his quarterly report. 

He shall prepare quarterly financial statements 
showing the income and expense, the financial stand 
ing and the membership of the International Union 
and of District and Local Unions, as reported to him 
and a report upon the state of the Union. If any 
District Union shall fail to send reports at the proper 
time it shall be the duty of the Secretary-Treasurer 
to report such fact to the other District Unions in 
the District, to the District Committee, and such mem- 
bers of the Executive Board as are in such District, 
and he shall report any continued neglect to tin- 
Executive Board. He shall furnish copies of such 
statements and report to each subordinate union. He 



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143 



shall deposit all moneys in such bank or banks as may 
be designated by the Executive Board, subject to the 
check of the Secretary-Treasurer, not more than Ten 
Thousand ($10,000) Dollars to be deposited in any 
one bank. 

His books and accounts shall be submitted for 
inspection of the Committee on Audit and Credentials 
annually, and to the Executive Board, or an Auditing 
Committee, or a certified accountant selected by the 
Executive Board, at any time the Executive Board 
may deem it necessary. He shall furnish a bond of 
Fifteen Thousand ($15,000) Dollars with a reliable 
surety company, premium on bond to be paid by the 
International Union. He shall receive such wages 
as the Convention may decide and shall perform such 
duties, in addition to the duties herein specified, as 
the Convention or the Executive Board may from 
time to time assign to him. He shall have the power 
to appoint an assistant whenever he deems it neces- 
sary, at such pay as may be decided by the Executive 
Board. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall have authority to 
travel to any port or city within the jurisdiction of 
the International Union whenever necessary or to 
send a representative, for the purpose of attending 
to the business of the Union. 

Sec. 3. The Executive Board shall consist of the 
President, the Vice-Presidents, Secretary-Treasurer 
and the Editor. 

It shall meet at such times and places as the Con- 
vention or a majority of its members may direct and 
shall promptly attend to such business as may come 
before it. Business which can be transacted by mail 
or wire may be so transacted. It shall have the 
power to issue charters. It shall be the duty of the 
Board to see that the Constitution and laws of the 
International and of such divisions thereof, as from 
time to time may be organized, are obeyed. For the 
purpose of enforcing the constitution and laws it 
shall proceed as follows: 

(a) If the offender be a branch of a District Union, 
it shall be the duty of the headquarters of such 
offending branch to discipline such branch by remov- 
ing any officer or officers or to abolish such branch. 

(b) If the offender be a District Union, the Execu- 
tive Board, after trying and failing to induce the 
headquarters of such District Union to obey the law, 
may, for the protection of the loyal membership and 
pending reorganization, instruct the branches of 
such offending District Union to cease sending re- 
ports, moneys and other communications to said head- 
quarters, to tie up all funds and to protect all property 
by Equity proceedings and shall organize such other 
headquarters as shall obey the law. If such shall 
be deemed necessary, it may revoke the Charter of 
such offending District Union and organize another 
in its place. 

(c) If the offender be a Local Union the Executive 
Board may revoke the Charter, and may organize 
another Union or take such other action as may be 
expedient. 

It shall act upon appeals from District Unions, and 
District Committees, and from Branches of District 
Unions or members where such appeals come through 
the District Unions and have there been acted upon or 
action has been refused. It shall have power to re- 
move any officer, organizer, or deputy, acting for, or 
in behalf of the International, and to fill vacancies. 
The Board, any of its members, or any deputy selected 
by it, shall have the right to participate in any meet- 
ing for the purpose of reporting to, advising with, or 
performing such duty as shall have been assigned to 
the Board by the Convention, or by the Board, to 
any member thereof, or to any deputy. Members of 
the Board shall act promptly and definitely on any 



question brought before them and shall report viola- 
tions of law or other important matters to the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, who shall bring the matter to the 
attention of the Board if so requested or if he thinks 
it necessary or expedient. 

Legislative Committee 

The Annual Convention shall elect a Legislative 
Committee of five, whose duty it shall be to watch 
legislation in Congress and in foreign countries for 
the purpose of guarding the interests of seamen. In 
the United States such watching shall be specific and 
the Committee shall report to the Secretary-Treasurer 
and the District Unions upon any Bill introduced in 
Congress and of special interest to seamen, and such 
action shall be taken thereon as may seem best cal- 
culated to promote the welfare of seamen. The 
committee shall examine and pass upon any legisla- 
tion desired by any District Union. Such desired 
legislation may be submitted to the Committee, which 
shall, in such case, submit the same to the Conven- 
tion with its report thereon, or it may be submitted 
to the Convention. In either case the Convention 
shall pass upon it before it shall become the duty 
of the Legislative Committee to advocate or support it. 

ARTICLE IX 
District Committee 

Section 1. There shall be chosen in each District 
a committee to be known as the District Committee, 
composed of three representatives from each District 
Union. Such committee shall meet at least once a 
month and oftener if called by the Chairman. 

It shall be the duty of said committee to adjust 
grievances between District Unions, between District 
Unions and operators of vessels, to guard over the 
interest of the District Unions, to promote harmony 
of action and purpose; to call joint meetings in the 
interest of unity and organization; to consider such 
other matters as shall have been referred to it by 
any District or Local Union; to pass upon appeals 
submitted by any member of a Local Union and to 
carry out such instructions as shall have been given 
to it by the Executive Board or agreed upon by the 
District or Local Unions. The committee shall have 
the right to participate in any meeting of any Dis- 
trict Union. 

The committee shall keep records of its proceed- 
ings and shall furnish copies thereof to the Secretary- 
Treasurer of the International Seamen's Union of 
America and to each District Union in its district. 
In case the District Committee is unable to adjust 
any matter it shall refer same to the Executive Board 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
whose decision shall be binding between conventions. 

Sec. 2. Wherever there is more than one District 
Union, or one District Union and a Local Union, 
represented in a port, there shall be a local committee 
known as the Port Committee composed of at least 
one representative from each District and Local Union 
at such place. Such Committee shall meet at least 
once a week. It shall be the duty of said Committee 
to consult about the situation existing in such port 
and to endeavor to find and agree upon such measures 
as may be for the best interests of such members 
of the International as may be in, or coming to such 
port; to endeavor to promote harmony in thought 
and action; to bring before the constituent Unions 
such policy or action as shall have been agreed upon 
and shall not be contrary to any laws or instructions 
issued by the District Unions, the District Commit- 
tee, or the Executive Board. The Committee shall 
have the right to participate in any meeting of any 
Local or District Union. The Committee shall keep 
record of its proceedings and furnish copies thereof 



144 



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March, 1930 



to the District or Local Unions, to the District Com- 
mittee, and to the Secretary-Treasurer of the Inter- 
national. 

ARTICLE X 

Duties and Rights of Members 

Section 1. Members may be classified as probation- 
ary and full members with such rights to benefits 
while in good standing as the District or Local Union 
may by its laws provide. To be in good standing 
a member must not be more than three months in 
arrears and must have paid all assessments and fines. 
A member suspended or in bad standing shall not 
be permitted at any official meeting of any Local or 
District Union or any branch thereof, nor shall he 
be entitled to any rights or privileges of the Inter- 
national Union or any divisions or sub-divisions there- 
of, except the right to appeal and reinstatement as 
provided by the laws. The duty of a member shall 
be to be true and loyal to the Union and its purposes, 
and to obey such laws as the International and its 
District or Local Unions may from time to time adopt. 
Members shall endeavor to teach to each other the 
duties and traditions of our calling, to be patient with 
each other's faults and errors, as long as such are 
not based upon purely selfish motives or serving as 
cover for sinister purposes, to teach each other what 
the Union is for, what it has done, what it has failed 
in doing and why, the importance of attending meet- 
ings, what the laws of the International Union and 
its subdivisions are, and generally to speak and work 
towards that unity of sentiment and action indispens- 
able in accomplishing our purpose. 

Sec. 2. The members shall have the right to such 
educational facilities, industrial, legislative and legal 
protection as the constitution and laws may provide. 
Such legal protection shall only extend to such cases 
as have a direct bearing upon the interests of all sea- 
men or fishermen, and to cases coming within the 
principles of maritime law not already declared by the 
courts. 

The member shall have the right to such relief in 
case of shipwreck, to such supplies in case of sick- 
ness and such funeral expense as the District or Local 
Union may from time to time provide. 

The member shall have the right of free transfer 
from one District Union of Sailors, Firemen, Cooks, 
or Fishermen, into any other District Union of the 
same division, paying such assessments and fines as 
may be due under such rules as to identification, 
previous conduct and rating, as the District Union 
may provide. Whenever he thinks that he has been 
denied equal protection under the laws, or that in 
their application to him he has suffered injustice, he 
may appeal from the Branch to the District Union 
and from the District Union to the Executive Board. 
If a member of a Local Union, the appeal shall he 
to the District Committee, thence to the Executive 
Board. If a member intends to stop sailing or is 
sailing as an officer of a vessel he may take out a 
retiring card. Duties of members serving as Union 
officials shall in addition be such as the International 
District and Local Union may provide. 

ARTICLE XI 

Corrections and Punishment 

A member charged with conduct bringing the Union 
or its members into ill-repute, with violations of law, 
with being untrue to the Union and its purposes, 
or with using the Union as a cover for purely selfish 
or sinister purposes, shall be tried and corrected or 
expelled under such rules as the District or Local 
Union shall provide and such action as may be taken 



shall, subject to appeals, be binding upon all District 
and Local Unions of the International. Appeal must 
be entered within thirty (30) days. Provided a fine 
is imposed the member may be reinstated by paying 
the fine without his right of appeal being in any way 
affected. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. 

ARTICLE XII 
Initiation Fee and Dues 

Section 1. Initiation fees and dues shall be such 
as the District or Local Unions may decide. It shall 
not, however, exceed ten (§10) dollars or such amount 
as is now charged as initiation fee, or one and one-half 
($1.50) dollars per month as dues. Initiation fees 
shall not be raised or dues lowered except by consent 
of the Convention or the Executive Board. 

Sec. 2. Such initiation fees and dues shall be col- 
lected by the District and Local Unions under such 
rules and safeguards as shall be provided by such 
District and Local Unions, and endorsed by the In- 
ternational and such percentage thereof as may from 
time to time be determined by the International Con- 
vention shall be transmitted to the International Sec- 
retary-Treasurer monthly. 

Sec. 3. Candidates for admission who have previ- 
ously been members and who have been away from 
the calling for some length of time and who failed 
to take out retiring card, shall be reinstated or re- 
joined in accordance with the laws of the District or 
Local Union. 

ARTICLE XIII 

Certificate of Membership 

The membership books issued by the District and 
Local Unions shall be of the same general form and 
shall, upon application, be supplied to said District 
and Local Unions by the International Seamen's 
L T nion of America, through the Secretary-Treasurer, 
under regulations approved by the Executive Board. 
Certificates of membership shall always he the prop- 
erty of the Union. 

ARTICLE XIV 
Revenue 

The regular income of the International Office shall 
be Ten ($10) Dollars for each Charter issued, and 
ten (10) per cent of all initiation fees and dues col- 
lected by the District or Local Union and to be paid 
monthly; provided that Unions collecting more than 
One Dollar dues per month shall not be required 
to pay upon more than One Dollar per month. 

Other income shall consist of such assessments or 
contributions as shall be recommended by the Con- 
vention or by the Executive Board and indorsed by 
a majority of the District or Local Unions. 

If any District or Local Union is financially unable 
to meet the assessments or contributions, such Dis- 
trict or Local Union shall file a statement of its 
financial standing with the Executive Board, which 
shall have the power to release such District or Local 
Union from paying the assessments or contributions 
in whole or in part. 

ARTICLE XV 
Disbursements 

Disbursements of funds shall be for per capita tax 
and assessments to the American Federation of 
Labor, President's and Secretary-Treasurer's wages, 
office expenses, traveling expenses, legislative. legal 
and organizing expenses, and such other expenses, 
disbursements and donations as the Convention or 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



145 



the Executive Board may authorize. All officers and 
representatives of the International Union, except the 
President, shall, when traveling for and by the au- 
thority of the International Union, be paid a salary 
of Seven Dollars and Fifty Cents ($7.50) per day. 
The railroad fare, while on such duty, and hotel 
expenses, shall be paid by the International Union. 
Two Dollars and Fifty Cents ($2.50) per day shall 
be allowed for hotel expenses. 

ARTICLE XVI 

Referendum 

Section 1. All propositions submitted to referendum 
by the Convention or the Executive Board shall be 
voted upon in the manner prescribed as follows: 

1. The Secretary-Treasurer shall issue a notice of 
referendum vote in the official paper and by com- 
munication with all District and Local Unions, stat- 
ing the question to be voted upon and the limit 
that has been fixed to the time in which such vote 
shall be taken, and the results returned. 

2. He shall prepare, cause to be printed, and dis- 
tributed to District and Local Unions a sufficient 
number of ballots containing the subject matter to 
be voted upon. Such ballots shall be arranged with 
voting squares for "Yes" and "No" and members 
shall signify their choice by marking an X in either 
square. The ballots shall bear the seal of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, and none but 
such official ballots shall be used by District and 
Local Unions for this purpose. 

3. Members shall be qualified to vote: (a) if they 
are in good standing in the District or Local Union, 
and, (b) if their District or Local Union is in good 
standing with the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

4. The Convention or the Executive Board may 
order the polls kept open during any number of 
consecutive meetings, not exceeding four, or any num- 
ber of consecutive days, not exceeding seven. District 
and Local Unions may regulate the manner of voting 
and of canvassing the vote, but shall permit no mem- 
ber to vote more than once on the same proposition. 

5. Within twenty-four (24) hours after the vote 
has been counted, Secretaries of District and Local 
Unions shall return all unused ballots to the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, together with a report of the results 
obtained in headquarters and the branches. Such 
report shall bear the seal of the District or Local 
Union and shall be certified to by the chairman of 
the meeting in which report is made. 

6. The Secretary-Treasurer shall deliver said re- 
turns to the Ballot Committee, which shall be com- 
posed of three members of District Unions to be 
designated by the Executive Board and who shall 
be elected for this purpose by said District Unions. 
Such committee shall canvass the returns and make 
a correct transcript thereof to the Secretary-Treas- 
urer, who shall cause the same to be printed in the 
official paper, and shall notify District Unions of the 
result. 

7. If the proposition has received a majority of all 
the votes cast by District and Local Unions in good 
standing, the Secretary-Treasurer shall declare the 
same carried. 

ARTICLE XVII 

Appeals 

Appeals shall be based upon violation of law or 
right denied, and shall show wherein such violation 
or right denied is claimed to exist. It shall be 
accompanied by transcript of charges, of the main 



points of testimony, and the decision. It shall be 
submitted to the Executive Board and each member 
shall without delay give his vote as he thinks ju.st, 
and may add such brief reasons as he may think 
important. 

ARTICLE XVIII 

Strike or Lockout 

Section 1. The following rules must be closely ob- 
served by District or Local Unions contemplating a 
strike or in danger of being locked out. Failure on 
the part of any Union to comply therewith shall 
work a forfeiture to all claims of financial assistance, 
and subject the District or Local Union to loss of 
Charter. 

Sec. 2. In case a disagreement occurs between any 
District or Local Union and any operator or oper- 
ators, which may result in a strike or lockout, the 
matter in dispute shall first be submitted to the Local 
District Committee for adjustment. Should such 
committee fail to reach a settlement, the Secretary- 
Treasurer shall immediately be communicated with. 
He shall at once proceed to the seat of the trouble, 
or appoint some other member, preferably a member 
of the Executive Board, to act as his deputy. Together 
with the District Committee or a sub-committee 
thereof, he shall use all honorable means to reach 
a peaceable settlement. 

If his efforts shall prove futile, he shall order a 
vote to be taken by all the District and Local Unions 
represented in the District Committee on the ques- 
tion of endorsing the proposed strike or of calling 
a strike of all the members working for such operator 
or operators. 

Sec. 3. Should such a vote be decided in the affirm- 
ative by a two-thirds majority, the Secretary-Treas- 
urer shall at once make a report to the Executive 
Board, giving a full statement of the difficulty, the 
efforts at settlement, the number of men invoked, and 
also his recommendations as to the course to be pur- 
sued, and if the Executive Board by an affirmative 
vote, shall permit such strike; it may submit to a 
vote of the general membership the proposition of 
levying an assessment for the support of such a strike. 

Sec. 4. Such vote shall be taken in accordance with 
the provisions of Article XVI, provided, that the 
Executive Board may, in case of urgency, order the 
results obtained in District and Local Unions trans- 
mitted by telegraph. 

Sec. 5. The Executive Board shall supervise the 
use and distribution of any funds raised. Such strike 
benefit or subsistence as the members may receive 
shall not begin until he has been on strike or lockout 
for two weeks; it shall not exceed Five Dollars ($5) 
per week and shall in no case be considered or 
treated as a property right. Such strike benefit or 
subsistence shall not' be continued after the member 
has obtained work, and in no case after the strike 
or lockout has been declared at an end. 

Sec. 6. During the progress of the strike or lockout 
the Secretaries of District or Local Unions affected 
shall make weekly reports to the Secretary-Treasurer, 
showing the amount of money paid out for benefits 
or subsistence. 

Sec. 7. The Executive Board or its representatives 
shall, when satisfied from the facts or information in 
their possession that the strike or lockout has accom- 
plished all that it can reasonably be expected to 
accomplish, lay such facts or information fully before 
the District Committee, and in agreement with such 
Committee shall call meeting or meetings and lay 
the facts before the members, who shall vote to con- 
tinue or cease. Such vote shall be taken by secret 



146 



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March, 1930 



ballot provided that the Executive Board shall have 
the power to withdraw financial assistance. 

Sec. 8. In case any District or Local Union should 
enter upon a strike without complying with the con- 
stitutional provisions in this article, the Executive 
Board may take such actions as in the judgment of the 
Board may best conserve the funds of such District 
or Local Union and the best interests of the members 
thereof. 

ARTICLE XIX 

District and Local Unions 

Section 1. District and Local Unions shall adopt 
such constitution and laws, not inconsistent with the 
constitution and laws of the International, as shall 
seem most serviceable in furthering the aims and 
purposes of the International Union, the duties and 
right of members, the duties of officers, the carrying 
on of strikes and lockouts, the collection, disburse- 
ment, donation and investment of funds, and such 
other laws as shall from time to time seem expedient 
and wise. 

Such constitution and laws shall provide rules for 
issuing of retiring cards, which may exempt the 
member from payment of dues or assessments, under 
such laws as the District or Local Union shall pro- 
vide and be recognized and accepted by other District 
or Local Unions as under rules provided in Article X. 

Sec. 2. No officer shall have power to call any mem- 
ber out of any vessel unless so authorized and in- 
structed by action of such Union; nor shall any 
donation be made to any member unless such member 
has been in prison for the purpose of testing some 
question of law of importance to all seamen, whether 
members or not, and this shall only be done upon the 
samevote as may be necessary to amend the Con- 
stitution. 



Sec. 3. The Secretary of each District or Local 
Union shall furnish the International Secretary with 
a weekly financial report and shall also furnish a 
quarterly report of receipts, expenditures, and the 
number of members in good standing. He shall keep 
the International Secretary informed of the condition 
of his Union, of all matters of interest to the Sea- 
faring Class, and shall communicate to him all sug- 
gestions, resolutions and amendments offered by his 
organization for the consideration of the International 
Union. 

ARTICLE XX 

Amendments 

Section 1. This Constitution can be amended in the 
following manner by the Convention in regular ses- 
sion, in which case a two-thirds majority shall be 
required to carry such amendment. The Convention 
may by a two-thirds majority refer any amendment 
to a referendum vote. 



INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 
FEDERATION 

Agreement 

"That a member of any affiliated union joining a 
vessel of another nationality, other than that of the 
union of which he is a member, should be permitted 
to sail for three months, or one voyage if longer than 
three months, without being compelled to transfer. 
At the end of three months, or at the end of the 
voyage, such member be requested to transfer, but 
without payment of entrance fee, all contributions 
due to be the property of the Union to which he is 
transferred." 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

APPENDIX A 



147 



INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 
OF AMERICA 

January 6, 1930. 
Hon. Edward H. Wason, Chairman, 
Sub-Committee on Independent Offices, 
Committee on Appropriations, 
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee: 

Enclosed please find copy of general Petition dated 
November 15, 1929, relating to the abolition of appro- 
priation for the Sea Service Bureau, operated by the 
Shipping Board. 

The enclosed Petition was prepared before the 
report of the Shipping Board was available and, 
therefore, deals only with the past. 

On pages 42, 44, 45, 46, 47 and 122 of the Annual 
Report of the United States Shipping Board, fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1929, there are additional new 
facts, or comparatively new, which are herein respect- 
fully brought to your attention, because by these facts 
the reasons for the abolition of the Bureau are seri- 
ously reinforced. On page 42 the Report says: 

"It is obvious that with the gradual transfer 
of the publicly owned fleet to private American 
ownership, as a result of the Shipping Board's 
vigorous sales policy, the board finds itself con- 
cerned more and more with marine and dock labor 
employed in connection with privately owned Ameri- 
can vessels. During the fiscal year 1928 the Board 
sold all its remaining services on the Pacific, and 
during the year covered by this report it has also 
disposed of its passenger lines on the Atlantic. This 
latter transaction takes it entirely out of ocean 
passenger service and at the present writing (June 
30, 1929, leaves the Government operating but 17 
cargo lines, four of which it is hoped may be sold 
in the near future." 

Notwithstanding that no Government owned ves- 
sels are operated from Pacific ports, there are two 
Sea Service Bureaus operated at Seattle and Portland, 
in duplication of the Shipping Commissioners' offices 
operated according to law in these places. The reason 
given by the Bureau for operating these offices, 
and others is that the shipowners desire it. The 
shipowners' reason — if they were to tell the truth — 
is that the Bureau is doing the work previously done 
by the crimps and doing it at Government expense, 
since it cannot now be safely done by the crimps at 
the seamen's expense. This is the shipowners' reason 
everywhere. The Sea Service Bureau helps them to 
disregard the law in the manner stated in a circular 
sent to Senators and members of Congress in 1928, 
and found on page 2 of the seamen's petition of 
November 15, 1929. 

On page 122 it is stated that the Board operated 
135 vessels, eleven of which have been sold and are 
now in process of delivery, so that 224 vessels will 
now be operated. To find the men for those vessels 
— men of the kind desired by the shipowners — Sea 
Service employment offices are being operated in 
twelve ports where there are Shipping Commission- 
ers' offices, which, under Government control, will 
furnish the men without cost but, of course, in accord- 
ance with law made by Congress. 

On page 47 the Bureau states that it has placed 
65,906 seamen on vessels. Among these seamen, it 
reports twenty-eight masters who. of course, are 
placed by the owners or managers; 359 deck officers, 
who are always placed by the owners, the port cap- 
tains, or by the masters; ten chief engineers, who are 
always placed by the owners or operators, and 531 
officers in the engine department, which officers are 



usually placed by the owners, the port engineers or 
the masters. The masters, by the way, under the 
law, are to place all the men under them on the ves- 
sels in their proper ratings. 

The Report on page 47 further says that the Bureau 
has placed 20,599 able seamen on vessels. 

The Supervising Inspector General stated in 1928, 
in answer to an inquiry made, that in 1927, 16,633 
able seamen were needed for inspected vessels. (Page 
3 of Petition.) We thus find from the Report that 
the Sea Service Bureau has, in the twelve ports in 
which it operates, placed .3,966 more able seamen 
than in 1927 were needed to man all the inspected 
vessels trading from all the ports of the country, 
including the Great Lakes. 

Using round figures, approximately correct, the 
Shipping Board operates 225 vessels. Of the 235 
operated on page 122, eleven are reported sold and 
in process of delivery, so that 225 would be fair for 
the present. These vessels trade to Europe, South 
America and the Far East, making on an average 
eight trips per year. Each vessel employs eight able 
seamen, including the boatswain, and we thus get 
14,400 able seamen employed by those vessels for 
each year, if new able seamen are employed at the 
beginning of each trip. This gives about 175 per 
cent of a turnover. If we subtract 387 deck officers 
and 541 engineer officers, among whom the turnover 
is small, then 1,444 petty deck officers, and 5,200 petty 
engineer officers, among whom the turnover would 
be about the same as among the able seamen, and 
add to this figure the 14,400 able seamen, we will 
yet have about 40,000 persons to fill the places of the 
remaining crew. This would be impossible but for 
the fact that a very large number of men employed 
in the coastwise and intercoastal trade are placed by 
the Sea Service Bureau. The number of men placed 
in foreign-going vessels and in vessels engaged in 
the coastwise and intercoastal trade is not segregated 
in the Report, but that the latter number is very 
considerable, is plain from the figures given above, 
and the turnover indicated both in the foreign and in 
the coastwise places of employment filled on ships 
by the Sea Service Bureau, is so great that it is im- 
possible, under this system, to develop efficient men 
to man our merchant marine. 

From a national defense point of view, vessels are 
an asset, but vessels without efficient men to man 
them are a liability that grows with the number of 
vessels. Whether this question of the Sea Service 
Bureau and system used by it is approached from a 
safety point of view, or from a national defense point 
of view, it fails entirely to accomplish the purpose 
declared by Congress, and I respectfully submit that 
it should be abolished. 

Most respectfullv yours. 

ANDREW FURUSETH. 

PETITION 

To the Honorable, the Speaker, and the Members of the 
House of Representatives: 
On behalf of the seamen, I humbly pray that the 
House of Representatives insert an exemption in the 
appropriation bill for the Shipping Board providing 
that "none of the appropriation shall be used to sustain 
or continue the Sea Service Bureau." 

As reasons for this petition, I respectfully submit: 
First: That the said Bureau was established by 
the Shipping Board and that there is no other way 
in which the Bureau may be abolished. 

Second: That the Bureau is performing part of 
the duty assigned by law to the United States 



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March, 1930 



Shipping Commissioners' offices; that the expense 
is a waste of public money; that the duty may be 
performed better and according to law by said 
Shipping Commissioners' offices. 

Third: That the Bureau is setting said statute 
law and substituting therefor its own ideas of pun- 
ishment, which consists in keeping a deferred list 
— black list — upon which the nun are placed upon 
the recommendation of the master. 

Fourth: That the policy results in a turnover, 
which makes it impossible to develop skill in men 
employed and is thus preventing the development 
of an efficient personnel. 

As proofs of the veracity of these specifications, 
I respectfully submit the following: 

The Sea Service Bureau was established by the 
Shipping Board on May 29, 1917. It was then called 
the Recruiting Service of the United States Ship- 
ping Board. Its name was afterwards changed to 
the Recruiting and Training Service. Its purpose 
was to gather from all over the country such young 
men as might be more willing to do their war service 
in the merchant marine than in the Navy or in the 
Army. Of course these young men had to be given 
some training. They were given a training period of 
six weeks, and for this purpose training stations and 
training vessels were established in different parts oi 
the country. The training in seamanship which they 
could obtain in six weeks, was, of course, very small 
but it was better than nothing. 

I was invited to serve as a member of the Advisory 
Committec. Before accepting the invitation, I stated 
that this organization would result in very great harm 
to the seamen, and therefore, to the country, if it was 
permitted to continue after peace had been restored; 
but an organization of this kind seemed to be of value 
during the war and, therefore, I accepted, and the 
very first suggestion that I made was that at leasl 
one-half of the time allotted for training must be at 
sea. 

The organization did good service during the war. 
Unfortunately, it was permitted to continue as an 
employment office, the purpose of which was to assist 
in finding men for the Government-owned \ 
after peace was restored. As an employment office, 
it is a clear, definite duplication of the several ship- 
ping commissioners' offices established since 1872 in 
all ports of entry, which are also ports of ocean navi- 
gation. On page 41 of the Navigation Laws of the 
United States, published in 1927, it is made the first 
duty of the shipping commissioner's office — 

"To afford facilities for engaging seamen by keep- 
ing a register of their names and characters. Sec- 
ond: To superintend their engagement and dis- 
charge in manner prescribed by law." 

In serving as an employment office, the Sea Service 
Bureau is performing exactly what the law makes it 
the first duty of the shipping commissioner's office to 
perform. The Sea Service Bureau has now no other 
functions than that, except that it undertakes to dis- 
pense with statute law and to substitute therefor its 
own method of enforcing discipline, which method 
consists of keeping a deferred list (black list). About 
this deferred list and in defense thereof, the Shipping 
Board issued on January 26. 1928, a statement of 
which the following is a part: 

_ "We have on our Deferred List at the present 
time 1,125 seamen whose names appear there on 
account of being physically unfit for sea duty, and 
1.885 seamen who have been placed there for vari- 
ous offenses such as putting emerv in the beatings, 
assaulting officers with intent to kill, stealing ships' 
property, smuggling, desertion and incompetency. To 



let these men go unpunished would be a detriment 
to our efforts to build up an efficient and loyal 
personnel on our merchant ships." 

You will note especially the italicized offenses, 
which are not merely offense against discipline, but 
against the Government as found in the Criminal 
(.ode. Men who are discovered perpetrating these 
crimes are not the kind of men that self-respecting 
.seamen will associate with, either on board of a vessel 
or on shore. The result has been the quitting of the 
service to such an extent that there are very few real 
skilled seamen left. To illustrate this point, I respect- 
fully quote from a circular issued by Mr. O. 11. M. 
McPherson, Assistant to Director of Insurance, United 
States Shipping Board, on September 30, 1927, ad- 
dressed to all District Directors and Managing Agents, 
as follows: 

"A recent investigation of the accidents occurring 

on one steamship line discloses that three of every 

five of the injuries or deaths result from human 

rather than mechanical failure." 

No better evidence could be found of the incapacity 

or inaptitudeness of the men furnished by the Sea 
Service Bureau than this, "that three of every five 
of the injuries or deaths result from human rather 
than mechanical failure." 

Seamanship is a calling and is, at least in danger 
to life and health, on a par with the operation of 
trains and mining. Nearly all the mechanical failures 
are primarily personal failures, because it is the sea- 
men's business to see that the gear is in proper order 
and therefore seaworthy. 

According to letters received by me from I >. X. 
Hoover, Supervising Inspector General of Steam Ves- 
sels, there have been issued since November 1. 1915, 
155,635 able seamen's certificates, that is 12,969.5 per 
The number needed to fill the rating of able 
seamen on inspected vessels was, in November, 1927, 
16,633. In other words, there was a turnovei 
year, of about 75 per cent in the rating of able seamen. 
in the lesser ratings, such as ordinary seaman and 
boy, the turnover lias been vastly greater. These 
facts show that men are not at sea long enough to 
learn the work which they are there to do. These 
men are picked up and selected by the Sea Service 
Bureau and usually accepted by the master and then 
signed on by the shipping commissioner. 

Young men. and men no longer young, wdio happen 
to be idle and destitute, seek employment from the 
Sea Service Bureau; men wdio have failed at every- 
thing on shore and are desperate, or men who want to 
gel away from the police, seek employment from the 
Sea Service Bureau and are recommended to □ 
either because they tell a plausible Story or because 

resent copies of discharges or able seamen's 

certificates, which have been obtained by theft, bought, 
or forged. We have known of this condition existing 
for many years now, and at last a man by the name 
of ("lark was caught red-handed committing forgery 
of these kinds of documents in Philadelphia, lie was 
indicted and according to the latest information, he 
is to be tried within a month or six weeks and is 
liable to get a good many years in prison. The 
maximum sentence is nine years. For some reason 
not explained, this case never came to trial. The 
latest information is that he went to New York and 
there continued his criminal operations. 

While the shipping commissioner could not prevent 
these things altogether, they would be very much 
reduced because the seamen are paid off before the 
shipping commissioner or the deputies and a nun with 
a forged or stolen certificate would be much more 
likely to be discovered. 

We respectfully submit that the money oaid for 
the maintenance of the Sea Service Bureau is worse 



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149 



than wasted, and that the Senate amendment adopted 
in the last Congress to the effect that none of the 
money appropriated for the use of the Shipping Board 
shall be used to maintain the Sea Service Bureau, 
ought to be agreed to by the Congress. 

We most humbly and most respectfully pray that 
the House of Representatives adopt such exemption 



to the end that the Sea Service Bureau be thus abol- 
ished. I am, on behalf of all real self-respecting 
seamen, Most respectfully yours, 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President. 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

November 15, 1929. 



APPENDIX B 



MEMORANDUM 

On So Much of Section 13 of the Seamen's Act as 
Deals With Able Seamen 

"Sec. 13. That no vessel of one hundred tons 
gross and upward, . . . unless . . . sixty-five per 
centum of her deck crew, exclusive of licensed offi- 
cers and apprentices, are of a rating not less than 
able seaman. Every person shall be rated an 
able seaman, and qualified for service as such on 
the seas, who is nineteen years of age or upward, 
and has had at least three years' service on deck 
at sea or on the Great Lakes, on a vessel or vessels 
to which this section applies, including decked fish- 
ing vessels, naval vessels or coast guard vessels; 
and every person shall be rated an able seaman, 
and qualified to serve as such on the Great Lakes 
and on the smaller lakes, bays or sounds, who is 
nineteen years of age or upward and has had at least 
eighteen months' service on deck at sea or on the 
Great Lakes or on the smaller lakes, bays, or sounds, 
on a vessel or vessels to which this section applies, 
including decked fishing vessels, naval vessels, or 
coast guard vessels; and graduates of school ships 
approved by and conducted under rules prescribed 
by the Secretary of Commerce may be rated able 
seamen after twelve months' service at sea: Provided, 
That upon examination, under rules prescribed by the 
Department of Commerce as to eyesight, hearing, and 
physical condition, such persons or graduates are found 
to be competent: Provided further, That upon ex- 
amination, under rules prescribed by the Department 
of Commerce as to eyesight, hearing, physical con- 
dition, and knowledge of the duties of seamanship a 
person found competent may be rated as able seaman 
after having served on deck twelve months at sea, 
or on the Great Lakes; but seamen examined and 
rated able seamen under this proviso shall not in 
any case compose more than one-fourth of the 
number of able seamen required by this section to 
be shipped or employed upon any vessel. 

'Any person may make application to any board 
of local inspectors for a certificate of service as 
able seaman, and upon proof being made to said 
board by affidavit and examination, under rules ap- 
proved by the Secretary of Commerce, showing the 
nationality and age of the applicant and the vessel 
or vessels on which he has had service and that he 
is entitled to such certificate under the provisions of 
this section, the board of local inspectors shall issue 
to said applicant a certificate of service, which shall 
be retained by him and be accepted as prima facie 
evidence of his rating as an able seaman . . . And 
provided further, That the Secretary of Commerce 
shall make such rules and regulations as may be 
necessary to carry out the provisions of this section 



For convenience, I shall call this the General 
Power. 

The purpose of Congress in passing the Seamen's 
Act was "to promote safety at sea," and that purpose 



dominates not only this special Section, but through 
the whole Act. 

Self-interest in the shipowner's mind had ceased to 
be associated with safety at sea. The shipowner's 
liability to the traveler and shipper had been prac- 
tically abolished through limitation of liability, the 
risk arising from the dangers of the sea through in- 
surance on vessels and cargo, and the losses arising 
from insufficient and inefficient officers and seamen 
through the protection and indemnity insurance. With 
the premiums on the insurance covered into the -over- 
head expense and recovered with interest from the 
traveler in fares, and from the shipper in rates, the 
shipowner had ceased to have any but a sentimental 
interest in safety, and hence in the skill of the men 
employed. 

Generally speaking, he obtained the cheapest men 
that he could find. Any men from anywhere were 
shipped as seamen regardless of nationality or race, 
with or without previous experience, with or without 
knowledge of the language of the officers, who were 
to issue orders needed and upon the prompt execution 
of which all safety depends. 

In earlier times the shipowner might lose his all 
through the employment of men insufficient in skill, 
or a crew insufficient in number. Self-interest had 
caused him to guard against inexperience by appren- 
ticeships, time limit of experience in able seamen, and 
in the right to disrate men, in accordance with their 
demerit, who could not do the work for which they 
had engaged themselves. In earlier times the self- 
interest of the shipowners stood guard over safety. 
Under the new conditions this had been changed and 
the results were shown at the hearings to be such 
that legislation for protection and promotion of skill 
were absolutely needed. As a result, Congress laid 
down the general rule that to be an able seaman 
the person must have served at least three years on 
deck at sea on vessels ... to which the Section 
applies. Having regard to the possibility of the 
needed skill being required in a shorter time, it then 
concluded: 

(a) Graduates of school ships after twelve months'' 
service at sea, if upon examination under rules pre- 
scribed . . . they were found competent. The impor- 
tant part of the examination is, of course, to ascertain 
the competency, or whether such applicant can do 
the work expected from an able seaman; 

(b) Any person having served twelve months at 
sea or on the Great Lakes may be rated as an able sea- 
man if, under rules prescribed by the Department of 
Commerce, he is found competent. 

Again we have the question of skill, and possibly 
having regard to some doubt it is provided, that of 
such persons there may not be employed in number 
more than one-fourth of the able seamen provided 
for any vessel. When an applicant, who claims to 
have served three years at sea or on the Great Lakes, 
appears before the Board of Local Inspectors he is 
to prove his claim by affidavit and examination, under 
rules provided by the Secretary of Commerce, before he 
is given a certificate of able seaman. 



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March, 1930 



This paragraph of the statute provides what the 
affidavit shall contain, viz: nationality, age, and ves- 
sel or vessels in which he has served. With reference, 
therefore, to the affidavit no rules and examinations 
are needed beyond the quoting of the statute. But 
provision is made for examination. For what purpose 
and in what is the applicant to be examined? Noth- 
ing is said about eyesight, hearing and physical 
condition as in the other paragraph, so in order to 
guard against a wooden leg, against inability to dis- 
tinguish red from green, and other physical defects 
or diseases, a physical examination is provided, evi- 
dently under authority of the General Power; but 
nothing is said about being competent, and on this 
question there is so far no rule or authority provided 
for any examination to ascertain whether he is com- 
petent or not. The rule for physical examination is 
good> but it has no more bearing on competency 
than in the school ship graduate, or in the twelve 
months' man. Manifestly, an examination in "the 
knowledge of the duties of seamanship" is very much 
needed. The fact that affidavits may be and are 
false and even that Seamen's discharges are forged, 
is common knowledge and two arrests have been made 
in Philadelphia and two indictments returned. In 
the first case, that of John J. Clark, (February 10, 
1928, Philadelphia Public Ledger) who was, after 
pleading guilty, permitted to go with a reprimand; in 



the other case, that of Norman Hoffman, (December 
10, 1929), who was found guilty and sentenced to 
thirty days in jail. Of course, this was a mere warn- 
ing. The maximum penalty is nine years in the 
penitentiary. 

It is respectfully submitted that the Department 
should now exercise its General Power to make rules 
to carry out the provisions of this Section. Able 
seamen's certificates have ceased to have any real 
meaning. They are no longer an effective aid to 
safety. They are obtained by fraud and perjury and 
as a result they are trafficked in. A rule providing 
lor examination in seamanship would remedy this evil. 
It is plain that while the statute as a whole is remed- 
ial. Section 13 is especially so, and I respectfully 
submit that remedial statutes are, if possible, to be 
construed so that they will furnish the remedy. It is. 
therefore, especially submitted that the Secretary of 
Commerce has the authority, nay, the duty is, under 
the circumstances, imposed upon him by the General 
Power granted. 

On behalf of the Seamen, 

Most respectfully submitted, 

ANDREW FURUSETH, President, 
International Seamen's Union of America. 
January 3, 1930. 



APPENDIX G 



General Report on the Mission to Europe — More 
Especially Geneva 

Washington, D. C, December 31, 1929. 
To the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Comrades: 

After having obtained the necessary passports 
properly visaed, I left New York on April 13 on the 
Homeric. On the fifth day of the voyage we re- 
ceived information about the death of J. Havelock 
Wilson. I wired my regrets and sorrow, together with 
the information that I would arrive in London on 
Saturday evening. Wilson was buried on Saturday 
forenoon and I arrived in the evening. On Sunday 
forenoon I called at the Union office at St. George's 
Hall with no result. 

On Monday I met Mr. W. R. Spence, the General 
Secretary, Mr. J. B. Wilson, the Financial Secretary, 
and from them received the information that the 
policy of the Union in the larger aspects was in the 
hands of the three Secretaries and the Finance Com- 
mittee. After bringing to them and through them, 
to the Union, the greeting from the seamen of the 
United States, I informed them that I was ordered 
to go to Geneva to oppose in every possible way 
the monopoly in the handling of all cargo and cargo 
gear sought by the harbor workers, or rather by the 
International Transport Workers on behalf of the 
former, and also to watch, do the possible, and report 
on "Forced Labor," on which a questionnaire was 
to be prepared. 

I called attention to their own struggle with those 
same forces, and suggested that they give all assist- 
ance possible by sending somebodv with me to Gen- 
eva. They promised to take that up with the Man- 
aging Committee and see what might be done. On 
Tuesday morning, Chris Damm arrived back from 
Antwerp, where he had gone to attend to immediate 
matters. The Managing Committee provided for the 
assistance, and entrusted Mr. Damm with that duty. 

On arrival in Geneva, I found that the meeting 
was on May 30, whereupon I wired to Mr. Damm 



that I would come to Antwerp in a few days. After 
wiring to Mr. Spence at London, and to Mr. Olander 
at Chicago, and obtaining the needed documents con- 
cerning the proposed convention on the safety of 
men "loading and unloading vessels," and on the 
question of "Forced Labor," I proceeded to study 
the Office draft of the questionnaire and the draft 
convention on "Safety of men engaged in loading and 
unloading of vessels," and to prepare a Memorandum 
on that subject. The memorandum was finished in 
the rough and then taken to Antwerp for consulta- 
tion with Mr. Damm. A meeting had been held by 
the Maritime Commission. The report from that 
meeting was not available, and Mr. Weaver, of the 
Labor Office, promised to send copy of the report 
to me in care of the American Consul at Bremen. 

I then took up the study of the documents on the 
question of Forced Labor, and prepared a Peti- 
tion and Memorandum on that subject. When it was 
submitted to Mr. Weaver he expressed sympathy 
with its contents; but he held out no hope that the 
conference would be extended to include contract 
labor enforced by criminal sanction. 

Having done what seemed possible at Geneva. 
prior to the meeting, I left for Antwerp for consul- 
tation with Mr. Damm, to study the system of ship- 
ping with reference to the bootlegging of immigrants 
as seamen into the United States, and to get some 
rest, because I was not well, though I had improved 
some. 

With reference to the shipping. I found that in 
English vessels it would be very difficult for an 
immigrant to ship as a seaman. The joint shipping 
office conducted by the Union and the English ship- 
owners included a registration, and prior thereto the 
applicant was examined as to papers, previous em- 
ployment, and if in any doubt "in professional skill." 
After he was registered, he was engaged in that office 
either by the master or chief engineer in person, taken 
to the British Consul to be signed on, and then to 
the American Consul for visa as a member of the 
crew to go to the United States. If any one failed 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



151 



to join the vessel a substitute was signed in the same 
way. The selecting and shipping of men for Nor- 
wegian vessels was substantially done in the same 
way. 

I then went to the American Consul, and later upon 
my request, received from him a statement of the 
number of seamen, exclusive of officers, visaed by 
his office in the three first months of the year. Mr. 
Damm then took me to the Harbor Master, from whom 
I was later furnished with the same kind of informa- 
tion with reference to all vessels leaving the port. 
Mr. Damm and myself having agreed upon the Memo- 
randum, it was sent to the Labor Office at Geneva. 
Mr. Damm then went with me to Rotterdam (Hol- 
land), where I found the shipping carried on much 
in the same way as in Antwerp, but not so tight. 
There was a municipal shipping office which was 
wide open. 

I then proceeded to Amsterdam (Holland), where 
there was no control — open as Pennsylvania Avenue. 
In this place I visited Mr. Fimmen, the leader of 
the Transport Workers' Federation, and came away 
with the conviction that they would seek to so amend 
the proposed Convention that their monopoly would 
be restored. 

I then left for Bremen (Germany) where the ship- 
ping was supposed to be under some control; but on 
visiting Bremerhaven, I found a condition open to 
all kinds of smuggling of immigrants not only on 
foreign vessels, but on American vessels, where indi- 
cation was that they were perhaps the chief offenders. 
* After arriving in Hamburg (Germany) where I went 
next, I found the shipping system there modeled upon 
the Antwerp idea, but not so effective. In these last 
four ports, I visited the American Consuls, who told 
me that they were helpless in preventing the smug- 
gling, though they did all that was possible. I asked 
them and later obtained from them a statement of 
the number of seamen exclusive of officers visaed 
by their offices during the first three months of the 
year. It was sent to the American Consul at Geneva 
and duly received by me. I then returned to Ant- 
werp, stayed there a few days and then, in company 
with Mr. Damm, went to Geneva to attend the meet- 
ing called for May 30. 

On our arrival at Geneva we were informed that 
the Memorandum, of which I had one hundred copies 
mimeographed for general distribution, and the Peti- 
tion were translated and would be submitted to the 
proper Commissions. We were later called into inter- 
views with Count de Altea, Chairman on the Com- 
mission dealing with the Safety Convention, and de 
Gauthier, Chairman on Forced Labor. What hap- 
pened later is told in the joint report, which we 
jointly submitted to Mr. W. R. Spence, Secretary 
of the National Union of Seamen, and V. A. Olander. 
This report and the Memorandum are included in 
the more complete report, which is hereby submitted, 
together with the report on Forced Labor, in which 
the Petition mentioned above is included. 

While in Geneva I received an invitation from Mr. 
Spence to be present at the meeting of their Execu- 
tive Committee, and also at the yearly meeting, and 
that while waiting for their meeting they would like 
me to go around the larger British ports to tell the 
men about our struggle with the longshoremen and 
their effort at Geneva. I accepted these invitations 
and shall report upon those meetings later. 

Before leaving Geneva, I went and had an interview 
with Mr. Thomas, the Director of the Labor Office, 
about the meeting on October 10, and as a result de- 
termined that there was no real good reason for 
going there. They were going to discuss, and if 
possible adopt a questionnaire on seamen's hours of 
labor, and since I could not participate either in the 



Commissions or in the joint meetings, I might as 
well go back to America and write to Mr. Thomas. 
I further called his attention to Section 10 of the 
Convention and what would be the result, if the indi- 
vidual nations should include the full knowledge of the 
seamen handling the winches and in passing the word, 
in the definition of efficiency. He made some further 
inquiries relating to this and then said that he would 
call the attention of the Governments to that situa- 
tion. Having done all we could Mr. Damm and 
myself left for London over Paris. Having arrived 
in London, we completed and submitted the joint 
report already referred to. 

I then went to see the American Consul about the 
smuggling of immigrants as seamen into the United 
States, and asked him to furnish me with a report on 
the number of seamen, exclusive of officers, visaed 
to go as seamen to the United States during the 
first three months of the year. This he promised to 
do and to send a letter containing the information to 
the American Consul at Oslo, (Norway). Later 
on, when visiting the ports of Cardiff, Liverpool and 
Glasgow, I visited the Consuls in those ports and 
asked them for the same information and, that they 
might send it to the same address. This they will- 
ingly promised to do and I received the information 
from them in Oslo as requested. 

The National Union of Seamen being just then in 
the thick of the fight with the Transport Workers' 
Federation, a necessity arose for some officer from 
headquarters to go to Hollyhead. I was sent with 
him and we left on July 1. The Union won at Holly- 
head, and I proceeded to Cardiff, where I remained 
for some days going to other ports on the Bristol 
Channel to address meetings. Meetings were well 
attended and orderly. From Cardiff I went to Liver- 
pool, Glasgow, Leith, New Castle and Hull. In all 
these places, except Glasgow, where we could get no 
meeting, the meetings were well attended, attentive 
and orderly. The last meeting was at Hull on the 
twentieth of July at 10:30 a. m., and there were about 
sixty present. This, on my arrival back to London, 
finished the tour for which the National Union of 
Seamen paid the railway fare and a per diem out of 
which all other expenses were paid. 

I arrived back just in time to be present at the 
Executive Board meeting and the yearly meeting. In 
both of these meetings I was given every hospitality 
and consideration by everybody. The men were in 
the best of temper. The Union had won a clear vic- 
tory over the Transport Workers and the Railroad 
Boats had agreed to employ members of the Union, 
so that all seamen shipping in English vessels in 
England are to be members of the Union, or at least 
have the first chance to ship. 

The meeting was called to order at 10 a. m., July 
24, 1929. The main business was the changing of the 
rules. The purpose was to abolish the office of 
President and to establish a Management Committee 
in lieu of President. On this matter the new rules 
are as follows: 

Rule XX. — Management Committee 

There shall be a Management Committee, which 
shall be composed of the General Secretary, Finan- 
cial Secretary-Treasurer, Assistant General Secre- 
tary, the five Trustees; National Organizer, and 
the District Secretaries, of whom five shall have 
power to vote in rotation. The Management Com- 
mittee shall have vested in it the powers of the 
Executive Council between the meetings of that 
body on the general policy of the Union. The 
decisions of the Management Committee shall stand 
until the regular meeting of the Executive Council 
next ensuing only and unless the said decisions are 



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March, 1930 



ratified by the Executive Council they shall cease 

to operate. Seven members of the Committee shall 

form a quorum. 

The Agenda of the meeting is prepared before the 
meeting from amendments suggested by the branch 
meetings and the Executive Board. The suggestions 
are given earnest consideration and all delegates have 
first opportunity to bring out their views. 

The meeting being over I left for Scandinavia. 
On my arrival in Copenhagen, I found that President 
Back of the Sailors, and President Jacobsen of the 
Firemen, were in Finland assisting in clearing up a 
very long fight there by an agreement in the inter- 
est of the Union. I found further that the Firemen 
were to have a general meeting on the eighteenth of 
August, and Axel Gotsche, the Vice-President, was 
in charge of the Firemen. He told me to write to 
their Congress and give reasons, practical ones, why 
the prison penalty should be abolished for violating 
a contract to labor. I promised to do so from Oslo. 
The Unions in Denmark were in fine condition with 
wages about the same as in England. 

I then proceeded to Gothenburg (Sweden) and 
found only Lundberg in town. The others — Lund- 
gren and Olsson — were away. One in Finland and 
the other on vacation. I made arrangements to write 
the same to Gothenburg as to Copenhagen and then 
left for Stockholm (Sweden) where I found the Sec- 
retary of the Branch and also Mr. Charles Lindley, 
who told me all about the officers' strike. How they 
had been arrested and put on board by the police, 
had left again, and that finally a peace was patched 
up, and that their cases were then in court. I am 
expecting news about that. The arrest of the officers 
sharply called attention to the law and there are 
interesting possibilities in the situation from a legis- 
lative point of view. 

From Stockholm I went to Trondhjem (Norway) 
where I found the branch of the Union in fair con- 
dition. I then went to Oslo — stopping off a few 
days on the way with my people, a brother and sister 
and their children. At Oslo I found Frederik Brock- 
mann, former President of the Norwegian Mates, now 
writing for the newspapers, who assisted me in writ- 



ing proper Norwegian to Copenhagen and Gothen- 
burg, and who undertook to translate, print and dis- 
tribute one thousand copies of a pamphlet to the 
officials of the Governments of Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark, to the members of the several Parliaments 
of those countries, the several branches of the Unions 
in the countries and likewise to the press. The 
pamphlet contains "Work is Worship," and the "Ap- 
peal to the World." While waiting for the pamphlet to 
be ready, I visited some more of my relatives and 
had a good time. I might as well state here, in order 
to prevent any misunderstanding, that I made our 
Union pay for railway transportation direct from 
Stockholm to Oslo, and that I paid all the other 
fares around the country myself. 

Of course, I visited the American Consul in (>>1.> 
and received mail and also obtained from him the 
same information, which I had received from the other 
Consul, and he further helped me to get the informa- 
tion from the Consul at Stavanger and Bergen (both 
of Norway). I found the Union in Norway on the 
up-grade pretty strongly, the wages about the same 
as in England, and 1 was assured that they would 
press the demand for the ownership of their bodies 
in the next parliament. I bought a ticket for the 
United States on the Stavangerfjord on August 30, 
but had to go by rail to Bergen in order to get the 
facts about the visaed seamen from the Consul there. 
I arrived back in the United States on the 7th of 
September, and figured on going to the Pacific by 
way of Chicago and Seattle, but found the Treaty ot 
Safety at Sea, and that there was no time to do any- 
thing but to consider that. 

Since I came back I have written to Mr. Thomas, 
the director of the Labor Office, about the seamen's 
hours of labor, but have received no answer. 1 have, 
however, obtained from Mr. Spence the Provisional 
Record of the meeting at Geneva, beginning on Octo- 
ber 10, and hope to have a report upon that by the 
meeting of our Convention. 

With best wishes, 

Must respectfully yours, 

ANDREW FURUSETH. 



APPENDIX D 



Report on the Proceedings Taken and the Action 
had by the International Labor Conference, Twelfth 
Session, Geneva, May, 1929, on "The Protection 
Against Accidents of Workers Engaged in Loading 
or Unloading Ships," Which Involves the Question of 
Skill of Seamen and Therefore the Question of Safety 
at Sea. 

By 

ANDREW FURUSETH 

Appointed by the International Seamen's Lnion of 
America to Attend at the Conference 

REPORT 
Washington, I). C, October 25, 1929. 

On my arrival in England I appealed to the officers 
of the National Union of Seamen to take a serious 
interest in the second item on the Agenda of the 
meeting of the International Labor Office, because 
if the proposals of the International Transport Work- 
ers' Federation were to be adopted it would give to 



them an absolute monopoly in the loading and dis- 
charging of vessels, together with all work appertain- 
ing thereto. The proposals had been submitted to 
the International Labor Office in 1928, and the sec- 
tion of the proposal upon which the charge is based 
and which was the reason for sending me to Geneva 
reads as follows: 

Qualifications of Persons Employed 

(a) Only competent dock workers of not less than 
18 years of age shall be employed in the processes. 
In no case shall members of a ship's crew be em- 
ployed in the processes. 

(b) Only competent dock workers, holding a cer- 
tificate issued by a recognized authority after a test 
of efficiency in such work, shall be employed for the 
purpose of operating any power lifting appliances, in- 
cluding ship's winches. 

(c) Persons employed to operate lifting or trans- 
porting machinery, whether driven by mechanical 
power or otherwise, or to give signals to a driver 
of such machinery, or to attend to cargo falls on 



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153 



winch ends»or winch bodies, shall not be less than 21 
years of age. 

The officers of the National Union of Seamen read- 
ily saw the importance of the matter and promised 
to give serious consideration to the matter and to act 
at the first meeting of their Managing Committee. 
This was done, and Mr. Chris Damm, Secretary of 
the International Seafarers' Federation, and Conti- 
nental District Secretary of the National Union of 
Seamen, was selected and later joined me at Geneva. 

On my arrival at Geneva I found that I was too 
early, and after obtaining the needed documents I 
proceeded to study the same and also later proceeded 
to look after other matters of interest to the seamen. 
The document dealing with seamen was entitled: 
"Report on the Protection Against Accidents of 
Workers Engaged in Loading or Unloading Ships." 
This publication contains the suggested Draft Con- 
vention. 

Draft Convention Concerning the Protection Against 

Accidents of Workers Employed in Loading 

or Unloading Ships 

ARTICLE 1 
Lor the purpose of this Convention: 

(a) the term "processes" means and includes all or 
any part of the work performed on shore or on board 
ship of loading or unloading any ship, whether en- 
gaged in maritime or in inland navigation, excluding 
ships of war, in, on, or at any maritime or inland 
port, harbor, dock, wharf, quay or similar place at 
which such work is carried on; and 

(b) the term "worker" means any person employed 
in the processes. 

ARTICLE 2 

Any regular approach over a dock, wharf, quay or 
similar premises which the workers have to use for 
going to or from a working place at which the proc- 
esses are carried on and every such working place on 
shore shall be maintained with due .regard to the 
safety of the workers using them. 

In particular, 

(a) Any dangerous parts of the said approaches 
and working places (e. g. dangerous footways over 
bridges and dock gates, dangerous edges near the 
water) shall be adequately fenced or otherwise safe- 
guarded; 

(b) The said approaches and working places shall 
be kept sufficiently clear of obstruction to allow the 
workers to pass or move about for the purposes of 
their work without being exposed to undue danger; 

(c) Every working place on shore and any dan- 
gerous parts of any regular approach thereto shall 
be safely and efficiently lighted. 

ARTICLE 3 

When a ship is lying alongside the quay or some 
other vessel for the purpose of the processes, there 
shall be safe means of access for # the use of the work- 
ers at such times as they have to pass to and from 
the ship, unless the conditions are such that they 
would not be exposed to undue danger if no special 
appliance were provided. 

The said means of access shall be: 

(a) where reasonably practicable, a gateway or 
similar construction, which shall be at least 22 inches 



(55 cm.) wide, securely fenced throughout to a clear 
height of not less than 2 feet 6 inches (75 cm.) at 
least on one side, and properly secured; 

(b) in other cases a ladder of adequate length and 
strength, which shall be properly secured: 

Provided that exceptions to the provisions of this 
paragraph may be allowed by the competent authori- 
ties when they are satisfied that the appliances speci- 
fied in the paragraph are not required in the interests 
of the safety of the workers. 

ARTICLE 4 

Adequate measures shall be prescribed to insure 
the safe transport of the workers to and from a ship 
when they have to proceed thereto by water for the 
purpose of the processes. 

ARTICLE 5 

When the workers have to carry on the processes 
in a hold the depth of which from the level of the 
dock to the bottom of the hold exceeds 5 feet (1.5 m.), 
there shall be safe means of access from the deck to 
the hold for their use. 

The said means of access shall ordinarily be by 
ladder, which shall not be deemed to be safe unless it 
leaves sufficient free space behind the rungs or has 
rungs of sufficient width for firm foothold, provides 
secure handhold throughout, is continued by and is 
in line with arrangements for secure handhold and 
foothold on the coamings (e. g., cleats or cups), and, 
if separate ladders are provided for different sections 
of the hatchway, the said ladders are, "a? far as prac- 
ticable, in line with the ladder from the top deck. 

Where, however, owing to the construction of the 
ship, the provision of a ladder would not be reason- 
ably practicable, it shall be open to the competent 
authorities to allow other means of access provided 
that they comply with the conditions laid down in 
this article for ladders so far as they are applicable. 

Sufficient free passage to the means of access shall 
be left at the coamings. 

ARTICLE 6 

W T hile the workers are on a ship for the purpose 
of the processes, no hatchway of a cargo hold exceed- 
ing 5 feet in depth from the level of the deck to the 
bottom of the hold, which is accessible to the work- 
ers, and which is not in use for the processes or a 
similar purpose, shall be left open and unprotected. 
but every such hatchway which is not protected to a 
clear height of 2 feet 6 inches (75 cm.) by the coam- 
ings shall either be securely fenced to that height by 
fixed arrangements or be properly- covered: 

Provided, that the requirements of this article shall 
not apply to a hatchway the use of which is being 
temporarily suspended during meal times or other 
short interruptions of work or at which a proper and 
sufficient watch is being kept. 

Similar measures shall be taken when necessary to 
protect any other openings in a deck which might be 
dangerous to the workers. 

ARTICLE 7 

When the processes have to be carried on a ship, 
the means of access thereto and all places on board 
at which the workers are employed or to which they 
may be required to proceed in the course of their 
employment shall be efficiently lighted. 

The means of lighting shall be such as not to en- 
danger the safety of the ship or cargo, or of the per- 
sons employed, and to conform with the require- 
ments of navigation. 



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March. l')30 



ARTICLE 8 

In order to insure the safety of the workers when 
engaged in removing or replacing hatch coverings 
and beams used for hatch covering 

(\) Hatch coverings and beams shall be maintained 
in good condition; 

(2) Hatch coverings shall be fitted with adequate 
hand grips, having regard to their size and weight; 

(3) Beams used for hatch coverings shall be fitted 
with suitable gear for removing and replacing them. 

ARTICLE 9 

Adequate measure shall be taken to insure that no 
hoisting machine, or gear, whether fixed or loose, 
used in connection therewith, is employed in the 
processes on shore or on board ship unless it is and 
is maintained in a safe and proper working condition. 

In particular, 

(1) The said machines, fixed gear, on board ship 
sory thereto as defined by national laws or regu- 
lations, and chains and wire ropes used in connection 
therewith shall, before being taken into use, be ade- 
quately examined and tested, and 'the safe working 
load thereof certified, in the manner prescribed and 
by a competent person authorized by national laws 
or regulations. 

(2) After being taken into use the said machines 
and fixed gear on board ship accessory thereto, as 
defined by national laws or regulations, shall be thor- 
oughly examined periodically, and tested, if neces- 
sary, by a competent person, and the essential forms 
of other gear (e. g. chains, wire ropes, rings, hooks) 
shall be periodically inspected. 

(3) Chains and such similar gear as is specified by 
national laws or regulations (e. g. hooks, rings, 
shackles, swivels), shall be periodically annealed, and 
any such gear which has been lengthened, altered or 
repaired by welding shall thereupon be tested and re- 
examined. 

(4) Such duly authenticated records as will pro- 
vide sufficient prima facie evidence of the safe condi- 
tion of the machines and gear concerned shall be kept 
on shore or on ship, as the case may be, specifying 
the safe working load and the dates and results of 
the tests and examinations referred to in paragraphs 
(1) and (2) of this article and of the annealings re- 
ferred to in paragraph (3). 

(5) The safe working load shall be plainly and dur- 
ably marked on shore cranes, and on loose chains, 
whether provided on shore or on board ship. 

(6) Moving or other parts of cranes on winches 
on board ship which by reason of their position might 
be dangerous to the workers shall be securely fenced 
or otherwise protected. 

(7) Cranes and winches shall be provided with 
effective appliances to prevent the accidental descent 
of a load while in process of being lifted or lowered. 

(8) Adequate measures shall be taken to prevent 
steam from any crane or winch causing injury to a 
worker or obscuring any part of the working place 
at which a worker is employed. 

ARTICLE 10 
Special measures shall be prescribed to insure that 
only sufficiently competent and reliable persons are 
employed for the purpose of driving or directing the 
movements of hoisting machinery used in the proc- 
esses. 

ARTICLE 11 

(1) No load shall be left suspended from am 
mg machine unless there is a competent * person 
actually in charge of the machine while the load is 
so left. 



(2) When goods are being loaded or imloaded by 
a fall at a hatchway a signaller shall be emplo 

where a driver >>i the machine cannot suffl 
ciently follow the pr the load during the 

course of its removal. 

(.>) Precautions shall be taken to avoid accident 
which might be caused by dangerous methods of 
working in the stacking, unstacking, stowing or un- 
stowing of carj 

(4) When a hatch is in use the beams thereof, if 
nut removed, -hall be securely fastened to prevent 
their displacement 

(5) Precautions shall be taken to facilitate the 
escape of the workers when employed in a hold or 
on between decks in dealing with coal or other bulk 

(6) Temporary or movable construction (c. g 
folding, platforms shall be of sound materials 
and construction, firmly secured, and fenced or other- 
wise protected at any dangerous parts, and shall not 
be employed at a dangerous angle, having regard to 
their nature and the purpose for which they are used. 

ARTICLE 12 

"Due precautions shall be taken to insure the proper 
protection of the workers according to the circum- 
stances when they have to deal with or work in prox- 
imity to goods which are, or there is reason to believe 
are, in themseh- us to life or health by rea- 

son either of their inherent nature or of their con<fl 
tion at the time plosive, inflammable, 

sive, poisonous or infectious goods, Of goods emit- 
ting dangerous dust or fm 

ARTICLE 13 

While the pro. being carried on adequate 

facilities, having regard to the nature of the work and 
the number ^i \ Qployed, shall be available 

for rapidly securing the rendering of first aid in a 
competent manner, and in more serious cases either 
removal to the nearest place of treatment or tl 
vices of a qualified doctor. 

At dorks, wharves, quays and similar places which 
are in frequent Use for the processes ami at which a 
considerable number of workers may be employed at 
One time, sufficient supplies of first-aid equipment 
shall be kept permanently on the premises in such a 
condition and in such positions afl to be fit ami read- 
ily accessible for immediate use during working 
bonis. The said supplies shall be in charge of a re- 
sponsible person or persons, who shall include 
more persons competent to render first aid. and 
whose services shall also be readily available during 
working hours. 

At such dorks, wharves, quays and similar places 
resaid sufficient provision shall also be made 
for the rescue of immersed workers from drowning. 

ARTICLE 14 

It shall be open to each member to grant exemp- 
tions from or exceptions to the provisions of this 
Convention in respect to any dock, wharf, quay or 
similar place at which the processes are only occa- 
sionally carried on or the traffic is small and confined 
to small ships, ( ,r in respect of certain special 
of ships (e. g. fishing vessels), or ship below a certain 
tonnage: 

Provided, that the International Labor Office shall 
be kept informed of the provisions in virtue of which 
emptions or exceptions as aforesaid are al- 
lowcd ' ARTICLE IS 

In order to insure the due enforcement of air. 

lations prescribed for the protection ^i the v 

against accidents, 



Marc: 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 






(a) The regulal II clearly define the persons 

be responsible for compliance 
with the respective regula- 

-hall be made for an a I 
ection and for penalties for breaches of 
the regulati 

1 opies or summaries of the regulations shall 
•<d up in prominent positions at docks, wharves, 
and similar places which are in frequent use 
the proces- 

The authr r >nsible for the administra- 

te regulation- shall, either directly or through 
ccial joint machinery recognized for the pur- 
.< ep in touch with the employers' and workers' 
any. with a view to ascer- 
taining th< ir n matters appertaining to the 
enforcement of the regula* 

ill be seen from Article 1 that the prayer for 
monopoly had been rejected by the Labor Office; but 
it is apparent, especially from Article 10. that the 
Office light easily be amended so as to give 

the desired monopoly. In order to prevent this and 

to all work done 
for and on the ves it a memo- 

randum ting the amendment especially needed. 

The memorandum earn- - the amendment and reads 

MEMORANDUM 

In reference I concerning 

ployed 
in loading and unl< tading 

The the dockers are pr. 

a conventi< »ri sly con- 

i inanity, 

whether tr 

aid exclude the 
::iload- 

harhor. Me th :r. He 

could • • ild not par- 

He could not 
learn whei 

order t ffieers 

pf tin re the mast 

in order t<> learn the needed as 

>f the Vestris has, a 
ny taken both in the United 
and in England, proved beyond any question that it 
is not safe to disregai of the ages 

and entrust the supervision oi the loading of a 
to men on shi re, whether they be employees in the 
owners' office or steved res X n< tan know the 
capable master, and he could 
t hi< knowledge by experience. Faults in the 
ted by loading and cargo 
is prevented from shifting by proper stowing. To 
deprive the seaman from obtaining the needed knowl- 
•11 result in masters and mates who are inca- 
pable of taking can f vessels when care is needed 
re may be safety to passengers and 
property. 

The able sea::. an — and he is the future officer and 
master — must be able to use. to repair and. as far as 
. to replace the gear and appliances and to 
lower and manage the boats when the sea is rough 
and angry. To adopt any rules 
the seaman of such knowl invite dis 

This is clearly recognized in the report submitted by 
Mr. D. X. Hoover, Supervising General of 



lboat Inspection Service in the United 

future, stress human 
skill.' - So much in regard to skill, which th 
posal. if accepted, would destroy. But what about 
the economic aspect? 

Some sixty per cent of the world's seaport - 
no dockers or other repair workers. Who is to do 
the loading and unloading in such places? T 
men may not. even if they can. If the vessel meets 
with an accident, but succeeds in getting into such 
port, she must be towed to some place where si 
be unloaded and repaired. The insurance may pay 
at the time; but the public will have to pay finally. 
Those who travel and who consume the goods car- 
ried will finally absorb the loss. And then there is 
the national aspect. 

- ::lled seaman is needed in storms 
so he is needed for national defens 
human passions create wars, and it has always been 
the care of statesmen to develop a large number of 
trained seamen. Nations have fought over 
grounds, not so much for the fish to be caugh- 
the seamen to be trained. If there could be any 
chance that this particular Section 5 might get into 
the Convention more might be said; but it would be 
lit to conceive that this part of the proposal 
could get any votes from either the employers or the 
national group. 

However, the plain purpose of the original dr 
to exclude the seamen, and it may well be that the 
proposers may look upon this as the most important 

safety rules, and they have some rea 
think so. The shipowner no longer has the old vital 
interest in skilled seamanship that he had previously. 
ire now lessened by limitations of liability and 
covered by insurance. Those conditions have seri- 
skfll of seamen and the docker 
may fear to have some such seamen handling the 
- ar. There can be no doubt that 
.re needed, but that is not a good reason for 
adopting such rules as will destroy the skill that must 
be required of a seaman. 

-eems to be a general opinion. All the nations 

in principle that rules are needed; but they 

radically disagree on particulars — and well they may. 

Some say that there should be rules dealing with all 

- in ocean trade, except vessels of war. thus 

excluding all lake, river and canal vessels. Others 

-t tonnage limitations and that vessels with 

shallow holds be exempted. Others again think that 

the rules should apply only to international maritime 

trade, thus disregarding lakes and rivers, which form 

boundaries between nations and on some of which 

-sels are used. There seems but a small chance 

that the Convention proposed by the Labor Office can 

be accepted. 

There is. however, so much that is good in the 

sal that it would be a pity to have it fail en- 

For this reason it is res; ■ectfully submitted 

that each nation might adopt rules for the national 

trade suitable to itself and that international rules 

should be based upon the number of men carried on 

the vessels coming into port. This might be accom- 

by inserting in clause (M Article 1. after the 

word •"person" and before the word "'employee 

ig: "Needed on the vessel in addition to the 
crew." 

This would leave the owner of the vessel to 
mine whether he will come under the international 
rule or under the rule of his own flag, and it would 
eliminate the questions of tonnage and depth of hold. 
If he needed one or two men more in the cr 
order to remain under the rules of his own f. 
might choose to carry one or two men more in the 



156 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



crew. He would be free to do as he might think best. 
Nor could there be any valid reason for complaint on 
the part of the country in which the vessel might be. 

The valid reason for making national rules to apply 
to foreign vessels is, of course, the nation's duty to 
protect its own people, and where none are employed 
none are in danger. If the hoisting gear is on the 
dock, it would be subject to the national rule. If on 
the vessel, the rule of the flag, and the nation or the 
ship would consequently be responsible for any acci- 
dent to any person injured through ineffective gear. 
The shipowner would have either his national or 
international rules. He would know both, and choose 
either personally or through the master, and being 
internationally on equality with competitors, the com- 
petition would vanish. To the worker, whether 
docker or seaman, it would seem of advantage 
As it now stands, very few nations have the 
same law. Some have compensation, poor or fair, 
some have provisions for damages to be determined 
by the courts, some have the Rhodian law of care and 
cure, and some have no law at all. He would, if this 
is adopted, be either under the law of his own coun- 
try with an appeal to the court or compensation com- 
mission or under the international rule. In either 
case he would have some rights, while now he often 
has none. From an administrative point oi view, it 
would seem to be of advantage by tending to sim- 
plicity and certainly of responsibility easily deter- 
mined. 

In all it might be hoped to lessen the number of 
accidents, and this is, of course, first consideration, 
because it would leave the worker his health and the 
employer his money. 

Some other slight amendments might have to be 
made to harmonize the whole Convention with this 
new principle imported into it. 

Finally it would give the seaman in the small ves- 
sels the chance to learn the work demanded by his 
calling and restore to him some real skill and some 
pride in his work without the skill in which he is u>e- 
less and subject to contempt to others as well as of 
himself. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH, 
Representing the Seamen of America. 
May 27, 1929. 



After the Conference was organized, this, the Sec- 
ond Item on the Agenda, was referred to the proper 
committee, from which it was on the 18th of June 
reported back with sundry additions, amendments and 
a minority report in the form of amendments offered 
b}' employers' group, reading as follows: 

Draft Convention Concerning the Protection Against 

Accidents of Workers Employed in Loading 

or Unloading Ships 

ARTICLE 1 

For the purpose of this Convention: 

(1) The term "processes" means and includes all 
or any part of the work performed on shore or on 
board ship of loading or unloading any ship, whether 
engaged in maritime or inland navigation, excluding 
ships of war in, on or at any maritime or inland port, 
harbor, dock, wharf, quay or similar place at which 
such work is carred on; and 

(2) The term "worker" means any person em- 
ployed in the processes. 



ARTICLE 2 

Any regular approach over a dock, wharf, quay or 
similar premises which the workers have to use for 
going to or from a working place at which the proc- 
esses are carried on, and every such working place 
on shore shall be maintained with due regard to the 
safety of the workers using them. 

In particular, 

(1) Every said working place on shore and any 
dangerous parts of any said approach thereto from 
the nearest highway shall be safely and efficiently 
lighted. 

(2) Wharves and quays shall be kept sufficiently 
clear of goods to maintain a clear passage to the 
means of access referred to in Article 3. 

(3) Where any space is left along the edge of any 
wharf or quay there shall be maintained a space of at 
least 3 feet (90 cm.) wide and clear of all obstructions 
other than fixed structures, plant and appliances in 
use; and 

(4) So far as it is practicable having regard to the 
traffic and working: 

(i) All dangerous parts of the said approaches and 
working places (e. g., dangerous breaks, cor- 
ners and edges) shall be adequately fenced to 
a height of not less than 2 feet 6 inches 
(75 cm.). 

(ii) Dangerous footways over bridges, caissons and 
dock gates shall be fenced to a height of not 
less than 2 feet 6 inches < 75 cm.) on each side, 
and the said fencing shall be continued to a 
sufficient distance at both ends which shall not 
be required to exceed 5 yards. 

ARTICLE 3 

(1) When a ship is lying alongside the quay or 
some other vessel for the purpose of the pre 
there shall be safe means of access for the use of the 
workers at such times as they have to pass to or from 
the ship, unless the conditions are such that they 
would not be exposed to undue danger if no special 
appliance were provided. 

(2) The said means of access shall be: 

(i) where reasonably practicable, the ship's accom- 
modation ladder, a gangway or a similar con- 
struction: 

(ii) in other cases a ladder. 

(3) The appliances specified in paragraph (2) (i) of 
this Article shall be at least 11 inches (?? cm.) wide, 
properly secured to prevent their displacement, not 
inclined at too steep an angle, constructed of ma- 
terials of good quality and in good condition, and 
securely fenced throughout to a clear height of not 
less than 2 feet 9 inches (82 cm.) on both sides, or in 
the case of the ship's accommodation ladder securely 
fenced to the same height on one side if the other 
side is properly protected by the ship's side: 

Provided that any appliance 1 ! as aforesaid in use at 
the date of ratification of this Convention which are 
fenced on both sides to a clear height either of 2 feet 
8 inches (80 cm.) or of 2 feet 6 inches (75 cm.) shall 
be allowed to remain in use, in the first case until the 
fencing is renewed, and in the second case for one 
year from the date of ratification of the Convention. 

(4) The ladders specified in paragraph (2) (ii) of 
this Article shall be of adequate length and strength, 
and properly secured. 

(5) (i) Exceptions to the provisions of this Article 
may be allowed by the competent authorities when 
they are satisfied that the appliances specified in the 
Article are not required in the interests of the safety 
of the workers. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



157 



(ii) The provisions of this Article shall not apply 
to cargo stages or gangways when exclusively used 
for the processes. 

(6) Workers shall not use, or be required to use, 
any other means of access than the means specified 
or allowed by this Article. 

ARTICLE 4 

When the workers have to proceed to or from a 
ship by water for the processes, appropriate meas- 
ures shall be prescribed to insure their safe transport, 
including the conditions to be complied with by the 
vessels used for this purpose. 

ARTICLE 5 

(1) When the workers have to carry on the proc- 
esses in a hold the depth of which from the level of 
the dock to the bottom of the hold exceeds 5 feet 
(1.5 m.) there shall be safe means of access from the 
deck to the hold for their use. 

(2) The said means of access shall ordinarily be 
by ladder, which shall not be deemed to be safe un- 
less it complies with the following conditions: 

(i) leaves sufficient free space behind the rungs 
which in the case of ladders on bulkheads and 
in trunk hatchways shall not be less than Ay'2 
inches (11^2 cm.), or has throughout rungs 
of sufficient width for firm foothold and hand- 
hold; 
(ii) is not recessed under the deck more than is 
reasonably necessary to keep it clear of the 
hatchway; 
(iii) is continued by and is in line with arrange- 
ments for secure handhold and foothold on the 
coamings (e.g., cleats or cups); 
, (iv) the said arrangements on the coamings stand 
out not less than A l / 2 inches (UK cm.) for a 
width of 10 inches (25 cm.); and 
(v) if separate ladders are provided between the 
lower decks, the said ladders are as far as 
practicable in line with the ladder from the 
top deck. 
Where, however, owing to the construction of the 
ship, the provision of a ladder would not be reason- 
ably practicable, it shall be open to the competent 
authorities to allow other means of access, provided 
that they comply with the conditions laid down in 
this Article for ladders so far as they are applicable. 

(3) Sufficient free passage to the means of access 
shall be left at the coamings. 

(4) Shaft tunnels shall be equipped with adequate 
handhold and foothold on both sides. 

(5) When a ladder is to be used in the hold of a 
vessel which is not decked it shall be the duty of 
the contractor undertaking the processes to provide 
such ladder, which shall be equipped at the top with 
hooks for fastening it on to the coamings or other 
means for firmly securing it. 

(6) The workers shall not use, or be required to 
use, other means of access than the means specified 
or allowed by this Article. 

(7) Existing ships at the date of ratification of this 
Convention shall be exempt from the measurements 
in paragraph (2) (i) and the provisions of paragraph 
(2) (iv) and (5) of this Article for a period not ex- 
ceeding four years from the date of ratification of 
this Convention. 

ARTICLE 6 
While the workers are on a ship for the purpose of 
the processes, no hatchway of a cargo hold exceeding 
5 feet in depth from the level of the deck to the bot- 
tom of the hold which is accessible to the workers 



shall be left open and unprotected, but every such 
hatchway which is not protected to a clear height of 
2 feet 6 inches (75 cm.) by the coamings shall either 
be securely fenced to a height of 3 feet (90 cm.) if 
the processes at that hatchway are not impeded 
thereby, or be securely covered; 

Provided that the requirements of this Article shall 
not apply to a hatchway at which a proper and suffi- 
cient watch is being kept. 

Similar measures shall be taken when necessary to 
protect any other openings in a deck which might be 
dangerous to the workers. 

ARTICLE 7 

When the processes have to be carried on on a 
ship, the means of access thereto and all places on 
board at which the workers are employed or to which 
they may be required to proceed in the course of their 
employment shall be efficiently lighted. 

The means of lighting shall be such as not to 
endanger the safety of the workers or to interfere 
with the navigation of other vessels. 

ARTICLE 8 

In order to insure the safety of the workers when 
engaged in removing or replacing hatch coverings 
and beams used for hatch coverings. 

(1) Hatch coverings and beams used for hatch 
covering shall be maintained in good condition; 

(2) Hatch coverings shall be fitted with adequate 
hand grips, having regard to their size and weight; 

(3) Beams used for hatch covering shall have suit- 
able gear for removing and replacing them, to pre- 
vent the workers having to go .upon them for the 
purpose of adjusting such gear; 

(4) All hatch coverings and fore and aft and 
thwartship beams shall, in so far as they are not in- 
terchangeable, be kept plainly marked to indicate the 
deck and hatch to which they belong and their posi- 
tion therein; 

(5) Hatch coverings shall not be used in the con- 
struction of deck or cargo stages or for any other 
purpose which may expose them to damage. 

ARTICLE 9 

Appropriate measures shall be prescribed to insure 
that no hoisting machine or gear, whether fixed or 
loose, used in connection therewith, is employed in 
the processes on shore or on board ship unless it is 
in a safe working condition. 

In particular: 

(1) The said machines, fixed gear on board ship 
accessory thereto as defined by national laws or regu- 
lations, and chains and wire ropes used in connection 
therewith, shall before being taken into use be ade- 
quately examined and tested, and the safe working 
load thereof certified, in the manner prescribed and 
by a competent person. 

(2) After being taken into use, every hoisting ma- 
chine, whether used on shore or on board ship, and 
all fixed gear on board ship accessory thereto as de- 
fined by national laws or regulations shall be thor- 
oughly examined or inspected as follows:: 

(i) To be thoroughly examined every four years 
and inspected every twelve months: Derricks, 
goose necksj mast bands, derrick bands, eye- 
bolts, spans and any other fixed gear the dis- 
mantling of which is specially difficult; 

(ii) To be thoroughly examined every twelve 
months: All hoisting machines, (e.g., cranes, 
winches), blocks, shackles and all other acces- 
sory gear not included in (i). 



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All loose gear (e. g., chains, wire ropes, rings, 
hooks) shall be inspected on each occasion before use 
unless they have been inspected within the previous 
three months. 

Chains shall not be shortened by tying knots in 
them, and precautions shall be taken to prevent in- 
jury to them from sharp edges. 

A thimble or loop splice made in any wire rope 
shall have at least 3 tucks with a whole strand of 
rope and 2 tucks with one half of the wires cut out 
of each strand; provided that this requirement shall 
not operate to prevent the use of another form of 
splice which can be shown to be as efficient as the 
form hereby prescribed. 

(3) Chains and such similar gear as is specified by 
national laws or regulations (e. g., hooks, rings, 
shackles, swivels) shall, unless they have been sub- 
jected to such other sufficient treatment as may be 
prescribed bj r national laws or regulations, be an- 
nealed under the supervision of a competent person, 
as follows: 

(a) Chains and the said gear carried on board ship; 
(i) half inch and smaller chains or gear in general 

use once at least in every six months; 
(ii) all other chains or gear (including span chains 
but excluding bridle chains attached to der- 
ricks or masts) in general use once at least in 
every twelve months: 

Provided that in the case of such gear used solely 
on cranes and other hoisting appliances worked by 
hand, twelve months shall be substituted for six 
months in sub-paragraph (i) and two years for twelve 
months in sub-paragraph (ii) ; 

Provided, also, that if the competent authority is 
of opinion that owing to the size, design, material or 
infrequency of use of any of the said gear other than 
chains the requirement of this paragraph as to an- 
nealing are not necessary for the protection of the 
workers, it may, by certificate in writing (which it 
may in its discretion revoke) exempt such gear from 
the said requirements subject to such conditions as 
may be specified in the said certificate. 

(b) Chains and the said gear not carried on board 
ship; 

Measures shall be prescribed to secure the anneal- 
ing of chains and the said gear. 

(4) Such duly authenticated records as will provide 
sufficient prima facie evidence of the safe condition 
of the machines and gear concerned shall be kept, on 
shore or on the ship, as the case may be, specifying 
the safe load and the dates and results of the tests 
and examinations referred to in paragraphs (1) and 
(2) of this Article and of the annealings or other 
treatment referred to in paragraph (3). 

Such records shall, on the application of any per- 
son authorized for the purpose, be produced by the 
person in charge thereof. 

(5) The safe working load shall be kept plainly 
marked on all cranes, derricks and chain slings and 
on any similar hoisting gear used on board ship as 
specified by national laws or regulations. The safe 
working load marked on chain slings shall either be 
in plain figures or letters upon the chains or upon a 
tablet or piece of durable material attached securely 
thereto. 

(6) All motors, cogwheels, chain and friction gear- 
ing, shafting, live electric conductors and steam pipes 
shall (unless it can be shown that by their position 
and construction they are equally safe to every 
worker employed as they would be if securely fenced") 
be securely, fenced so far as is practicable without 
impeding the safe working of the ship. 



(7) Cranes and winches shall be provided with 
effective appliances to prevent the accidental descent 
of a load while in process of being lifted or lowered. 

(8) Appropriate measures shall be taken to prevent 
exhaust steam from, and so far as practicable, live 
steam to, any crane or winch obscuring any part of 
the working place at which a worker is employed. 

ARTICLE 10 
Only sufficiently competent and reliable persons 
shall be employed to operate lifting or transporting 
machinery, whether driven by mechanical power or 
otherwise, or to give signals to a driver of such ma- 
chinery, or to attend to cargo falls on winch ends or 
winch'bodies. ARTICLE 11 

(1) No load shall be left suspended from any hoist- 
ing machine unless there is a competent person actu- 
allv in charge of the machine while the load I- -<> 
left. 

(2) Appropriate measures shall be prescribed to 
provide for the employment of a signaller where this 
is necessary in the interests of the safety of the 
workers. 

(3) Appropriate measures shall be prescribed with 
the object of preventing dangerous methods of work- 
ing in the stacking, unstacking, stowing and un- 
stowing of cargo, or handling in connection there- 
with. 

(4) Before work is begun at a hatch the beams 
thereof shall be removed, unless the hatch is of suffi- 
cient size to preclude danger to the workers from a 
lead striking against the beams; provided that when 
the beams arc not removed they shall be securely 
fastened to prevent their displacement. 

(5) Precautions shall be taken to facilitate the 
escape of the workers when employed in a hold ojr 
on between decks in dealing with coal or other bulk 
cargo. 

(6) No stage shall be used in the proce--c> unless 
it is substantially and firmly constructed and ade- 
quately supported and where ne urely fast- 
ened; and no truck shall be used for carrying f;u-,L, r . i 
between ship and shore on a stage so steep as to be 
unsafe. 

Stages shall, where .necessary, be treated with suit- 
able material to prevent the workers slipping. 

(7) When the working space in a hold is confined 
to the square of the hatch, hooks shall not be made 
fast in the bands or fastenings of bales of cotton, 
wool, cork, gunny bags or other similar good- (nor 
can hooks on barrel.- >, except for the purpose of 
breaking out or making up slings. 

(8) No gear of any description shall be loaded be- 
yond the safe working load, except on special occa- 
sions expressly authorized by the owner or his re- 
sponsible agent and of which a record shall be kept. 

(9) In the case of shore cranes with varying ca- 
pacity (e. g., raising and lowering jib with load ca- 
pacity varying according to the angle), an automatic 
indicator shall be provided or else a table showing the 
safe working loads at the corresponding inclinations 
of the jib shall be provided on the crane. 

ARTICLE 12 

National laws or regulations shall prescribe such 
precautions as may be deemed necessary to insure 
the proper protection of the workers, having regard 
to the circumstances of each case, when they have to 
deal with or work in proximity to goods which are in 
themselves dangerous to life or health by reason 
either of their inherent nature or of their condition at 
the time, or work where such goods have been 
stowed. 



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159 



ARTICLE 13 

Any fencing, gang-way, gear, ladder, lifesaving 
means or appliance, light, mark, stage or other thing 
whatsoever required to be provided under this Con- 
vention shall not be removed or interfered with by 
any person except when duly authorized or in case 
of necessity, and if removed shall be restored at the 
end of the period for which its removal was necessary. 

ARTICLE 14 

At docks, wharves, quays and similar places which 
are in frequent use for the processes, such facilities 
as having regard to local circumstances shall be pre- 
scribed by national laws or regulations shall be avail- 
able for rapidly securing the rendering of first aid, 
and in serious cases of accident removal to the near- 
est place of treatment, and sufficient supplies of first- 
aid equipment shall be kept permanently on the 
premises in such a condition and in such positions as 
to be fit and readily accessible for immediate use 
during working hours. The said supplies shall be in 
charge of a responsible person or persons, who shall 
include one or more persons competent to render 
first aid, and whose services shall also be readily 
available during working hours. 

At such docks, wharves, quays and similar places 
as aforesaid appropriate provision shall also be made 
for the rescue of immersed workers from drowning. 

ARTICLE 15 

It shall be open to each member to grant exemp- 
tions from or exceptions to the provisions of this Con- 
vention in respect of any dock, wharf, quay or similar 
place at which- the processes are only occasionally 
carried on or the traffic is small and confined to 
small ships, or in respect of certain special ships or 
special classes of ships or ships below a certain small 
tonnage, or in cases where, as a result of climatic 
conditions, it would be impracticable to require the 
provisions of this Convention to be carried out. 

The International Labor Office shall be kept in- 
formed of the provisions in virtue of which any ex- 
emptions and exceptions as aforesaid are allowed. 

ARTICLE 16 

Except as herein otherwise provided, the provisions 
of this Convention which affect the construction of 
permanent equipment of the ship shall apply to ships 
of a member the building of which is commenced 
after the date of ratification of the Convention by the 
member, and to all other ships within four years 
after that date, provided that the member to which 
the said other ships belong shall enforce against them 
the said provisions so far as reasonable and practi- 
cable. 

ARTICLE 17 

In order to insure the due enforcement of any reg- 
ulations prescribed for the protection of the workers 
against accidents: 

(1) The regulations shall clearly define the persons 
or bodies who are to be responsible for compliance 
with the respective regulations; 

(2) Provisions shall be made for an efficient sys- 
tem of inspection and for penalties for breaches of 
the regulations; 

(3) Copies of summaries of the regulations shall 
be posted up in prominent positions at docks, wharves, 
quays and similar places which are in frequent use for 
the processes. 

Draft Recommendations 
I. 
The Conference, recognizing that the present Con- 
vention, while having as its main object the protec- 



tion against accidents of workers employed in the 
loading and unloading of ships, at the same time 
affords an opportunity for regulations being prepared 
and issued by the members which should secure rea- 
sonable uniformity on the basis of the Convention 
and for extension of the principle of reciprocity in 
the mutual recognition of certificates of inspection 
and examination; and 

Recalling in this connection the principles laid 
down in the Copenhagen Convention of 1926 on the 
seaworthiness and equipment of ships, with the 
amendment of 1928: 

Strongly recommends that, following the ratifica- 
tion and issuing of regulations as aforesaid based 
upon this Draft Convention, the members ratifying 
should enter into conference for the purpose of secur- 
ing agreement for reciprocity, subject to all such 
agreements making secure the main object of the 
Convention, namely, the safety of the persons em- 
ployed. 

II. 

The Conference, having adopted a Draft Conven- 
tion concerning the protection against accidents of 
workers engaged in loading or unloading ships, and 

Desiring to indicate for the guidance of the mem- 
bers a method of bringing the Convention into opera- 
tion in their respective countries, supplements this 
Draft Convention by the following recommendations: 

That the authorities responsible for the making of 
regulations for the protection against accidents of 
workers engaged in loading or unloading ships should, 
either directly or through any special joint machinery 
recognized for the purpose, consult the workers' and 
employers' organizations concerned, if any, in their 
respective countries in the establishment of any new 
regulations under the above-mentioned Draft Con- 
vention. 

Draft Resolution 

The Conference invites the governing body of the 
International Labor Office to consider, and if thought 
desirable to proceed to, the appointment of an inter- 
national technical committee to work out a model 
set of regulations on the protection against accidents 
of workers employed in the loading and unloading of 
ships which might guide the governments in framing 
or modifying their respective regulations, with a view 
of putting them into agreement with the present 
Draft Convention. 

"Amendments proposed by the Employers' Group. 

ARTICLE 1 
Paragraph (1), lines 4 and 5: Delete 'or in inland.' 

ARTICLE 5 

Paragraph (5) : Delete paragraph beginning 'When 
a ladder, etc' 

ARTICLE 6 

Restore International Labor Office draft as follows: 
Paragraph (1): After 'workers' (line 4) re-insert 
'and which is not in use for the processes or a simi- 
lar purpose' and consequently delete (line 7) 'if the 
processes at that hatchway are not impeded thereby.' 
Paragraph (2) : After 'hatchway' (line 2) re-insert 
'the use of which is being temporarily suspended 
during meal times or other short interruptions of 
work or.' 

New Article 

Insert the following as new article: 

Any vessel registered in any country ratifying this 
Convention which carries certificates as requested by 
its national law or equivalent documents showing 
that, in respect of matters dealt with in the Conven- 



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tion, it complies with the provisions in force in the 
country to which it belongs, shall, as a general rule 
and except in the cases ^referred to in the following 
paragraph, be exempt from any supervision of the 
said matters on the part of the other ratifying coun- 
tries. 

Notwithstanding the foregoing paragraph, each 
ratifying country shall be at liberty to prescribe or 
interrupt temporarily the loading or unloading of a 
ship registered in one of the other ratifying countries 
if its competent authorities consider that the carrying 
out or continuation of any work in the said operations 
would expose its workers to obvious danger by rea- 
son of the fact that the loading and unloading gear 
of the ship is not in the proper condition prescribed 
by the ship's national law or that measures of a non- 
permanent character which are manifestly necessary 
for the prevention of accidents have not been taken. 

Each ratifying country shall lodge with all other 
ratifying countries and with the International Labor 
Office a copy of the laws or regulations by which it 
gives effect to the provisions of this Convention." 

In the general debate that followed the proposed 
Convention draft was severely criticized because it 
dealt wtih inland navigation. It was contended that 
there was no authority for such extension. The ques- 
tionnaire had not dealt with that. 

In dealing with the individual articles the amend- 
ments proposed by the employers' group were voted 
down after short debates and the draft, as presented 
by the committee, including the draft resolution, was 
adopted receiving more than the two-thirds majority 
needed. The following report was then sent to the 
National Union of Seamen, and to the International 
Seamen's Union of America: 

"Geneva, Switzerland, June 25, 1929. 
To: 

The National Union of Seamen, 
England. 
And the 

International Seamen's Union of America, 
America. 

REPORT ON CONFERENCE AT GENEVA ON 

THE LOADING AND UNLOADING OF 

VESSELS BEGINNING 30TH MAY 

AND ENDING 19TH JUNE, 1929. 

Gentlemen: 

As you are aware the International Transport 
Workers' Federation and the Dockers' Union of Great 
Britain some twelve months ago issued a demand 
to the International Labor Office for certain regula- 
tions which should be adopted and which would give 
the dockers throughout the world a monopoly on 
board all ships in harbor. The most important Sec- 
tion of the demand was: 

"QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONS EM- 
PLOYED. 

(a) Only competent dock workers of not less 
than 18 years of age shall be employed in the proc- 
esses. In no case shall members of a ship's crew 
be employed in the processes. 

(b) Only competent dock workers, holding a 
certificate issued by a recognized authority after a 
test of efficiency in such work, shall be employed 
for the purpose of operating any power lifting ap- 
pliances, including ship's winches. 

(c) Persons employed to operate lifting or trans- 
porting machinery, whether driven by mechanical 



power or otherwise, or to give signals to a driver 
of such machinery, or to attend to cargo falls on 
winch ends, or winch bodies, shall not be less 
than 21 years of age." 

The Labor Office having made inquiries from the 
various governments subsequently issued a draft 
convention in which the above demand was modified, 
to read as follows: 

"Article 1. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS 
CONVENTION: 

(a) The term 'processes' means and includes all 
or any part of the work performed on shore or on 
board ship of loading or unloading any ship 
whether engaged in maritime or inland navigation, 
excluding ships of war, in, on, or at any maritime 
or inland port, harbour, dock, wharf, quay or sim- 
ilar place at which such work is carried on; and 

(b) The term 'worker' means any person em- 
ployed in the processes." 

We had, however, information which justified us 
in believing that amendments would be offered which, 
if enacted would restore the dockers' demand for 
at least a substantial monopoly. For that reason we 
offered the following amendment to Section B of 
Article 1: 

"Insert after the word 'person' and before the 
word 'employed' the following, 'in addition to the 
crew,' so as to make it read: 

(b) The term 'worker' means any person in addi- 
tion to the crew employed in the processes." 
This would, of course, safeguard the crew. It 
was for this purpose we went to Geneva and on ar- 
rival there called on the Director General of the In- 
ternational Labor Office, Mr. Albert Thomas, and 
handed him a memorandum, copy of which is at- 
tached hereto as Appendix A. 

This Memorandum contains the proposed Amend- 
ment to Article 1, Clause B, and would tend to safe- 
guard the position of seamen on board ships. We 
also saw the Deputy Director. Mr. Butler, and urged 
upon both gentlemen mentioned, in the interest of 
shipping, to see that the seamen were not driven out 
of the ships just to make room for the dock workers. 
We then had 1<!() copies of the Memorandum made 
and posted one to each of the Government repre- 
sentatives and their advisers; we also banded to each 
of the employers' representatives and their advisers 
a copy; also to some of the workers' group. 

Our activities soon became known to the whole 
Convention and eventually we were asked to see 
the Chairman of the Commission dealing with loading 
and unloading, Count de Altea, Government delegate 
from Spain. The interpreter tried his best to mislead 
the Chairman and us, but eventually a Spaniard, who 
was accompanying the Chairman, and understood 
some English, explained our proposal to the Chair- 
man and his reply to US. The Chairman seemed to 
understand that we were endeavoring to safeguard 
the interests of the seamen and stated that he would 
have our Memorandum translated and distributed 
among the various members. 

We attended at the meeting place each day and in- 
terviewed the delegates whenever possible. When the 
Conference had been in progress two weeks, we and 
some of the Government and employers' delegates 
thought it would soon finish, and that our amend- 
ment to safeguard the crew would be adopted; but 
instead of the Conference finishing the workers' 
groups increased their activities. Ben Tillet arrived 
from England and Mr. Nelson from Denmark. In 
fact from each country new advocates arrived. It 
therefore became necessary for us to increase our ac- 
tivities to the greatest extent. We button-holed 



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161 



everyone possible and made them listen to our argu- 
ments on behalf of the seamen. 

The Workers' group led by Messrs. Fimmen, Bevin 
and Ben Tillet, however, kept away from us. It 
was almost a pantomime to watch them sneak through 
the streets and the meeting hall without coming in 
contact with us. In fact, if we had had smallpox we 
could not have been more isolated so far as the 
Workers' group was concerned. This group, of course, 
consisted mostly of dockers and a few political organ 
grinders. No seamen, or at least none who had any 
up-to-date knowledge of seamen, were present. Mr. 
Charles Lindley, M. P. for Sweden was at one time a 
seaman and a member of the International Union, 
but for nearly 30 years he has been the leader of the 
Dockers' Union of Sweden and executive member of 
the International Transport Workers' Federation. 
When we asked him how he could support the de- 
mand that made it possible for seamen to carry out 
their usual duties and which would give the dockers 
a monopoly of all work on board, his answer was 
that as all seamen would be strangers in a port their 
minds would be so distracted by thinking of what 
was to be found outside the dock gates that it would 
be dangerous to allow them to attend to the winches 
or the signalling. 

Ben Tillet, of course, as usual, claimed to be a 
seaman. His activities for the dockers are known to 
everyone. While it would be hard for anyone to 
point out any incident where Ben for the last twenty 
or thirty years has done anything to help the seamen. 
A third man claimed to have been a seaman, viz., one 
Mr. Rudolph of Germany, but he had to admit that 
for a number of years he has been representing the 
inland seamen on the Rhine and that he was shortly 
to become president of the Dockers' and Seamen's 
Section of the Transport Workers on the Rhine. 

As we were not permitted to sit at any meeting of 
the committee we could only carry on 'lobbying,' 
which we kept right up until the finish of the Con- 
ference. At the final vote the Labor Office proposals 
were adopted by 82 votes to 24. The change of gov- 
ernments in England and Denmark had, of course, 
altered the position of the government representa- 
tives of these countries and the representatives of 
Latin countries, especially those with no seaboard, 
voted with the workers in favor of the International 
Labor Office proposal. Efforts have been made in 
the group meetings to have the I. L. O. proposals so 
amended that the qualifications for handling winches 
and signalling should include that any person so em- 
ployed should be able to speak and understand the 
language of the dockers wherever the ship might be. 
The Labor Office proposal with reference to this 
matter is in Section 10, which reads as follows: 

'Special measures shall be prescribed to insure 
that only sufficiently competent and reliable per- 
sons are employed for the purpose of driving or 
directing the movements of hoisting machinery 
used in the processes.' 

It was stated that this_ demand for knowledge and 
understanding of the language of the dockers was 
especially demanded by Bevin and the group meet- 
ing, but it was only amended so as to read as follows: 
'Only sufficiently competent and reliable persons 
shall be employed to operate lifting or transporting 
machinery, whether driven by mechanical power or 
otherwise, or to give signals to a driver of such 
machinery or to attend to cargo falls on winch 
ends or winch bodies.' 



It will be noted that no material distinction exists 
between Section 10 as amended and Section 10 as 
submitted by the International Labor Office. At the 
plenary Conference a demand was again made and 
insisted upon that there could be no efficiency with- 
out a full knowledge of the language of the port, and 
this was especially insisted upon by Mr. Bevin. Sec- 
tion 10 as reported from the Commission was, how- 
ever, adopted. 

Before leaving Geneva we called on Mr. Thomas 
and pointed out to him the danger it would be to 
shipping and seamen if interpretation including the 
knowledge was given to the proposals now adopted. 
He promised to go into the matter carefully and to 
advise the different governments accordingly. We 
then asked him about the proposed Conference in 
October next and were informed that it was only a 
meeting which was to decide if the question of the 
work hours at sea should be placed on the Agenda 
for discussion or to be acted upon in 1930. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH, 

CHRIS DAMM." 

To the foregoing I desire to add only that the 
study of this proposed Convention will convince any 
person that the United States, if adopting this pro- 
posed treaty together with the recommendations at- 
tached thereto, will surrender the opportunity to de- 
velop an efficient body of seamen, which, of course, 
means the development of sea power. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH. 

The United States could not ratify this treaty 
without surrendering the power to develop an effi- 
cient personnel which the United States now has and 
sometimes exercises in an effort to assist in the de- 
velopment of such personnel. Nations that have a 
well developed maritime commerce and personnel 
would do well to seriously consider to what extent 
this treaty will leave their commerce at the mercy of 
competitors who might well, under the treaty, use 
the harbor workers or longshoremen to discriminate 
against their ships. 

While the following proposed treaty is not properly 
a part of this report, I deem it my duty to call atten- 
tion to it because it has to do with shipping. The 
proposed treaty reads as follows: 

"Draft Convention concerning the marking of 
the weight on heavy packages transported by ves- 
sels, submitted by the Drafting Committee." 

The General Conference of the International Labor 
Organization of the League of Nations, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the Govern- 
ing Body of the International Labor Office, and hav- 
ing met in its Twelfth Session on the thirtieth of 
May, 1929, etc., etc. 

ARTICLE 1 

Any package or object of one thousand kilograms 
(one metric ton) or more gross weight consigned 
within the territory of any member which ratifies this 



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March, 1930 



Convention for transport by sea or inland waterway 
shall have had its gross weight plainly and durably 
marked upon it on the outside before it is loaded on 
a ship or vessel. 

In exceptional cases where it is difficult to deter- 
mine the exact weight, national laws or regulations 
may allow an approximate weight to be marked. 

The obligation to see that this requirement is ob- 
served shall rest solely upon the government of the 
country from which the package or object is con- 



signed, and not on the government of a country 
through which it passes on the way to its destination. 
It is left to national laws or regulations to deter- 
mine whether the obligation for having the weight 
marked as aforesaid shall fall on the consignor or on 
some other person or body. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH, 
Representing the Seamen of America. 



APPENDIX E 

Report of Andrew Furuseth 



Washington, D. C, October 1, 1929. 

To the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Comrades: 

According to your instructions in sending me to 
Geneva, Switzerland, it was one of my duties to 
examine into the question of "Forced Labor." 

On my arrival at Geneva I found that the question 
oi "Forced Labor" was the third item on the agenda. 
I found that it had been investigated and dealt with 
by the Labor Office and that its investigation, sug- 
gestions and action were embodied in a publication 
entitled "First Discussion International Labor Con- 
ference Twelfth Session, Geneva, 1929, Forced Labor, 
Report and Draft Questionnaire, Item III on the 
Agenda." 

On reading over the Report and Draft Question- 
naire on "Forced Labor" it became plain to me that 
there is very little evidence of any definite purpose of 
abolishing this form of slave labor. That it is slave 
labor cannot be questioned. Its very defenders say 
it is not to be used unless you cannot obtain volun- 
tary labor. It is not only slave labor of the kind that 
once was common, it is worse, because all the interest 
of the employer in the welfare of the forced worker is 
abolished. The slave, as he was known in Rome in 
the Middle Ages and in the United States prior to 
the Civil War, was property in which the owner had 
a financial interest. Such slaves had to be raised or 
bought. If raised, it meant considerable expense, 
with the possibility of sickness or death intervening 
and sweeping the investment away. If the slave was 
bought it was sometimes at a considerable price, and 
there was no security against sickness or death, ex- 
cept such insurance as might be arranged. 

A forced laborer is taken deliberately by conscrip- 
tion out of the population. He is taken because he 
can work, and if he refuses to work when taken he is 
punished by additional labor or in other, even more 
brutal ways. If he sickens and dies a substitute is 
requisitioned. The loss is so many persons in the 
population. There is no specific loss to the individual 
employer. These considerations caused me to write 
the following petition: 



"The Honorable Albert Thomas, Director, 
International Labor Office, 
Geneva, Switzerland. 
Sir: 

On behalf of the seamen of the United States, the 
undersigned respectfully begs to submit our apprecia- 
tion of the work carried on under that part of Section 
22 of the Covenant which speaks of the condition of 
the people in early stages of development as being 
'a sacred trust of civilization,' and of that part of 
Section 23 which reads as follows: 

'(a) will endeavor to secure and maintain fair 
and humane conditions of labor for men, women 
and children, both in their own countries and in 
all countries to which their commercial and indus- 
trial relations extend . . .; (and will) 
'undertake to secure just treatment of the native 
inhabitants of territories under their control.' 

Petition 

Wc humbly petition that all 'forced labor,' whether 
under indenture, contract or otherwise, when not im- 
posed as a penalty for crime, be prohibited. 

The United States of America, having experimented 
with 'Forced Labor' as well as slavery, has found 
them to be but separate names for the same statu-. 
Having found this as a fact, the Slavery Convention 
they adhered to with a proviso, which specifically 
treats slavery and 'forced labor' as being the same. 
The proviso reads as follows: 

'That the Government of the United States, ad- 
hering to its policy of opposition to forced or com- 
pulsory labor except as a punishment for crime, of 
which the person concerned has been duly con- 
victed, adheres to the Convention except as to the 
first subdivision of the second paragraph of Article 
V, which reads as follow-: 

'Subject to the transitional provisions laid down 
in paragraph (2) below compulsory or forced la- 
bor may only be exacted for public purposes.' 
With this proviso the best minds everywhere are 
in accord. Forced labor is anti-Christian and has 
destroyed nations under whose authority it was prac- 
ticed. 

It has destroyed the self-respect and skill of men in 
callings where it was or is permitted. 

It destroys races on which it is imposed. (See 
Memorandum.) 

We respectfully request that this petition be sub- 
mitted to the Managing Committee with our prayer 
that it be by such committee referred to the Confer- 
ence on Forced Labor. 



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163 



Memorandum 

Labor for local public purposes as defined on page 
260 of the report is, when joined in by all able-bodied 
men and when held strictly within the limits there 
laid down defining emergencies, a form of mutual aid, 
and it seems that it should be so treated. It is based 
upon mutual danger and mutual need. Such labor is 
fully understood and carries no taint of bondage. 
(See report, page 245.) 

Forced labor for public purposes as such is slavery. 
Though it is defended as necessary in the develop- 
ment of the colony, whenever voluntary labor cannot 
be obtained, it is nothing but specious pleading. The 
defense itself admits it and sometimes deplores it. 

When tolerated by the population to the extent 
that a majority consents to live under it, it produces 
the slave mind and thus destroys the creative capacity 
and finally destroys 'the will to live.' 

When, as a result, population is diminished, the 
masters try to disguise it by legal enactments en- 
forced by labor penalties. Indentures or contract la- 
bor, under which in one way or another the laborer is 
induced to sign some contract to work for a period 
of time, is nothing but a disguise. When the real fact 
is understood and the worker is refusing to enter into 
the contract to work or to remain and perform it, 
recourse is had to taking away any land which the 
laborer may be cultivating or on which he raises cat- 
tle for the sustenance of himself and family. When 
this fails of its purpose, the head tax and hut tax are 
levied, to be paid in labor or in money. 

The tax receipt or other passports are provided for 
in order to prevent escape. This is followed by va- 
grancy laws applicable where no pass or tax receipt 
can be shown, and the penalty is 'correctional labor.' 

In order to give further legal respectability and 
some permanency to the service a form of master and 
servant laws are enacted and so drawn that the con- 
tract may be oral or even implied. 

In drawing up such laws, some features are taken 
from the Master and Servant Laws of European coun- 
tries and some from the maritime law. 

Parts of the maritime law, defining the status of 
seamen and which is still permitted to exist in nearly 
all countries, were applied in the Sandwich Islands, 
and, as a result, there are very few Kanakas left. 

Something similar is used in the Dutch East Indies 
with grave results. Similar subterfuges are used in 
some parts of Africa, where it is decimating the popu- 
lation. 

There can be no doubt that such 'Forced Labor,' 
disguised under a religious mask, caused the Carians 
of the West Indies to be exterminated, and because 
of the dying of the natives in the West Indies and in 
Central and South America, the African slave trade 
was begun. 

We cannot see any improvement in enslaving the 
native in his habitat in lieu of bringing him to some 
other country. The result may be worse, and it 
surely is not in accord with the promise to 'secure 
just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories 
under their control.' 

On behalf of the seamen, 

Most respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH, 

President, International Seamen's Union of America. 
Geneva, Swizterland, 
June 1, 1929." 

This petition was translated into French and re- 
ferred to the Committee on Forced Labor. The Com- 



mittee on Forced Labor began its sitting on June 1, 
and held eleven sessions between that date and June 
15. Its officers, elected at its first and second sit- 
tings, were: Chairman, Mr. Jules Gautier (French 
Government delegate) ; Vice-Chairman, Mr. Lambert- 
Ribot (French Employers' delegate), who requested 
that he might be replaced during his absence by 
Mr. Le Neveu and Mr. Besteiro (Spanis-h Workers' 
delegate); Reporter, Mr. Schrieke (Netherlands Gov- 
ernment delegate). 

Mr. Gautier, the Chairman, called me before him 
and told me to explain what particular interest the 
seamen of the United States had in the question. I 
told him that we had struggled for twenty-one years 
to abolish forced labor based upon contract, which 
we were compelled to sign if we were to be seamen 
at all, and that after this long struggle the law that 
forced us to continue to labor to fulfill a contract to 
labor against our will would have no application on 
a vessel lying in a safe harbor, and what we seamen 
desire is to extend that system of freedom to all sea- 
men, and for that matter to all human beings, and 
the present fear that we have is that forced labor 
may be so sanctioned or indorsed as to endanger the 
freedom that the seaman has obtained, not only in 
American vessels, but in all vessels coming within 
the jurisdiction of the United States. 

I was not permitted to sit in the committee as an 
observer or as an expert, and the only thing that I 
could do was to use every opportunity to speak to 
and try to convince members of the committee that 
there is no real difference, except in the words used, 
between forced labor and slavery. Of course, I would 
have looked upon it as a great privilege and might 
have been able to have done something more if I 
could have obtained an opportunity to explain the 
petition and give the reasons for its contents. That, 
however, I could not do. 

During the eleven sessions that the committee held, 
between June 1 and June 15, it adopted and reported 
the following Draft Questionnaire: 

"Draft Questionnaire 

A. Questions Tending to the Adoption 
of a Convention 

1. Do you consider that the International Labor 
Conference should adopt a Draft Convention, the 
object of which is to suppress the use of forced or 
compulsory labor in all its forms? 

If so, do you consider that a period of transition is 
necessary before such suppression can be fully car- 
ried out? 

If you do not consider it possible to adopt a Draft 
Convention, the object of which would be to suppress 
the use of forced or compulsory labor in all its forms, 
or, you consider that suppression is possible, but that 
a period of transition is necessary: 

Do you consider that the International Labor Con- 
ference should adopt a Draft Convention, the object 
of which would be to limit and regulate the use of 
forced or compulsory labor? 

2. Do you consider that such a Convention should 
be drafted in such a way that its ratification by a 



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March, 1930 



state should imply, for the colonies and protectorates 
of that state, the application of the Convention with- 
out the reserves or modifications provided for in 
Article 421 of the Treat}- of Peace? 

3. Do you agree with the following definition of 
forced or compulsory labor for the purpose of such 
a Convention: 

All work or service which is exacted from any 
person under the menace of any penalty for its non- 
performance and for which the worker does not offer 
himself voluntarily? 

4. Do you consider that cases of emergency (force 
majeure) should be outside the scope of the Con- 
vention? 

If so, do you approve of the following definition 
of "cases of emergency": 

A case of emergency, for the purposes of this Con- 
vention, is the event of war and any occurrence which 
endangers the existence or the well-being of the 
whole or a substantial part of the population, such as 
fire, ilood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or 
epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vege- 
table pests, and so on? 

5. Do you consider that village services of a kind 
which have been traditional and customary among 
the local inhabitants, and which are performed within 
the close proximity of the village by the people who 
live in it, may be considered to be normal obligations 
incumbent upon the members of the community and 
not constituting forced or compulsory labor within 
the sense of the definition given in Question 3 above? 

6. (a) Do you consider that the authority respon- 
sible for any recourse tc forced or compulsory labor 
should be an authority of the metropolitan country, 
or, when that is not possible, the highest central au- 
thority in the territory concerned? 

(b) Do you consider that, where higher authorities 
delegate to subordinate authorities the right of author- 
izing forced labor for local public purposes, this prac- 
tice should cease? 

(c) Do you consider that the competent authority 
should define precisely, in so far as this has not 
already been done, the conditions under which forced 
or compulsory labor should be carried out under the 
control of minor and local authorities, and that these 
conditions should, in regard to the category of per- 
sons liable, the maximum duration for any individual, 
working hours, payment, indemnities and inspection, 
be not more onerous than those indicated in this 
Questionnaire for putting into execution forced labor 
imposed by the competent authority itself? 

7. Do you consider that the competent authority. 
before permitting any recourse to forced or compul- 
sory labor, except the compulsory labor mentioned in 
Question 12, should be satisfied? 

(a) that the work to be done or the service to be 
rendered is of important direct interest for the com- 
munity called upon to do the work or render the 
service; 

(b) that the work or the service is of present or 
imminent necessity; 

(c) that it has been found impossible to obtain vol- 
untary labor for carrying out the work or the service 
by the offer of the rates of wages ruling in the area 
concerned for similar work or service; and 

(d) that the work or service under consideration 
will not lay upon the present population concerned 
too heavy a burden, having regard to the labor avail- 
able and its capacity to undertake the work? 

8. Do you consider that in no case whatever should 
the competent authority impose or permit the impo- 
sition of forced or compulsory labor for the benefit 



of private individuals, companies, or other entities 
than the community? 

Are you of opinion that where such forced or com- 
pulsory labor exist-, every effort should be made to 
bring it to an end as soon as possible? 

Are you further of opinion that a time limit for 
such abolition should be fixed, and if so, what time 
limit would you pro;> 

9. Do you consider that, where tribal chiefs are left 
in possession of traditional right- in regard to com- 
pulsory labor, administrators Bhould insure that such 
labor should be directed to public purposes and that 
the conditions under which it is carried out should be 
regulated in the same manner as is work of a similar 
nature done under the compulsion of the administra- 
tive authorities, in so far as this is possible having 
regard to the necessity of maintaining the traditional 
authority of the chief over his people? 

10. Do you consider that while it is the duty of offi- 
cials of tile administration to encourage the popula- 
tions under their charge to engage in some form of 
labor, they should not be permitted to put constraint 
upon them to work for private employers? 

11. Do you consider that no concessions granted to 
individuals or companies should permit any form of 
compulsion for the obtaining of the products which 
such individuals or companies utilize or in which 
they trade, and that where such concessions already 
exist, (a) they should not be renewed except in such 
a way as to terminate any arrangements of this kind, 
and (b) every effort should he made to change, in the 
same way and as early as possible, existing conces- 
sions which are not yet due for renewal ? 

12. Do you consider that, where forced or compul- 
sory labor is demanded as an equivalent to or a sub- 
stitute for a tax, this practice should be abolished as 
soon as possible, and that until it is abolished the 
competent authority should be satisfied: 

(a) that the work to be done or the service to be 
rendered is of important direct interest for the com- 
munity called upon to do the work or render the 
service? 

(b) that the work or service is of present or immi- 
nent necessity? 

(c) that the work or service under consideration 
will not lay upon the present population concerned 
too heavy a burden, having regard to the labor avail- 
able and its capacity to undertake the work? 

(d) that the workers, while performing their work, 
remain in the neighborhood of 'their hoi 

(e) that the execution of the work or the rendering 
of the service shall be directed by the local authori- 
ties in accordance with the exigencies of religion, so- 
cial life and agriculture? 

13. (a) Do you consider that in any ana where 
forced or compulsory labor still exists, complete and 
precise regulations should be adopted, in so far as 
this has not been already done, in regard to the or- 
ganization of this labor, and that such regulations 
should provide for the compiling and recording of 
statistics concerning it, in particular as regards the 
organization of work and the hours of work and the 
method of payment of wages? 

(b) Do you consider that in any territory where 
forced labor exists the legal provisions or administra- 
tive orders governing its application should be printed 
and freely exhibited by the competent authority in 
such one or more native languages as will convey its 
import to the workers concerned and the population 
from which the workers are to be drawn; and that 
copies of such printed matter should be made avail- 
able, at cost price, to the workers or others? 



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165 



14. Do you consider that the duties of any existing 
labor inspectorate which has been established for the 
inspection of voluntary labor should be extended to 
cover the inspection of forced labor, and that, in the 
absence of such an inspectorate, other adequate 
measures should in all cases be taken to assure that 
the regulations governing the employment of forced 
labor are strictly applied? 

15. Do you consider that the illegal exaction of 
forced labor should be punishable as a penal offense, 
and the penalties should be really adequate? 

16. Do you consider that only adult males of not 
less than 18 years of age should be called upon for 
forced or compulsory labor, subject to the following 
limitations and conditions: 

(a) Prior determination by a government medical 
officer that the persons concerned are not suffering 
from any contagious disease and that they are phys- 
ically fit for the work required and for the conditions 
under which it is to be carried out: 

(b) Exemption for persons already bound by a con- 
tract of employment; 

(c) Exemptions for school teachers and pupils; 

(d) The maintenance in each community of the 
number of adult able-bodied men indispensable to 
family and social life; 

(e) Respect for conjugal and family ties? 

17. Do you. consider that from any given commu- 
nity no more than a fixed proportion of the resident 
able-bodied males should be taken at any one time 
for forced or compulsory labor which entails their 
sleeping away from their homes? 

Do you consider that this proportion should be 
regulated according to the seasons, and the work 
which must be done by the persons concerned on 
their own behalf in their locality, and, generally 
speaking, that the economic necessities of the nor- 
mal life of the community in question should be 
respected? 

Do you consider, finally, that this proportion should 
be prescribed, and what proportion do you suggest? 

(18). Do you consider that the normal maximum 
period for which any individual may be taken for 
forced or compulsory labor of all kinds should not 
exceed 60 days in any one period of 12 months, 
including the time spent in traveling to and from 
work, 

or in exceptional cases, where workers have to be 
brought from a considerable distance, six months in 
any one period of 24 months, it being understood 
that in this period will be included the time employed 
in the work contemplated in Question 12, and that 
any two such periods occurring in consecutive terms 
of 24 months should be separated by an interval of 
at least three months? 

In cases where workers have to be brought from a 
considerable distance, do you consider that the indi- 
vidual worker who has served in any one year for a 
longer period than the normal maximum (of 60 days) 
fixed above, or than any lower maximum which may 
be fixed, should be exempt from further forced or 
compulsory labor for a number of years equal to the 
number of times the normal maximum which he has 
so served? 

Do you consider that the normal maximum period 
for which any individual may be taken for the work 
or service contemplated in Question 12 should not 
exceed 30 days in any one period of 12 months? 

19. Do you consider that forced workers should 
not, except in cases of special necessity, be trans- 
ferred to districts where the food and climate differ 
so considerably from those to which they have been 
accustomed as to endanger their health? 



When such transfer cannot be avoided, do you 
consider that on competent medical advice, measures 
of gradual habituation to the new conditions of diet 
and of climate should be adopted? 

Do you consider that in no case should the transfer 
of workers be permitted unless all necessary meas- 
ures for the accommodation and health of the work- 
ers can be strictly applied? 

Do you consider that in cases where forced workers 
are required to perform regular work to which they 
are not accustomed, measures should be taken to 
assure their habituation to it, especially as regards 
progressive training, the hours of work and the pro- 
vision of rest intervals, and the increase or ameliora- 
tion of diet which may be necessary? 

20. Do you consider that the normal working hours 
of forced workers should not exceed any legal maxi- 
mum applicable to voluntary work, and that the 
hours worked in excess of that maximum should be 
remunerated at rates higher than the rates for the 
normal working hours? 

Do you consider that a weekly day of rest should 
be provided for and that this day should coincide as 
far as possible with the day fixed by tradition or cus- 
tom in the territories or regions concerned? 

21. In the case of forced transport workers, do you 
consider that the normal daily journey should corre- 
spond to an average eight-hour working day, it being 
understood that account shall be taken not only of 
the distance covered, but also of the nature of the 
route, the season of the year, the weight to be car- 
ried and all other relevant factors, and that where 
hours of journey in excess of eight per day are ex- 
acted they should be remunerated at rates higher 
than the normal rates? 

22. Do you consider: 

(a) that forced or compulsory workers, including 
transport workers, should in all cases be paid in cash 
at rates not less than those ruling for similar kinds of 
work either in the district in which they are employed 
or in the district from which they are recruited, 
whichever may be higher? 

(b) that the wages should be paid to the workers 
individually and not to their tribal chiefs or other 
authorities? 

(c) that the days necessary for traveling to and 
from the workplaces should be counted for the pur- 
pose of payment as workiner days? 

(d) that deductions from wages should not be made 
either for the payment of taxes or for special food, 
clothing or accommodations supplied to the worker 
for the purpose of maintaining the worker in condi- 
tion to carry on his work, nor for the supply of tools? 

23. Do you consider: 

(a) that any laws relating to workmen's compen- 
sation for accidents or sickness arising out of the cir- 
cumstances of their employment shall be equally ap- 
plicable to forced as to voluntary labor? 

(b) that the laws providing compensation for the 
dependents of dead or incapacitated workers should 
be equally applicable to all labors, whether forced or 
voluntary? 

(c) that the competent authority or any authority 
employing forced workers should be obliged to in- 
sure their subsistence when an accident or illness ren- 
ders such workers totally or partially incapable of 
providing for themselves? 

(d) that when the forced worker is not living at 
his own home no distinction should be made as to 
whether or not the accident or illness was caused by 
his work? 

(e) that in the case of permanent incapacity, total 
or partial, the right to an indemnity calculated ac- 



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March, 1930 



cording to the degree of incapacity should be in- 
sured? 

(f) that the competent authorities should take 
measures to insure the maintenance of dependents of 
an incapacitated or deceased forced worker? 

(g) that any existing laws or administrative orders 
concerning compensation or indemnification for sick- 
ness, injury to, or death of forced workers should be 
printed, exhibited and offered for sale by the compe- 
tent authority, in the manner provided for in the case 
of the laws and orders concerning forced or compul- 
sory labor? 

24. (a) Do you consider that when forced workers, 
other than forced transport workers, are compelled 
to remain for considerable periods for works of con- 
struction or maintenance at workplaces, measures 
should be taken to assure their health and to guar- 
antee the necessary medical care, and that in particu- 
lar (a) they should be medically examined before 
commencing the work and at fixed intervals during 
the period of service (b) an adequate medical staff 
should be provided with the dispensaries and hos- 
pital accommodation necessary to meet probable even- 
tualities, and (c) the sanitary conditions of the work- 
places, the supply of drinking water, food, fuel, and 
cooking utensils, and, where necessary, of housing 
and clothing should be assured? 

(b) Do you consider that, when the work is pro- 
longed, definite arrangements should be made to in- 
sure the subsistence of the family of the forced 
worker, in particular by facilitating the remittance, 
by a safe method, of part of the wages to the family 
at the request of or with the consent of the worker? 

(c) Do you consider that the journeys of forced 
workers to and from the workplaces should be at the 
expense and under the responsibility of the admin- 
istration, which should facilitate them by making the 
fullest use of all available means of transport? 

(d) Do you consider that it is necessary to assure 
the repatriation of forced workers at the expense of 
the competent authority in case of illness or accident 
causing incapacity to work of a certain duration? 

(e) Do you consider that any forced worker who 
may wish to remain as a free worker at the end of his 
period of forced labor should be permitted to do so 
without losing his right to repatriation free of ex- 
pense to himself? 

(f) Do you consider that the competent authority 
should satisfy itself of the possibility of adequately 
taking all the measures indicated in this question be- 
fore permitting any recourse to forced or compulsory 
labor? 

25. When recourse is had to forced or compulsory 
labor for the transport of persons or goods (porters, 
boatmen, etc.), do you consider that the competent 
authority should promulgate regulations determining, 
inter aha, (a) that only adult males, medically certi- 
fied where medical examination is possible, to be 
physically fit, shall be employed on this work, (b) the 
maximum load, (c) the maximum distance from their 
homes to which these workers may be taken, (d) the 
maximum number of days per month or other period 
for which they may be taken, (e) the persons entitled 
to demand this form of forced labor and the extent 
to which they are entitled to demand it? 

In this connection, what maximum load do you 
suggest, what maximum distance from their homes 
to which these workers may be taken, and what max- 
imum number of days per month or other period for 
which they may be taken? 

26. Do you consider that recourse should be had 
to compulsory cultivation solely as a method of pre- 
caution against famine or a deficiency of food supplies, 



and always under the condition that the food or pro- 
duce shall, in lieu of wages, remain the property of 
the individuals of the community producing it? 

Do you further consider that in no case should 
compulsory cultivation be imposed to promote the 
production of crops for export or as a measure of 
education? 

Do you consider that it would be possible to devise 
measures of precaution against the contingencies 
indicated in the first paragraph of this Question other- 
wise than by the introduction of a system of forced 
labor? 

27. Do you consider that 'collective punishment 
laws' under which an entire community may be pun- 
ished for misdemeanors committed by some of its 
members should contain no provision for forced 
labor by the community as one of the methods of 
punishment? 

Do you consider that forced labor should not be 
used for work underground? 

B. Questions Tending to the Adopting of 
Recommendations 

I. 

Do you consider that the International Labor Con- 
ference should adopt a Recommendation calling 
attention to important matters in connection with 
the economic development of as yet undeveloped areas 
with a view to avoiding such pressure upon the 
populations concerned as may amount to compulsion 
to labor? 

If so, do you agree that the Recommendation 
should set out that the amount of labor available, 
the capacities for labor of the population, and the 
evil effects which too sudden changes in the habits 
of life and labor may have on the social conditions 
of the populations, are factors which should be taken 
into consideration in connection with economic de- 
velopments, and, in particular, when deciding upon: 

(a) Increases in the number and extent of indus- 
trial, mining and agricultural undertakings in the 
areas; 

(b) the non-native settlement which is to 1> 
mitted, if any; 

(c) the granting of forest or other concessions. 
with or without a monopolistic character? 

II. 
Do you consider that the International Labor Con- 
ference should adopt a Recommendation deprecating 
resort to indirect means of artificially increasing the 
economic pressure upon populations to seek wage- 
earning employment, particularly by; 

(a) imposing taxation on populations on a scale 
dictated by the intention of compelling them to work 
for the benefit of private enterprises; 

(b) rendering difficult the gaining of a living in 
complete independence by workers by injustified re- 
strictions as to the possession, occupation, or use 
of land; 

(c) extending abusively the generally accepted 
meaning of vagrancy; 

(d) adopting pass laws which would result in giv- 
ing the workers in the service of others a position 
of advantage as compared with that of other workers? 

III. 
Do you consider that the International Labor Con- 
ference should adopt a Recommendation calling 
attention to the necessity of so regulating demands 
for forced or compulsory labor as not to imperil the 
food supply of the community concerned; 



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167 



IV. 
Do you consider that the International Labor 
Conference should recommend, in regard to forced 
or compulsory labor imposed upon men, that every 
care be taken that the burden of that labor is not 
passed on to women and children? 

V. 
Do you consider that the International Labor 
Conference should recommend that every possible 
effort should be made to reduce the necessity for 
recourse to forced or compulsory labor for the trans- 
port of persons or goods and that, in particular, such 
recourse should be prohibited when animal or me- 
chanical transport is available? 

VI. 

Do you consider that the International Labor 
Conference should adopt a Recommendation depre- 
cating restrictions based on the voluntary flow of 
labor to other employment, or to certain areas or 
industries?" 

To accompany this report the representatives of 
labor on the Committee, introduced the following 
Minority Report: 

"Minority Report 

The Workers Members of the Committee on Forced 
Labor have felt it necessary to separate from the 
majority on this Committee by reason of differences 
which have arisen upon certain questions which they 
feel are fundamental. They have reserved the right 
to ask the Conference to revise a certain number of 
the decisions taken by the majority, and it is with 
this intention that they submit the present report 
to the conference. 

There is no doubt that the twelfth Session of the 
International Labor Conference is called upon only 
to decide whether the question of Forced Labor is 
to be placed on the Agenda of the next Session, and 
if so to adopt a Questionnaire. But it cannot be 
denied that the drafting of such a Questionnaire, 
though it does not bind the Governments, may never- 
theless influence their replies. The absence or the 
presence of a certain question may have direct or 
indirect effects upon the character and the bearing of 
the international regulations which it is proposed to 
adopt. 

The disagreement of the Workers' Group with the 
majority of the Committee is due in the first place 
to the tendency itself of the draft Questionnaire which 
is presented to you by the Majority Report, and 
further to certain points which we feel are of the 
highest importance; freedom of association, the eight- 
hour day, forced labor for revenue purposes, and the 
creation of a system of control. 

I. 

The Workers' Members of the Committee must 
first of all recall the fact that they have in the 
strongest manner declared themselves in favor of the 
suppression of forced or compulsory labor of every 
kind. 

This idea is found in Question 1 of the draft Ques- 
tionnaire which is submitted to you. It is supported 
by a number of considerations which we wish to 
recall. 

Some of these are of a humanitarian nature. They 
correspond to the general obligations laid down for 
States Members of the League of Nations by Articles 
22 and 23 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 
and concern the well-being and development 'of peo- 
ples not yet able to stand by themselves' and to the 
'just treatment of the native inhabitants in territories 
under their control.' 



Forced labor has resulted and will continue to 
result everywhere where it is practiced, in such abuses 
that its suppression is an imperative duty for civilized 
countries. We do not wish in this report to go over 
all the evidence concerning the effects of this sur- 
vival of slavery. The Grey Report of the Inter- 
national Labor Office gives sufficient convincing evi- 
dence to demonstrate clearly the moral impossibility 
of perpetuating this system. 

It is vain to endeavor to invoke the necessity of 
Forced Labor for cultivation. To say that Forced 
Labor is a factor in the progress of native peoples 
and that it has an educational value is a statement 
that does not stand the light of investigation. 

And to claim that it is an economic necessity is 
an error from many points of view. This is proved 
by the unhappy experiences of too many colonial 
territories. The efficient development of these terri- 
tories is compromised, not aided by the use of Forced 
Labor. 

Without dilating further on these considerations, 
we wish here to emphasize the fact that the question 
before the Conference is not entirely untouched, and 
that the reply to be given to it has already been 
determined by certain principles now embodied in 
international law, with which the Conference cannot 
put itself in contradiction. 

These principles are affirmed, as far as regards 
the territories placed by the Treaty of Peace under 
mandate, by the following two texts: 

B Mandates: 'The Mandatory ... (3) shall pro- 
hibit all forms of forced or compulsory labor, except 
for essential public works and services and then only 
in return for adequate remuneration.' 

C Mandates: 'The Mandatory shall see . . . that 
no forced labor is permitted except for essential 
public works and services, and then only for ade- 
quate remuneration.' 

No doubt these two obligations are only strictly 
binding on the various Mandatory Powers and for 
the territories under their administration. We would 
observe that it is unbelievable that these Powers, 
which possess other territories in full sovereignty, 
will refuse to apply to them the same principles. If 
such measures have been found applicable in terri- 
tories under mandate is it not reasonable to believe 
that they are equally applicable in neighboring terri- 
tories where identical conditions exist? 

These principles of international law have been 
extended by the activities of the League of Nations. 
It will be remembered that the Temporary Slavery 
Committee was charged by Council with studying 
the question of Forced Labor, in the following terms: 
'4) Systems of compulsory labor-, public or private, 
paid or unpaid. 5) Measures taken or contemplated 
to facilitate the transition from servile or compulsory 
labor or independent production.' If it be admitted 
that the suppression of Forced Labor can neither be 
absolute nor immediate, if it be considered that the 
transition from servile conditions of work to free 
paid labor calls for transitional measures, the aim to 
be achieved is none the less its disappearance. 

The value, then, of the Draft Conventions or 
Recommendations which the Conference may adopt 
will be judged by the fact that they prepare the 
way, or they do not prepare the way, for the sup- 
pression of Forced Labor. 

The tendency of the draft Questionnaire submitted 
to the twelfth Session of the Conference does not 
admit of a fully satisfactory reply to this question. 
Not only — except in the two first paragraphs at the 
beginning — no true indication is found that the aim to 
be achieved is the suppression of Forced Labor, but 
the proposed restriction is absolutely insufficient. 



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March. 1930 



Rather, it must be stated, the Questionnaire tends 
towards a kind of codification of Forced Labor. The 
international regulation which it suggests could not 
be satisfactory; it would embody besides vague and 
insufficient solutions, so many exceptions that the 
abuses to be suppressed could be perpetuated. Truly 
efficient guarantees, have on the other hand, been 
omitted from the draft Questionnaire. If the 
ference adopts it in its present form, it will not 
respond to the hopes that have been placed in it, nor 
to the mission which has been confided to the Con- 
ference by the Assembly and the Council of the 
League of Nations. 

II. 
The Workers' Group will bring before the Con- 
ference the amendment which it submitted to the 
Committee, where it was rejected, to insert in the 
Questionnaire the principle of the freedom of asso- 
ciation. 

It seems to us impossible that this decision should 
not be reconsidered. On the one hand, we are told, 
that the end which justifies even the worst methods 
of colonization is to raise the cultural and economic 
level of backward or primitive peoples. On the 
other hand, these people are refused an effective ele- 
ment of development and defense. 

We realize that in the diversity of colonial condi- 
tions the application of the right of association does 
not appear everywhere under the same aspect. We 
do not confuse the possibilities of developing it in 
colonial countries which, open to the modern eco- 
nomic system, have already achieved a certain prog- 
ress, with the position in primitive territories. But 
it seems to us nevertheless that the freedom to 
organize should be allowed for in the Convention, 
and therefore included in the Questionnaire, both 
because it is recognized to be urgently necessary in 
certain cases, and because in others it would consti- 
tute a safeguard for the future. 

The formation of trade unions is an essential guar- 
antee of the protection which the International Labor 
Organization has the aim of developing in the world. 
So much the less should the Conference forget that 
the principle of the freedom of association is ex- 
pressly laid down in the Labor Part of the Peace 
Treaties. 

The Conference cannot pass over in silence possible 
refusals to grant this right to native workers. We 
therefore repeat our amendment as follows: 

Do you consider that a definite procedure should 
be established to allow forced workers, as well as 
all other native workers, to present all their com- 
plaints relative to the conditions of labor to the 
authorities and to negotiate concerning them? 

III. 

The Workers' Group cannot consent to Question 9, 
which allows tribal chiefs the right of using forced 
labor. Question 9 is a contradiction of Question 8 
which the Conference should not support. 

The Workers' Group asks for the suppression of 
Question 9. 

IV. 

The majority of the committee adopted an amend- 
ment which completely transforms Question 18 of the 
draft Questionnaire of the Office, which has become 
Question 20 of the draft of the committee. 

The following is the original text which the 
Workers' Group asks the Conference to re-establish: 
Do you agree that the normal working hours of 
forced workers should not exceed eight per day and 
forty-eight per week and that hours worked in 
excess of these should be remunerated at rates 
higher than the rates for the normal working hours? 



The draft adopted by the majority of the committee 
is inacceptable. It would suppress an elementary 
guarantee for forced workers. It cannot be main- 
tained that the hours of labor of forced workers 
should be based on the maximum legal hours of free 
workers. No comparison is possible between the two 
cases; the one is contractual, the other is not. 

In exacting forced labor from natives, the com- 
petent authority have the duty of protecting their 
health and life against the effects of this work; that 
is the sense of all the proposed regulations. Now, 
the Conference is asked to renounce one of the sure-t 
of these safeguards, to leave the door open to all 
kinds of arbitrary decisions, to forget that in the 
majority of cases of the application of forced labor 
it is a question of natives unaccustomed to work, 
very often physically weak, and for whom an exces- 
sive duration of the working day may have con- 
sequences so much the worse in that the climate does 
not allow as great efforts as those possible in coun- 
tries of the temperate zone. 

Moreover, the majority of the committee has fallen 
into a strange contradiction with itself. Having sup- 
pressed the mention of the eight-hour day in Question 
20, it has re-established it in Question 21, for which 
it has escaped without change the text as drafted 
by the office (Question 19 of the proposed draft 
questionnaire). The Conference cannot do otherwise 
than correct this serious error. 

V. 

The majority of the Committee have adopted an 
amendment providing for the insertion of a question 
(No. 12) relative to forced labor required as the 
equivalent to a tax or to replace this tax. We ask the 
Conference to delete this text. 

To admit the principle of forced labor for revenue 
purposes would certainly lead, not to limiting the 
cases wdiere forced labor could be used, but to in- 
creasing them. By it alone all the proposed regula- 
tions could be rendered useless. 

We note, moreover, that the committee has adopted 
the text of Section III of the draft questionnaire of 
the office, of which the following are the two first 
paragraphs: 

Do you consider that the International Labor 
Conference should adopt a Recommendation de- 
precating resort to indirect means of artificially in- 
creasing the economic pressure upon population to 
seek wage-earning employment, particularly by: 

(i) imposing taxation on populations at a scale 
dictated by the intention of compelling them to 
work for the benefit of private enterprise -? 
The idea thus laid down is plainly in contradiction 
with Question 12. 

VI. 
Our last remark deals with the refusal of the 
majority of the committee to accept the insertion of 
the following questions: 

Do you consider that it w-ould be advantageous 
to create a permanent committee on native labor in 
connection with the International Labor Office? 

Do you consider that the reports adopted by 
virtue of Article 408 on the convention concerning 
native labor should be sent to this committee? 

Do you consider that it should be charged with 
the study of other problems created by native labor? 
We place this amendment before the Conference 
asking it to say in agreement with us that without 
the creation of an effective control system, so much 
the more indispensable since it is a question of distant 
territories concerning which information is scarce 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



169 



and dfficult to obtain, the regulations proposed would 
not be in keeping with the work of justice and 
humanity which the International Labor Conference 
should realize as its aims. 

(Signed) L JOUHAUX, 

Reporter." 

It will be noted that there are sundry changes 
between the Draft Questionnaire and the Question- 
naire as adopted in the committee. Thus, Question 
No. 1 is entirely changed, and there are some other 
changes made which are referred to in the general 
discussion by the Conference in plenary session. In 
this discussion both the majority and the minority 
reports were criticized. The minority report came in 
for criticism because it suggested a lack of real 
sincerity for the abolition of forced labor on the part 
of the majority and that the result might well be a 
codification of forced labor instead of it being 
abolished. 

Mr. Jouhaux who had submitted the minority 
report on the part of the labor representatives, ex- 
amined into the objections to the position taken by 
the minority, and then showed the reasons for and 
the necessity of its submission in the following 
statement: 

Mr. Jouhaux (Workers' Delegate, France): 

"As briefly as possible, and also as clearly as pos- 
sible, I want to explain the reasons which have led us 
workers on the committee to submit to you a Minority 
Report. Our reasons were of two kinds. In the first 
place we were forced to do so because of the general 
tendency which made itself felt in the committee, 
and in the second place we were forced to draw up 
this report because there were particular proposals 
made by us in the committee and turned down by 
that committee. 

Referring to the general tendency of the committee, 
however satisfied we might be at having included in 
the Questionnaire a first question asking whether the 
suppression of forced labor was possible, we felt that 
the general terms in which the Questionnaire has 
been drafted does not tend to suppress forced labor. 
We on our side consider forced labor an institution 
which should be condemned absolutely. It is not a 
factor in the civilization of primitive peoples. The 
International Labor Organization and the Labor Con- 
ference have a duty to follow the spirit and the letter 
of the decisions of the League of Nations on this 
question. These decisions are of two kinds. They 
deal with the text of the mandates, and under B 
mandates the League of Nations has laid down that 
the mandatory shall prohibit all forms of forced or 
compulsory labor except for essential public works 
and services, and then only in return for adequate 
remuneration. Under C mandates the League of 
Nations has laid down that the mandatory shall see 
that no forced labor is permitted except for essential 
public works and services, and then only for adequate 
remuneration. This is a condemnation of forced labor 
which is quite clear. 

We workers consider that the Questionnaire pre- 
pared by this committee should have been drafted in 
this spirit. The attention of the governments should 
have been drawn to the problem in the light of this 
spirit. We admit that in Question 1 the Questionnaire 
does deal with the abolition of forced labor. It may 
be said that our claims are satisfied by the adoption 
of this question. This year we have obtained a suc- 
cess, but it is not a substantial success. These 



questions are only questions asking for replies from 
the governments with a view to the drafting by next 
year's conference of an international decision on the 
subject of forced labor. Nevertheless, the form in 
which these questions are framed indicates an idea 
that what next year's Conference will be invited to 
do will be to codify forced labor and not to abolish 
forced labor. It is possible to condemn forced labor 
in principle. It can be said that forced labor is 
prohibited for private employers, but anyone with 
merely a superficial knowledge of colonial develop- 
ment and of the concessionnaire system will know 
that that frequently means the power to compel labor 
for the extraction of the wealth of the colony. There- 
fore, if forced labor is to be done away with, the 
concessions to private firms must be reconsidered, and 
the Questionnaire does not in any way satisfy us on 
this point. 

Nevertheless, the Questionnaire contains, certain 
guarantees for the protection of forced workers. For 
this reason we workers, after moving our amendments, 
have decided to vote in favor of the Questionnaire, 
but, as it is at present drafted, it will not lead to the 
abolition of forced labor, and we cannot be responsible 
for any action taken on the basis of the Questionnaire 
as it is at present. 

It has been mentioned in this Conference the neces- 
sity of raising the primitive peoples under the charge 
of other people. We declared in the preliminary 
debate on this question in the Conference, and we 
declare it again, that no system of forced labor can 
raise the standard of life of the primitive peoples, 
either materially or morally. The system of expro- 
priation which goes alongside with the system of 
forced labor in many colonial areas will still less have 
the effect of raising the standards of the primitive 
people. 

The employers' group made a statement during the 
preliminary discussion in this Conference, parts of 
which statement we felt we could not applaud. To 
justify the exploitation of the colonies, it was stated 
that the colonial powers had certain duties to perform. 
We did not deny this, but it is all very well to affirm 
a duty. The question must be asked whether the 
reality accords with affirmation of this duty, and the 
knowledge of events in colonial areas gives the plain 
answer that the duty of protection which the em- 
ployers have affirmed here is not applied in fact. The 
employers also said it was impossible for civilization 
to leave the wealth of those areas unused. We quite 
agree with such a statement, but such wealth cannot 
be used for private purposes; it must be used for the 
good of humanity as a whole. Therefore, after stating 
a duty of this nature, after declaring that the wealth 
of these territories cannot be used for private pur- 
poses, we must ask, Why have you, the employers, 
at this Conference refused the institution of an inter- 
national control through the International Labor 
Organization? If the employers are sincere on this 
point, if they really wish to benefit the peoples under 
their charge, there would be no danger and no reason 
to refuse to accept the slightest measure of inter- 
national supervision for which we have asked. But 
the vote on this question in the committee showed 
that the majority of the government representatives 
and of the employers' representatives are opposed 
merely to putting a question to the governments as 
to whether they would be in favor of the institution 
of this slight measure of international control. There- 
fore, you have replied in this sense to the question 
whether you are sincere, and for that reason we had 
to draft our Minority Report. 

I would now alike to proceed to show you the 
reason for our different amendments which are con- 



170 



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March, 1930 



tained in this Minority Report. We proposed to the 
committee the addition of a question relating to free- 
dom of association; practically the whole of the com- 
mittee voted against us workers on this question. 
What was curious in the opposition to this question 
was that it not only reflects the opinions of delegates 
hut also certain sections of public opinion. 

A serious newspaper, for example, mentioned this 
fact and ridiculed the proposals of the workers in 
claiming freedom of association in behalf of peoples 
who could not use such freedom. 

I would point out that not long ago in Europe a 
statement of a similar nature was made. It was 
stated that freedom of association for European 
workers would mean disorder, and in the name of 
the principle of authority and of order we workers 
were denied the right to associate. What has hap- 
pened since? Authority did not prevent the develop- 
ment of the idea of free association, and now trade 
unions have become strong enough to force the 
governments to collaborate with them and to recog- 
nize them as an element of order. We workers on the 
committee realize that there is a difference between 
those advanced native communities which can make 
use of the principle of freedom of association and 
certain primitive peoples who are not yet perhaps in 
a position to profit by such a principle; but from my 
personal experience I know how difficult it is to 
decide where the border line should be drawn between 
these two groups of people. In 1920 a shipping com- 
pany at Bordeaux engaged some Senegalese seamen. 
The Bordeaux seamen protested, but the company 
refused to consider their protest. That company be- 
lieved that the Senegalese seamen would be able to 
break the unity of the Seamen's Union in Bordeaux, 
but what happened in fact was that the Senegalese 
seamen were able to realize the value of trade union 
unity, and the employers were disappointed in this 
respect. It is difficult to say that no primitive popu- 
lation is able to apply the principle of freedom of 
association. Moreover, if some are incapable of the 
right use of this principle, is that a reason for deny- 
ing it to all peoples? Complaints are made now of 
the awakening of national movements in certain 
colonies. Perhaps the awakening of those movements 
is the result of suppression, and here again you are 
proposing a policy of suppression. 

Another amendment which we workers have to 
move in our Minority Report deals with the question 
of the eight-hour day. In the Questionnaire prepared 
by the International Labor Office mention was made 
of the limitation of daily hours of work to eight for 
forced workers. The workers on the committee tried 
to maintain the question in this form in the Question- 
naire, but the majority of the committee voted against 
the workers; they would not admit the limitation to 
eight hours' employment for forced workers. Yet 
surely arguments based mere'y on humanity show 
that what is generally recognized as a maximum in 
temperate climates should also be a maximum in 
these other climates for labor which is often per- 
formed by natives who are not used to labor of this 
nature. I hope that on this point the Conference 
will follow us. 

Another point we raise is the question of forced 
labor as a fiscal question. There are other workers' 
delegates more competent than I to explain this 
matter, but I may say there is a contradiction between 
the decision of the committee in allowing forced 
labor of a fiscal character and its first question, which 
asks for the complete abolition of forced labor. The 
same is true with regard to the question of forced 
labor for tribal chiefs. It will be said that this is not 
forced labor for private purposes, but is to respect 



the traditions of the tribe; but the task of civilization 
must be to make the tribal chiefs realize that their 
subjects are not slaves, and so this argument cannot 
be accepted here. 

In the general discussion I said that there was one 
essential guarantee, which consisted of a measure of 
international control. I though the colonial govern- 
ments would accept the transference of part of their 
sovereignty to a body under the control of the Inter- 
national Labor Organization and the League of Na- 
tion-,. The proposal, however, was energetically op- 
posed in the committee. We drafted our text taking 
account of all susceptibilities, but it was rejected. The 
committee felt it sufficient to affirm beautiful prin- 
ciples and thought by such affirmation public opinion 
would be appeased; but that will not be the case. 
The Conference may not accept our proposal; the 
Conference may take no steps to provide for any 
sort of international control, but control will never- 
theless supervene. If public opinion remains sus- 
picious, in each country you will have unhealthy 
criticism of colonial events, which will trouble the 
peace of the world. That is the position before you, 
and for that reason we submit the Minority Report." 

Whereupon, the President announced the following 
suggestions as to procedure: 

The President: "I wish to propose the following 
procedure for the examination of this question. The 
various questions proposed by the committee will be 
open to discussion and put to the vote separately. 
You will find the proposals of the majority of the 
committee in Provisional Record No. 20, pages LIV 
et seq. In connection with the first question a general 
discussion may take place. The amendments pro- 
posed by the majority may be brought before the 
Conference in the appropriate places in the Question- 
naire. You will find the proposals of the minority in 
the same number of the Provisional Record on pages 
LXXII et seq. After the votes on the separate ques- 
tions, a general vote on the Questionnaire as a whole 
will take place. 

Two further votes will then be necessary under 
paragraph 5 of Article 6 of the Standing Orders of 
the Conference: ( 1 ) a decision on the reference of the 
(Juestionnaire to the governments of states members 
of the organization; and (2) a decision as to whether 
the question shall he inserted in the Agenda of the 
Fourteenth Session of the Conference. For this last 
decision a majority of two-thirds is necessary. 

Does the Conference agree to adopt this pro- 
cedure?" 

The proposal is adopted. 

The President then announced that the discussion 
is open on the first question, as is also a general 
discussion of the whole subject. 

Mr. Shiva Rao (Workers' Adviser, India) spoke in 
part as follows : 

"... the original draft Questionnaire contained 
no suggestion for the total abolition of all forms of 
forced labor. As amended in the committee, the first 
question gives prominence to it by inviting opinions 
on the suppression of forced or compulsory labor in 
all its forms, either immediately or ultimately and on 
the limitation and regulation during a period of 
transition where immediate suppression is impractic- 
able. That is the starting point of the draft Question- 
naire as it has emerged from the committee and 
therefore we are logically right in admitting that this 
draft cannot he complete unless it covers all the 
ground and includes questions of every contingency 
contemplated the first question: 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



171 



Now we are in this session of the Conference at 
the first stage of our work on forced labor. We must 
send out a comprehensive Questionnaire giving a 
definite lead in the direction of complete abolition of 
forced labor, and the committee, I regret to observe, 
has failed to give this aspect of the problem adequate 
consideration." 

Mr. Pauwels (Workers' Adviser, Belgium) spoke 
in part as follows: 

"... The colonial peoples must, of course, be 
developed, and in their development labor forms the 
chief factor, but this labor must be based on respect 
for the dignity of the laborers. Labor therefore must 
be free. The men must be encouraged to give all their 
efforts freely and not be forced to do so. 

Forced labor — i. e., labor imposed by constraint, by 
fear of sanctions — should be prohibited. It is con- 
trary to the dignity of the peoples subjected to it; it 
is contrary to their development. It does not lead 
them towards higher things. It is a demoralizing 
agency. There can, therefore, be no question of ob- 
taining labor for undertakings in the colonies by 
means of compulsion. 

For these reasons we were pleased to see Ques- 
tion 1 included in the Questionnaire, asking the 
governments whether they agreed to the adoption of 
a convention providing for the suppression of forced 
labor. We hope the governments will reply in the 
affirmative to this question, and when next year this 
Conference is considering the convention to be 
adopted on this subject we hope they will be able 
to apply this principle and that the States will be 
able to ratify such a convention and put it into effect." 

Hadji Salim (Workers' Adviser, Netherlands) 
spoke in part as follows: 

" . . .1 thought that we would agree that this 
form of labor was a form of slavery, a form of oppres- 
sion unworthy of civilization. Forced labor has been 
judged and condemned in connection with the adop- 
tion of the Slavery Convention. I therefore did not 
think I should hear a single word in justification of 
its maintenance. I chose the mildest words to describe 
the institution. In very mild words I described the 
necessary abuses of this system of labor. I said that 
forced labor was based on the conception of the 
innate inferiority of the subject races, that it was 
based on the contempt of a dominating people for a 
subject people 

A certain time ago the natives of the Congo were 
expropriated and deprived of their lands at the sole 
wish of the Governor. There are also the books of 
Andre Gide, Voyage au Congo, and Le Retour du 
Tchad, in which the author speaks of the impossi- 
bility of harvesting the crops because the peoples were 
too borne down by forced labor. He says that the 
peoples fled because of the exactions of porterage. He 
speaks of road work, where the women are working 
with children at their breasts. For myself, though I 
do not know Africa, I know a number of negroes 
who come from Africa. I met them in the Hedjaz 
while I was staying there. I met soldiers, officials, 
officers, merchants, even slaves. Another thing struck 
me. The negro race has inhabited Africa for centuries. 
When Europe was a forest inhabited by savages and 
barbarians, the negroes were in Africa. It is strange 
that these peoples only diminish in number with the 
arrival of the whites, who use their labor for forced 
labor. I cannot understand this position. In our 
committee, however, it was the position mainly of 
the African peoples which was treated. 

Forced labor exists in my country, and I will speak 
on that subject in connection with Questions 9 and 



12 of the Questionnaire. Only once I intervened. I 
protested against the libeling of those peoples who 
were not represented on the committee. I received 
the reply I expected. The committee was not think- 
ing of the position of such peoples as I represent, 
but the position of more primitive peoples. 

In connection with the general question of the 
results of forced labor, I heard certain protests. The 
government of an independent country, whether it is 
an arbitrary or despotic government, has always to 
keep in mind the fact that it derives its authority from 
the people. Bulgaria was named in this connection. 
If there is forced labor in such countries, it is a 
transitory system which will be -changed with the 
evolution and advance of the people itself. To speak 
of forced labor in the sense before us, it is essential 
to remember that the peoples forcing this labor con- 
sider the peoples from which the labor is enforced 
as innately inferior. Colonies exist for economic 
reasons. The colonizing Powers that wish to exploit 
their riches may need labor for such purposes. Labor 
does not come forward, perhaps the wages are too 
low, perhaps because the peoples can provide for their 
own needs by their own systems of industry without 
working for anybody else. Moreover, the peoples 
may dislike working for a foreigner, but in any case 
the power which has the authority m^kes use of 
forced labor and to justify this injustice the peoples 
are libelled by being called savages. The word 'native' 
in the minds of the whites indicates inferiority. Yet 
these peoples are all of the same human race. 

We have heard that a French military contingent 
fell into an ambush in Morocco. In these countries 
there are only rebels and bandits. We never hear 
of a fight for independence except when we are deal- 
ing with white races. We all regret the seventy-five 
victims of this ambush. Many of us hope that we will 
hear more satisfactory news of the position, but on 
the other side, I cannot help thinking that these losses 
might have been prevented. We all hope that order 
will be re-established. One wonders what will happen 
to the revolting tribe when they have been subdued. 
We know of cases of abuse, of. reprisals, and of action 
against women and children. Many innocents who 
took no part in the revolt may be the subject of 
reprisals. This is not ? fancy on my part. I know 
that this happens in many colonies. 

We know how Europe struggled for the independ- 
ence of the Greek and other European peoples, but 
you cannot deny that there is a very great difference 
between what happens to the white, black and yellow 
peoples. As regards the last two, Europeans do not 
feel very strongly; there is a lack of feeling of soli- 
darity; there is a lack of feeling of common danger. 
I am not exaggerating in stating that the word 
'native' gives rise* in the minds of the average Euro- 
pean to the idea of a savage without civilization, 
without intellectual development. Your periodicals 
try to give the brightest and the most sensational 
pictures of these peoples; and the colonial govern- 
ments show visitors to these districts natice dances 
which do not reflect the real cultural development of 
the people. 

I have spoken at length on this subject because 
the existence of this idea of inferiority is the firmest 
basis for the existence of forced labor. Unless this 
mentality is changed it is impossible to educate public 
opinion so that it shall be compelled to reject the 
idea of forced labor in the same way as it has rejected 
slavery. 

With regard to slavery, no arguments were raised 
regarding economic necessities or measures of educa- 
tion to justify its maintenance. The West no longer 
needs slaves. This has been proved by the history 



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March, 1930 



of the United States in the Civil War. The slave 
owners used the same arguments which users of 
forced labor are now employing. Ideas are governed 
by needs, not by principles of social justice. For this 
reason I do not appeal to social justice in asking you 
to refuse any justification for forced labor. I demand 
its abolition in the same way as slavery has been 
abolished. 

I am not appealing to your sense of justice; I am 
not imploring your pity for the oppressed peoples. 
We do not need measures of protection. What we 
need is for the Colonial Powers to keep to their duties 
and to be directed by public opinion. Europe is still 
a dominating power in the world. 

Europe is not in the same position as it was at 
the end of the nineteenth century. It is using its 
power and its preponderance daily. It now a, 
to the principle of universal peace so that it shall not 
lose all its preponderance. On the other side the 
peoples oppressed are awakening. They will not bear 
indefinitely the position of inferiority in which they 
are placed. Europe should have undertaken the task 
of education in governing these colonies, but so long 
as the humiliation of these peoples lasts the feeling 
of hatred will last. For this reason social justice is 
not based on pity and humanity, but on the true 
interest of Europe and of the whole world." 

Mrs. Wasniewska (Workers' Adviser, Poland) 
spoke in part as follows: 

" . . .At the same time, forced labor appears to 
us a tyranny and return to slavery which is not 
justified by any economic conditions in Asia or in 
Africa. 

Work of this kind has a deleterious effect on the 
mora'ity not only of natives but of their European 
masters. It gives rise to numerous abuses; it leads to 
hatred between the native populations and the Euro- 
pean colonizers. The Women's Association for Social 
Service in Poland expresses its high appreciation of 
the efforts made by the governing body of the Inter- 
national Labor Office, which is examining the ques- 
tions of slavery and forced labor. The Association 
would wish to facilitate this work by adding the 
opinion of Polish women to the opinions expressed 
by so many other humanitarian bodies. We consider 
that all labor should be free and should be an ex- 
pression of the vital energy of mankind. Public work 
done in the public interest may morally justify forced 
labor, but the result of that work is not as good as 
that of free labor. Forced labor should therefore *>e 
regarded as exceptional and should be paid at as high 
a rate as free labor and it should be adapted to the 
health and to the conditions of the workers and to 
climatic conditions. Work done for public ends of a 
local nature may justify a certain, amount of con- 
straint such as exists in some European countri 
for example, for the repair of local roads. Forced 
labor for private purposes appears to us absolutely 
to be condemned and should be forbidden by inter- 
national agreement. If the Conference proposes the 
abolition of forced labor in successive stages we think 
that forced labor for private purposes should be 
forbidden." 

Out of the general discussion I have quoted just 
the above to indicate the feeling of those subject to 
forced labor. The debate was clased and questions 
1 to 8, both inclusive of the Questionnaire, were 
adopted. 

Question 9 was then laid before the Conference. 
To this question there were two amendments, one by 
the Workers' Group, asking for "the suppression of 



Question 9." The other amendment was presented by 
the British delegate and reads as follows: 

"Do you consider that, where forced or com- 
pulsory labor is demanded by chiefs who exercise 
administrative functions in consequence of traditional 
rights, this practice should be abolished as soon as 
possible, and that, until it is abolished administrations 
should ensure that such labor should be directed to 
public purposes and that the conditions under which 
it is carried out should be regulated in the Bame 
manner as is work of a similar nature done under 
the compulsion of the administrative authority?" 

The reasons for the Workers' Group submitting its 
amendment are given, in part, by Hadji Salim, as 
follow- : 

"... We are opposed to Question 9, which means 
the perpetuation of the traditional rights of the chiefs. 
These rights exist in the country from which I come. 
In the south of Sumatra, for example, chiefs exist 
with authority over several villages. The revenue of 
these chiefs depends on the number of laborers who 
are subject to forced labor. It is, therefore, in the 
direct interest of the chief that this number should 
be as great as possible, and thus we find that im- 
mature boys and old men are still subject to forced 
labor. Abuses of this nature result from the financial 
advantage to the chiefs of the extension of forced 
labor. Moreover, the fines connected with the imposi- 
tion of forced labor, or offenses against order- for 
the execution of forced labor, which depend on the 
judgment of the chiefs, go into the chiefs' coffers. 
This rule is, of course, open to great abuse. In some 
cases the chiefs receive from 1.60 florins to 1.75 florins 
instead of service. In other cases they have the right 
to porterage services. In districts where good 
or railways exist, forced porterage is unnecessary, but 
we find thai the right to demand this service is still 
retained, though the services are replaced by a money 
payment of 2.25 florins, that is to say, about 5 Swiss 
francs. 

In another district, porterage service extends over 
a district of 25 kilometers. The work that is imposed 
here is the same kind of service as was imposed 
by slave labor before the abolition of slavery. 

The principle contained in Question 9, therefore, 
cannot be admitted by this Conference. It means the 
perpetuation of the traditional rights of the chiefs, and 
we must remember that these chiefs are no longer 
the representatives of the people; on the contrary, 
they are supported by the colonial power. The chief 
is the servant of a foreign power; the chief is retained 
as long as he satisfies the foreign power, and is 
deposed as soon as he fails to satisfy the foreign 
power. Tradition, in fact, is quoted here in BUpport 
of foreign authority. 

I hope that I have said enough to convince this 
Conference that it cannot support this antiquated 
system. I therefore propose the deletion of Question 9 
from the Questionnaire." 

The reason for the British amendment was ex- 
plained by Mr. Vernon, Government Adviser, British 
Empire, in part as follows: 

"... But I have tried to draft an amendment, 
which you have seen on the screen, which I think 
will enable the Workers' Group to agree with me. 
I have drafted it in such a way that the Question- 
naire will include the, Do you or do you not want 
to abolish this thing? I believe that for most of the 
Dependencies in the British Empire the answer will 
be 'No', but if the answer is going to be 'Yes' an 
opportunity is given for it, and it appears to me that 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



173 



that will probably give the Workers' Group what they 
want." 

After some discussion a vote was taken on the 
amendment submitted by the Workers' Group, and 
the amendment was rejected by 61 votes to 38. A 
vote was then taken on the British Government 
amendment, and it was adopted unanimously. 

There being no opposition to Questions 10 and 11, 
they were declared adopted. Question 12 reads as 
follows: 

"Do you consider that, where forced or cumpulsory 
labor is demanded as an equivalent to or a substitute 
for a tax, this practice should be abolished as soon 
as possible, and that until it is abolished the com- 
petent authority should be satisfied?" 

The reason for seeking to delete Question 12 is 
given by Hadji Salim, Workers' Adviser, Nether- 
lands, as follows: 

"The kind of forced labor referred to in Question 12 
is a new kind of which no other trace is found in the 
Questionnaire. With it we have now four kinds of 
non-voluntary work which can be demanded from a 
subject population, namely: (1) forced labor for 
public purposes; (2) forced labor in cases of emer- 
gency; (3) forced labor for minor village work, which 
remains beyond the scope of the Questionnaire; and 
(4) forced labor for native chiefs. 

To what all these kinds of forced labor together 
may lead in my country I can show you by one 
instance which is mentioned in a complaint which 
reached me from one of the districts in the south of 
Sumatra. We have there the regulation forced labor 
four times a year, each period being nine days, of 
which two days are for traveling, to and from the 
work, 42 kilometres away from the village — a total of 
36 days. Then there are four kinds of emergency 
cases, 7 days each, which makes 28 days. Then there 
is village work, five times a year, say, 15 days. Then 
there is the so-called 'full-moon work', for the repair 
of roads and cleansing of growths, the repair of 
bridges and ditches along the minor roads, all within 
the borders of the 'marga', that is, the territory of a 
chief. It takes 7 days each time and may come to 10 
or even 12 days sometimes — so that we can take for 
that 84 days. Then fifthly, for carrying the post the 
period is 2 days. The rounds vary between 1 kilo- 
metre and 27 kilometres. The turns which each man 
can have on this kind of work depends upon the 
number of men available. Two men go on duty each 
time for two days. It may occur that a man is called 
out every month. We will put it at ten times a year, 
making 20 days. Then there is porterage for chiefs 
of which there are six kinds. There was a time when 
a policeman had also this right. There is no regula- 
tion as to how many times a man can be called upon 
for this duty, nor as to the duration of each absence. 
According to my information, it is four times, each 
absence lasting two days. If we make the addition 
of the number of days that a man can be called away 
from his work, we come to a total of 193 days. Of 
course, not every man is called away for every kind 
of duty, but according to my information it can be 
put at about 175 days a year. 

Now I beg you to remember that all those days he 
is withdrawn from his own work without remunera- 
tion, he himself being obliged to provide his own 
food during his work. I have not yet had time to 
check the statements of my informant; but when 
between April and July, 1928, I myself traveled in 
the province of Palambang, I found by investigation 
that 100 to 150 days was no great exception. We 



should not forget that at the same time these subjects 
pay other taxes as well. 

I also received complaints from other parts of my 
vast country, namely, from regions in Celebes. There 
regulation forced labor takes up as a rule about five 
days a month, that is 60 days a year. This, therefore, 
is the forced labor in its different forms as laid upon 
my people, and this it is which can be covered by 
the principle contained in Question 12 now under 
discussion, in connection with other questions in the 
Questionnaire. 

Now I admit that while introducing the subject of 
forced labor as the equivalent of a tax, the question 
aims at its abolition; but then there can be no reason 
for its introduction in my country, where it does not 
yet exist. The forced labor which still exists in much 
of my country is not and has never been in substitu- 
tion for a tax. It has been heerendienst, or service du 
seigneur, since its beginning,- a service laid by the 
sovereign master upon his subject, as his slave and 
his serf. 

It is in itself a shame and an injustice, and you 
cannot make it honorable and just by simply calling 
it a substitution for a tax. Again, if you make it a 
tax, what justice is there in putting a heavy tax upon 
a local population for the upkeep of a road which is 
for general economic development of the colony. 

The roads in our country, the upkeep of which in 
this way will be borne by the local population, amount 
to 20,000 kilometres, with a traffic of thousands of 
motor cars. They are of vital importance for the 
development of agriculture, and the trade and industry 
of the whole colony. You cannot make it the duty 
of the local population alone, even if the foreigners 
living in the country pay the tax instead of the 
'heerendienst'. 

Maybe, Mr. President, my statements will be de- 
nied, but I can assure you that an objective investiga- 
tion by an impartial party will show that I have told 
you the truth, and that I have not even mentioned 
the worst things which are to be found in all places 
where there are subject masses under the power of 
certain people without the control of public opinion. 
This does not exist sufficiently in my country where 
the law recognizes the right of association, but where 
we cannot exercise that right. 

The Dutch Colonial Government, as I have said, 
intends to abolish forced labor, and I trust that the 
intention is an honest one; but ever since the law of 
1854 has been in existence, it has been recognized that 
all kinds of forced labor, except the obligatory village 
service, should disappear. And yet, even now, the 
Dutch Government delegates in this assembly are an 
interested party, so much so that Question 12 has 
been introduced from their side. But the Dutch 
Colonial Government could proceed in a far better 
and more gracious way with the abolition of forced 
labor if it were to adopt the methods pointed out in 
the Questionnaire, by abolishing, for example, all 
non-remunerative forced labor except when it is 
found absolutely impossible to find voluntary labor. 
By so doing the government will help to solve an- 
other important problem in the colony, which is, to 
provide work for the ever-increasing masses in Java, 
who need employment and a decent livelihood. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, now that I 
have laid my views before you, I hope that you will 
vote for the deletion of Question 12." 

The reason for the retaining of Question 12 is 
given by Mr. Schrieke, Government Delegate of 
Netherlands, in part as follows: 

"I am surprised to find that the Workers' Group 
now proposes to delete the question. Two arguments 



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March, 1930 



in support of this proposal are given in the Minority- 
Report. The first is that the Workers' Group cannot 
admit the principle of forced labor for revenue pur- 
poses. I think, however, that the time has not yet 
come to judge the principle; that must be left to the 
Conference next year. I fail to understand the second 
argument in the Minority Report. The workers seem 
to fear that this kind of forced labor may compel 
the workers to work for the benefit of private em- 
ployers. The contrary is in fact the case. When yqu 
compel a population to pay taxes in money, you 
compel them to seek money with which to pay those 
taxes, and they can earn that money only by working 
for the benefit of private employers. If you give them 
the opportunity of paying their taxes by working for 
the general benefit they are not compelled to work 
for the benefit of private employers." 

A vote was taken by show of hands. The amend- 
ment of the Worker's Group for deletion of Ques- 
tion 12 was rejected by 52 votes to 36. Question 12 
was then adopted. 

Question 13 having been reached, the President laid 
before the Conference a new question to be known 
as Question 13(a) submitted by the minority, which 
reads as follows: 

"Do you consider that a definite procedure should 
be established to allow T forced workers, as well as all 
other native workers, to present all their complaints 
relative to the conditions of labor to the authorities 
and to negotiate concerning them?" 

Mr. Dali Yahia, Workers' Adviser, France, urged 
its amendment in the following language: 

"On behalf of the Workers' Group, I ask the Con- 
ference to adopt this amendment. We insist on this 
amendment particularly because Question 5 of the 
Questionnaire does not contain all the guarantees 
necessary for the protection of the native workers. 
The Questionnaire which we are preparing will be 
useless if the natives do not possess the right to com- 
bine, if necessary, to protect themselves against 
abuses. 

We recognize that all colonies and protectorates 
have not reached the same level of development, but 
it is impossible to refuse this right to those who have 
reached a certain level of development on the pretext 
that there are other territories which are not suf- 
ficiently advanced. I do not think that argument will 
hold. Even in the second case, I think the granting 
of this right will be an education for the development 
of the workers. 

In the committee, many government and employers' 
representatives said that in principle they are opposed 
to forced labor, but that they considered that in cer- 
tain cases its maintenance was necessary in the very 
interests of the native. 

For my part, I would reply that if they wish to 
further our progress they must change their methods. 
Forced labor has never given any good results. The 
method which they must adopt is education for the 
children and freedom of organization for the adults. 

The native is your brother. His fate cannot be in- 
different to you. We shall see by the vote on this 
question whether you wish to act as his elder brother, 
to help him to your side, or whether you wish to 
keep him as an inferior being to supply you with 
cheap labor." 

Mr. Ma, Workers' Delegate, China, urges its 
adoption as follows: 

"As my adviser explained at the opening discussion 
on forced labor, I must declare that I am in favor of 



the complete abolition of forced labor. The supposed 
economic interest of this form of labor cannot over- 
come humane considerations against its use, but this 
does not appear to be the opinion of the majority. 
The question before us is rather a question of regu- 
lation than of suppression and therefore many abuses 
will be left. Nevertheless, an immediate guarantee is 
asked for by us and this can only be provided by 
the principle of freedom of association. This free- 
dom is more necessary for native peoples than for 
the inhabitants of independent states; for to preserve 
their power the colonial governments resist the in- 
fluence of international legislation, and thus injustice 
is perpetuated. For this reason I hope you will adopt 
this amendment." 

-Mr. Jouhaux, Workers' Delegate, France, in urging 
the adoption of the amendment, used the following 
language: 

"As Minority Reporter, I hope you will allow me 
to draw your attention to the importance of this 
amendment which we are moving. I appeal to the 
government delegates, and in particular to the French 
Government delegates. If in indifference or in ignor- 
ance of the position your governments have given 
you strict instructions, I ask you to listen to your 
conscience; I ask you not to reject this amendment; 
1 ask you not to throw a veil over the faults com- 
mitted in recent times. I do nol think that these 
injustices can be perpetuated. We are dealing here- 
with peoples who are your brothers; they are not 
asking for your pity; they are asking merely for 
justice. You have destroyed the easy life which these 
peoples led. You have brought them into the turmoil 
of the modern world. Give them in return some 
means of defense. Let your hands be raised not to 
punish but to help. You have destroyed their old 
customs, and in compensation you leave them with 
forced labor. You say they are primitive peoples, but 
they know what justice is. Do not add to the weight 
of their present chains a moral weight by refusing 
them the right to defend themselves. You have taken 
their lands, but now you must think of the future. 
By exercising freedom, peoples can learn to be free. 
You consider that these peoples are primitive, but 
you must not teach them to hate. We appeal to 
you to listen to reason so that tomorrow the unity of 
the world will be possible along the lines of universal 
peace." t 

The President: "The discussion is closed. The 
Workers' amendment does not affect Question 13 as 
it stands in the Report of the Majority. I therefore 
declare Question 13 adopted. 

The question of the adoption of the Workers' 
amendment which is to add a new question, 13(a), 
was then put to a vote and by a show of hands the 
amendment proposed by the Workers' Group is 
adopted by 61 votes to 26. 

There being no contest over questions 14 to 19 
inclusive, they were declared adopted. 

Question 20, together with the amendment by the 
Workers' Group thereto, was then laid before the 
Conference. Question 20 reads as follows: 

"Do you consider that the normal working hours 
of forced workers should not exceed any legal maxi- 
mum applicable to voluntary work, and that the hours 
worked in excess of that maximum should be re- 
munerated at rates higher than the rates for the 
normal working hours? 

Do you consider that a weekly day of rest should 
be provided for and that this day should coincide as 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



175 



far as possible with the day fixed by tradition or 
custom in the territories or regions concerned." 

The amendment submitted by the Workers' Group 
is as follows: 

"Do you agree that the normal working hours of 
forced workers should not exceed eight per day and 
forty-eight per week and that hours worked in excess 
of these should be remunerated at rates higher than 
the rates for the normal working hours?" 

Mr. Andrews, Workers' Delegate, South Africa, 
who spoke in favor of the adoption of the Workers' 
amendment, used, in part, the following language: 

"Question 18 now appears as question 20, and was 
altered to read as follows: 

'Do you consider that the normal working hours of 
forced workers should not exceed any legal maximum 
applicable to voluntary work ....?' There is a 
great difference between the two questions. The 
Office Draft was clear and definite. The question as 
it left the committee is to a large extent meaningless. 
In regions where forced labor is resorted to there is 
little likelihood of any legal maximum hours of labor 
being in existence, and even in a more advanced 
community the legal maximum for free labor is not 
likely to be very satisfactory. I agree with the re- 
marks on the subject in the Minority Report. We 
claim that if men are forcibly taken from their homes, 
from their simple daily routine of labor and relaxa- 
tion, and thrown into labor camps or railroad gangs, 
and forced to undertake strange and unpleasant tasks 
for the benefit of their European rulers, they should 
have at least this minimum of protection — a strict 
limitation of the working day to the maximum pro- 
posed, namely eight hours." 

Mr. Von Rechenberg, Government Substitute Dele- 
gate and Adviser, Germany, who opposed the amend- 
ment, spoke, in part, as follows: 

"... I realize the good intention of the authors 
of the amendment, but I think we should think of the 
practical results which would ensue if this amend- 
ment were adopted. The work would be eight hours 
a day; thus if free workers enjoyed a shorter working 
period, the forced workers would not have that ad- 
vantage. ... It is difficult and almost impossible to 
establish a distinction between forced labor and free 
labor, and I think that any distinction would be to 
the detriment of the forced laborers." 

Mr. Backlund, Workers' Adviser, Sweden, favoring 
the amendment, spoke, in part, as follows: 

"... If Mr. Von Rechenberg is really interpreting 
the decision of the Committee of Experts rightly, I 
think that is an additional argument for the proposal 
to insert in this question a mention of the eight-hour 
day. I think it would be very dangerous to delete 
all mention of the eight-hour day; otherwise, it might 
be made to appear that the Convention itself is in 
danger. I must insist that this principle is not merely 
based on the principle. The basis of our work is con- 
tained in the Treaty of Peace. This principle is in- 
cluded in the Treaty of Peace, and if we deny it here 
the whole basis of our work will be shaken." 

A vote was taken by show of hands, and the 
amendment to question 20 is adopted by 52 votes 
to 29. 

There being no objection to Questions 21 to 25, 
inclusive, they were declared adopted. 

Question 26, about which there had been some con- 
troversy and which reads as follows, was laid before 
the Conference: 



"Do you consider that recourse should be had to 
compulsory cultivation solely as a method of pre- 
caution against famine or a deficiency of food sup- 
plies, and always under the condition that the food 
or produce shall, in lieu of wages, remain the prop- 
erty of the individuals or the community producing it? 

Do you further consider that in no case should 
compulsory cultivation be imposed to promote the 
production of crops for export or as a measure of 
education? 

Do you consider that it would be possible to devise 
measures of precaution against the contingencies in- 
dicated in the first paragraph of this Question other- 
wise than by the introduction of a system of forced 
labor?" 

The President asks if there is any opposition; 
there being none it was put to a vote and adopted, 
four votes being cast against it. 

Questions 27 and 28, to which there was no oppo- 
sition, were then adopted. 

The President: "There is an amendment to add a 
further question to the Questionnaire. That amend- 
ment is printed in the Report of the Minority on 
page LXXVII of Provisional Record No. 20, which 
reads as follows: 

" 'Do you consider that it would be advantageous 
to create a permanent committee on native labor in 
connection with the International Labor Office? 

" 'Do you consider that the reports adopted by 
virtue of Article 408 on the Convention concerning 
native labor should be sent to this Committee? 

" 'Do you consider that it should be charged with 
the study of other problems created by native labor?' " 

The question which brings forward the necessity 
for some kind of international control had been op- 
posed by Mr. Sottile, Government Delegate, Liberia 
and Nicaragua, and others, mainly because of its 
form, and it had therefore been changed to read 
as follows: 

"Do you consider that it would be advantageous 
to create a permanent committee on native labor in 
connection with the International Labor Office?" 

In this form it was strongly urged by Mr. Bes- 
teiro, Workers' Adviser, Spain, who said, in part: 

"... Why do we insist on this amendment? It is 
because the subject is of general interest. It has been 
imposed on this Conference by world-wide public 
opinion. The League of Nations expressed the 
necessity of examining this important and universal 
problem. I therefore hope that our efforts at con- 
ciliation will be rewarded by the acceptance by this 
Conference of our amendment, and I hope Delegates 
will be reassured that our intentions are clearly 
defined on it. Our intention is to assist the Organi- 
zation, and we think this amendment is necessary 
for that purpose." 

It was again opposed by Mr. Sottile, who, in part, 
used the following language: 

"... I think all in this Conference are agreed on 
demanding a limitation of forced labor, but, in spite 
of my warm sympathy with the reason at the bottom 
of this amendment, I cannot vote for it, because it 
would be an interference with the internal policy of 
the State. I think that if an amendment of this 
nature is adopted, the fate of the whole Question- 
naire, and of the whole Convention, is threatened. 
I think it is better to accept less and to bring up 
this question later if necessary. 

"I therefore hope that the Workers' Group will 
not insist on their amendment. I hope, too, that 



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March, 1930 



they will not believe that I have any feeling of 
hostility toward them. On the contrary, I am a 
friend of the workers. I realize that labor is the 
true basis of civilization." 

Mr. Yon Rechenberg, Government Adviser, Ger- 
many: 

"I must make a correction. I said I hoped this 
Committee would be defined as a 'committee of ex- 
perts,' but now It is being defined as a 'technical com- 
mittee,' and I do not know what that expression 
means. I can understand the term 'technical com- 
mittee' in connection with the examination of ma- 
chinery, but I do not understand it in connection 
with the life of men or of a community." 

Mr. Besteiro, Workers' Adviser, Spain: 

"We accept that the term 'technical committee' be 
replaced by the term 'committee of experts.' " 

The President: "There is a new proposal, to replace 
the term 'technical committee' by the term 'commit- 
tee of experts.' As the authors of the amendment 
have accepted the new draft proposed, only one vote 
will have to be taken on the amendment in its new 
form. The vote will be a record vote, this having 
been asked for by twenty Delegates." 

The amendment was adopted by 59 votes to 49. 
A vote was then taken on Questionnaire A (ques- 
tions tending to the adoption of the Convention) 
as amended, and it was adopted 83 to 17. Section B 
of the draft Questionnaire (tending to the adoption 
of recommendations), there being no opposition, was 
declared adopted. 

If the majority is sufficiently large or a two-thirds 
majority of the member nations, to which the forego- 
ing adopted Questionnaire is referred, shall in sub- 
stance answer "Yes" to the questions submitted, a 
convention on forced labor as dealt with in the Ques- 
tionnaire, will, no doubt, be adopted by the next 
meeting of the Labor Office dealing with it and the 
prospects would be a rather prompt ratification by 
the member nations. Question 3 reads as follows: 

"Do you agree with the following definition of 
forced or compulsory labor for the purposes of such 
a Convention: 

All work or service which is exacted from any 
person under the menace of any penalty for its non- 
performance and for which the worker does not offer 
himself voluntarily?" 

Mr. Hadji Salim, Workers' Adviser, Netherlands, 
sums up the forced labor dealt with as follows: 

"The kind of forced labor referred to in Question 
12 is a new kind of which no other trace is found 
in the Questionnaire. With it we have now four 
kinds of non-voluntary work which can be demanded 
from a subject population, namely: (1) forced labor 
for public purposes; (2) forced labor in cases of 
emergency; (3) forced labor for minor village work, 
which remains beyond the scope of the Question- 
naire; and (4) forced labor for native chiefs." 

It will be noted that No. 3, "forced labor for minor 
village work," remains beyond the scope of the 
Questionnaire. The basis for this is found in question 
5 which, in substance, asks whether traditional and 
customary services among the local inhabitants, and 
which are performed within the close proximity of 
the village, may not be defined as mutual aid and 
therefore considered as a normal obligation incum- 
bent upon the members of the community. Mr. 



Hadji Salim, assumes an affirmative answer to this 
question and, therefore, excludes such labor from 
the definition. 

The adoption and ratification of such Convention 
will not, however, abolish forced labor, which might 
well be given another name, conscripted labor. Forced 
or conscripted labor was based upon the necessity 
and welfare of the community and applied to a subject 
people or a submerged class. The right to conscript 
labor thus deemed necessary is based upon the 
assumption that such people or class can have no 
opinions of their own on the subject, either because 
the people, as such, are subject to a higher will, 
or because the class, as such, is submerged and have 
really no rights in the society in which they exist. 

Assuming, as we may, that a Convention based 
upon favorable answers to the Questionnaire is 
adopted, the question arises, will that abolish forced 
labor in the true sense? The qualification attached to 
the definition in question 3, presumes other kinds of 
forced labor by adding the words: "and for which 
the worker does not offer himself voluntarily." This 
labor performed under indentures provided by the 
competent authority, voluntary contracts signed or 
implied, and labor performed under the Master and 
Servant Laws in their diversified form, together with 
"correctional labor" based thereon will remain. 

If the right to conscript labor and to compel such 
conscript labor to perform the desired services is 
prohibited, there are sundry means that can be ap- 
plied to compel the worker to offer himself voluntar- 
ily. Taxes in money may be imposed. It may be a 
hut tax, a head tax, or a land tax, and failure to 
pay will subject the delinquent to "correctional tabor." 
This would compel the taxed person to work iur 
some private individual at wages set by the employer 
in order to obtain the necessary money to pay taxes. 
The employer would be more than likely to use the 
necessities of the worker to induce him to make a 
contract for a specified term of time and any failure 
to observe such contract might again subject the 
worker to "correctional labor." Existing temporary 
necessities might induce the worker to sign any 
agreement under some form of Master and Servant 
Law, or some indenture, and the failure to comply 
with such contract entered into or the indenture so 
signed, would result in "correctional labor." Condi- 
tions such as these instances indicate are shown in 
the study and in the speeches delivered to be numer- 
ous and very wide spread. It appears in the Dutch 
Indies, in the different Colonies, Dependencies and 
Mandates of Africa and in Asia. If for some reason 
these means should fail to obtain the so-called volun- 
tary labor, there remains the taking away by one 
means or another such pieces of land by the culti- 
vation of which, or the raising of cattle on which, he 
is able to pay his taxes. Precedents for such action 
can be found in the Western world, such as with- 
drawing the squatter's rights or driving the people 
from the land into the cities in order to force them 
into the ranks of industrial day laborers; or provision 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



177 



might be made that those who occupy land which 
their ancestors have occupied for ages, must obtain a 
legal title recognized by law, failure to do which 
within a specified time would cause them to be 
evicted. Such action as this in the Republic of 
Mexico caused the Revolution in that country, which 
revolution ended by the expulsion of Diaz and the 
restoring of land to those who had been evicted. 

The Convention when ratified will stand for ten 
years, which may well be time enough to further 
decimate the populations of the African colonies, 
dependencies and mandates by destroying the subject 
populations' "will to live." The adoption of the pro- 
posed Convention, while it may be a temporary 
remedy, is not likely to prevent "forced or compul- 
sory labor from developing into conditions analogous 
to slavery." Nothing except the right to freely quit 
any labor, which in its essence is not mutual aid, 
without fear of penal punishment either in prison or 
as "correctional labor," can do that. Forced labor, 
whether directly or indirectly imposed, is slavery. 



And that it destroys the will to live was proved 
beyond dispute in Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Greece 
and Rome. In later times, as instances, I beg to 
submit the Carians of the West Indies, the Kanakas 
in the Hawaiian Islands and the gradual decimation 
of the population of Africa, as shown in the study. 
The creative faculty and love of labor are stimulated 
by personal needs, not by fear produced by man- 
made laws and the penalties which they carry. Nor 
can it be successfully maintained that it really de- 
velops the wealth of a nation or its colonies. The 
real wealth of either a nation or of any colony, 
dependency or mandate attached thereto, is in the 
population which the system destroys. In the tropics 
this is more true than in the temperate zone, because 
the climatic conditions substantially forbid the im- 
portation of other labor to take the place of the 
potential labor destroyed. 

Respectfully submtited, 

ANDREW FURUSETH. 



APPENDIX F 



A Report upon the meeting beginning October 10, 
1929, held under auspices of the International Labor 
Office at Geneva to consider sundry questions relat- 
ing to merchant seamen. 

Submitted by 
ANDREW FURUSETH 

Washington, D. C, December 31, 1929. 

To the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Dear Comrades: 

In the report which I submitted to you upon my 
mission to Europe, I explained that it appeared to 
me a waste of time and money to remain in Europe 
for the meeting on the 10th of October, and that in 
my opinion as such might be accomplished by writ- 
ing to the director of the office, Mr. Thomas, as could 
be done by attending a meeting where I would have 
no opportunity to participate in any debate. In ac- 
cordance with that suggestion I wrote a letter to the 
director and mailed it on September 27, 1929, of 
which the following is a copy, but to which I so far 
have received no answer:* 

"September 27, 1929. 

Hon. Albert Thomas, Managing Director, 
International Labor Office, 
Geneva, Switzerland. 

Dear Sir: 

"Yesterday I received three documents from the 
Labor Office, one entitled 'The Promotion of Sea- 
men's Welfare in Port,' the second, 'The Protection 
of Seamen in Case of Sickness, Including the Treat- 
ment of Seamen Injured on Board Ship,' and the 
third, 'The Minimum Requirement of Professional 

* Note: A reply from Director Thomas was received in 
January, 1930, after the report had been submitted to the 
Union. 



Capacity in the Case of Captains, Navigating and 
Engineer Officers in Charge of Watches on Board 
Merchant Ships.' These three documents I find will 
be considered at the Thirteenth Session of the Inter- 
national Labor Conference which is to meet in Ge- 
neva on the 10th of October. 

"At the same time I received an invitation to par- 
ticipate in the Second Conference on the Health and 
Welfare of Merchant Seamen to be held from Octo- 
ber 7 to 9 next for the purpose of establishing a 
liaison with the maritime experts who are to attend a 
conference for seamen convoked by tlie International 
Labor Office for October 10, 1929. This invitation 
comes from the Conference convoked under the aus- 
pices of the Norwegian Red Cross and the League of 
Red Cross Societies, the International Union Against 
Venereal Diseases, the International Union Against 
Tuberculosis and the International Association of 
Mercantile Marine Officers. 

"The conference meeting on the 7th, 8th and 9th is 
scheduled, as I understand it, to deal particularly with 
two diseases — tuberculosis and venereal diseases, and 
it is evidently the purpose to influence that part of 
the conference which is to consider the protection of 
seamen in case of sickness on board ships and sick- 
ness or injury on board ships and the seamen's com- 
pensation in connection therewith. 

"On the question of tuberculosis: There can be no 
question but that the seamen are largely sufferers 
from it. Small and poorly ventilated quarters in con- 
nection with overwork and undernourishment are, 
aside from contagion, the direct causes of tubercu- 
losis among seamen, and the real way to deal with 
this disease is an improvement in the quarters, im- 
provement in the food, and so far as it be possible 
such regulations of the hours of labor as will give 
the seaman a better opportunity to recuperate from 
the exhausting work that he is sometimes forced to 
do and also an opportunity to get his clothing dried 
so that he will not have either to sleep in his wet 
clothing or to put on the wet clothing when he again 
goes to work. Given these improvements, tubercu- 
losis will be very materially reduced among seamen. 



178 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



"The second question on the agenda of this health 
conference is on a different basis. It has to do with 
the moral sentiments of the men in question and the 
prevalence of these diseases which arc really no more 
prevalent among seamen than among men on shore, 
and must be attacked fundamentally and through the 
minds in order to meet with any success. In dealing 
with this question, therefore, it is necessary to con- 
sider the seaman as we have him today. 

"In the document dealing with the promotion of 
seamen's welfare in port, the seaman is described as 
'the vagrant of the sea' to whom 'the family is fre- 
quently a memory or a hope, but only too rarely a 
reality.' If the above definition is changed so as to 
read 'a vagrant come to the sea' it would be more 
true and would explain many things which to the 
ordinary landsman or even student are difficult to 
explain. 

"The modern merchant ship, the owner of which 
is covered with 'limitational liability,' "legitimate in- 
surance,' and 'protection and indemnity insurance' 
not yet recognized as legitimate, is interested in get- 
ting a number of men for his vessel. He gets them 
from anywhere, with or without previous experience, 
with or without knowledge of the language used on 
the vessel, and usually from such a low strata in the 
population that it may be described as coming 
through the sewer because it consists very largely of 
men who have failed on shore and who choose the 
sea with its hardships and dangers in preference to 
the death which stares them in the face on shore. 
Of course, to such men the family may be either a 
memcry or a hope, but very rarely a reality, and this 
u^.s not apply only to the kind of men just described 
wno are usually called by the seamen 'salt water 
imposters,' but it applies also very largely to the real 
seaman because his wages are so low as to exclude, 
at least in the mind of conscientious men, any idea of 
marriage because he can see no way of earning suffi- 
cient to take care of a family. 

"The real remedy for tuberculosis and venereal dis- 
eases among stamen will be found not in treating the 
disease, but in preventing it. This can best be done 
by recognizing the necessity for skill and thus get a 
better class of men to the sea. The men who are 
picked up by the agents of the ship because of their 
willingness to accept any wages and other conditions 
seldom, if ever, remain at sea long enough to become 
inured to the sea. The seaman must be trained in 
mind as well as in body. 

"Man is not by nature a seaman. The sea, the ves- 
sel, the life is so distinct from man's natural mode of 
life that it has always taken years of training to make 
a seaman. His thoughts and feelings need the train- 
ing as absolutely as does his body. Nearly all real 
seamen began the life in early youth. It was always 
one step at a time from boy to master. The sea has 
not changed. Human nature has not altered very 
materially. The training is as much needed as it 
ever was. Seamen are not made on shore. They are 
not taught in a correspondence school. As no man 
became a swimmer except by going into the water, 
so no man, whatever his ancestry, becomes a seaman 
except at sea. 

"In days gone by, while the shipowner was fully 
liable to the shipper and the passenger, no laws were 
needed to assure efficient and sufficient manning. Self- 
interest stood guard to induce safety and the ship- 
owner insisted upon the highest possible skill. Limi- 
tation of liability and insurance has altered this situa- 
tion and the safety provided by custom must now be 
furnished by law. In the deck department the able 
seaman was always the unit toward which the BOY 
worked, from which the OFFICER advanced. 



The Boy 

must be of good physique, have good eyes, good ears 
and a stout heart. When he comes on the vessel 
everything is new and strange. He is gradually being 
accustomed to his new surroundings he is learning to 
stand on the platform that is never still, he is learn- 
ing to walk, his body is gradually acquiring the sea 
habit — he is getting sea legs. He is doing such work 
as he can, assisting the able seaman or the ordinary 
seaman in the work on the vessel. When he has 
learned sufficiently, and it usually takes about one 
year, he becomes an 

Ordinary Seaman 

"As such he is learning more about the vessel un- 
der the continually shifting conditions. His sea legs 
are being perfected. He is continuing to learn more 
and more about the vessel's gear, the names, what it 
is used for, and where it is found. In daylight or 
darknes- he must be able to find it. He is learning 
to use the gear, to repair it, and where possible to 
replace it. As he becomes more skillful he becames 
more useful and after about two years as ordinary 
seaman he becomes by virtue of his skill an 

Able Seaman 

"The work required from him is such that he needs 
the physical development which is not usually 
reached before the age of nineteen, and practically all 
countries make this age the minimum. He must now 
be so accustomed to the sea that he can stand on his 
feet in all kinds of weather without supporting him- 
self with his hands, because he has other use for 
them. His body must have acquired the faculty of 
automatically so corresponding to the vessel's move- 
ments that he can stand on his feet, see with his 
eyes, hear with his ears, use his judgment, exercise 
his will and make his body obey. If he has not 
learned this and is yet alive, he has in all probability 
but a short time to live, lie must know the vessel, her 
appliances, her gear and the boats. He must be able 
to use, to repair and as far as possible to replace the 
gear and appliances and to lower and manage the 
boats. lb- must by this time have acquired so much 
of the traditions and lore of the sea that he has a 
full appreciation of his duty to his shipmates, the 
passengers, the ship, and her cargo. 

"Boatswain, boatswain's mate, and quartermasters 
are able seamen picked to perform more special work, 
and this choice is usually made because of special fit- 
ness or because he possesses qualities of command. 
These ratings are usually considered 'Petty Officers, * 
but they are in fact just able seamen — given a special 
rating. 

"The able seaman ought to sail as such for at least 
one year before he be permitted to present himself 
for examination as an officer. Having learned the 
ship, her gear and appliances and something about 
what the ship will do under her power, mechanical or 
sail, and feeling an ambition to become an officer he 
will go to a navigation school to acquire the knowl- 
edge necessary to find his position by dead reckoning 
and astronomical observations. When he has ob- 
tained a certificate to this effect and obtains a posi- 
tion as fourth, third or second mate, he is in fact an 

Officer 

"As he was learning to use, repair and replace the 
vessel's gear, he is now learning what a vessel can be 
made to do under sail, steam or other mechanical 
power under different conditions as to weather and 
sea. The master is there to teach him and he is 
given opportunity to develop his own judgment by 
the experience through which he is now passing. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



179 



"From among the fourth mates the third mates are 
selected after either a customary or a statutory period 
served in the lower capacity. The wise, if not always 
the customary, method is to select for advancement, 
from a lower to a higher rating or grade, those who 
give evidence of the greatest capacity. As experience 
increases the certificates are raised until the grade of 
first mate or chief officer is reached. From these 
(after proper examination for a master's certificate) 
the employer — the shipowner — selects the man to 
whom he will entrust his vessel. He is now expected 
to know all that a vessel can be expected to do under 
the skillful use of such motive power as the vessel 
has. But aside from these accomplishments he must 
know the master's duty in port and at sea under the 
laws of his own country and the laws of nations. He 
must know something of medicine, to give at least 
first aid to the injured or sick. He must, in order to 
be a successful master, know how to pick out efficient 
officers and men, how to make the best use of men 
and materials in keeping the vessel in order and away 
from the repair yards and repair shops. Upon this 
will depend the quickness of the turn around and the 
ability of the vessel to pay dividends. 

"The development from boy to master must be 
open to all as nearly as possible upon equality. Only 
thus can the calling acquire, develop and keep the 
best service, which means the best men. 

The Engine Department 

"In this department, as in the deck department, the 
advance from wiper or coal passer to chief engineer 
must be step over step, based upon fitness, experi- 
ence, practical and theoretical knowledge ascertained 
through examinations and periods of service in each 
rating. This work is different from the work on deck, 
but it is not different in the necessity for acquisition 
of the sea habit, the sea mind and sea legs. In all but 
important and serious repairs the personnel must be 
able to keep the vessel from the repair shop. The 
lack of skill in the men and officers increases coal 
and oil consumption, decreases the speed and causes 
the vessel to go to the repair shop when in port. The 
general manager's attention will be peremptorily 
called to this at such times as he compares the ex- 
penses of the last report and the previous ones. 

"The personnel in the steward's department must 
be developed in the same gradual manner as the other 
two departments. Here the lack of skill will make 
itself seen and heard after every trip through the 
progressive loss of passengers, the waste of food, 
quarrels on the vessel and a constant and expensive 
turnover in the crew. 

"There can be no doubt that, everything else being 
equal, the victory in competition will go to the highest 
skilled crew if employed when and where possible. 
In this as in all other competitive business the highest 
skilled man is the most dangerous competitor; but 
aside from the comparatively few ports where men 
can be obtained from shore to do the repairs needed 
there are the much greater numbers of sea ports 
where no such conveniences are at hand. This will 
include about 75 per cent of the world's sea ports. To 
be able to earn the most money a vessel must be able 
to go to any and all places where she can enter with 
the depth of water to float her. With any accident in 
or near such places the vessel that has an inefficient 
or too small a crew is at a great disadvantage and the 
extra cost will easily eat up her other earnings. 

"The vessel with the highest skilled crew has at 
all times the advantage. To develop such personnel 
is therefore of the highest importance. But such a 
personnel can only be developed where the men are 
employed to do all work possible in port. This de- 



velops skill and the steadiness of employment keeps 
it with and in the business. 

"Men of the experience and training such as is 
above described will, if given a reasonable chance, 
know enough about their own life, the dangers and 
temptations of it, to be fairly able to protect them- 
selves. The routine above described has for cen- 
turies been the method of making seamen. It is the 
only one that ever was successful. It is the only one 
that can be successful because a merchant vessel is 
not a hospital or a reformatory. 

Workmen's Compensation 

"With reference to workmen's compensation, that 
question has been fiercely contested here in the 
United States and many other countries. 

"The seamen of the United States asked for com- 
pensation and struggled for it for many years. Find- 
ing it to be apparently impossible of attainment they 
turned their attention to employers' liability and suc- 
ceeded in getting an effective bill of that kind made 
into law. Shipowners and protection and indemnity 
insurance people, finding that juries in different parts 
of the country would give different verdicts, and that 
as a result it was difficult to find a just or reasonable 
premium, united together for the purpose of imposing 
workmen's compensation' on the seamen of the 
United States as being the more preferable of the 
two systems. The two systems were compared and 
analyzed with reference to the seamen in a docu- 
ment of which the following is a copy, with the ex- 
ception of a few insertions underscored to make it 
generally applicable: 

Employers' Liability or Workmen's Compensation 
With Reference to Seamen 

" 'These forms of speech describe, or, at least, name 
ideas intimately connected with a larger and generally 
better understood idea — "Safety at Sea." Merchant 
vessels nearly always were and they yet are "com- 
mon carriers," upon whom society has imposed cer- 
tain obligation and in return for which, and in order 
that they may better do their duty, it has given them 
certain rights with reference to their employees. The 
shipowner was made responsible to the skipper and 
the passenger for loss or injury, unless the loss was 
caused by what is known as "an act of God" or "an 
act of war or a public enemy." 

" 'The shipowner, however, must furnish a sea- 
worthy vessel, properly constructed and fully 
equipped. Such vessel had to be manned by officers 
in every way efficient and seamen able-bodied, cour- 
ageous, in sufficient number, and of such experience, 
and skill that the vessel could, in fact, meet with an> 
conditions, which, upon investigation, could not be 
shown to be in fact "the act of God" or of public 
enemies in numbers sufficient to overcome any resist- 
ance that the officers and crew could be reasonably 
expected to offer. If this could not be reasonably 
proved the shipowner was held responsible in dam- 
ages, and the responsibility was such that the vital 
self-interest of the shipowner served as a guardian 
of safety at sea. 

" 'Limitation of liability (more or less complete 
and in this country nearly complete enough to be 
absent), insurance, sometimes designated as "legiti- 
mate," and protection and indemnity insurance, not as 
yet designated as "legitimate," has been adopted and 
so perfected that the condition was by Mr. Chamber- 
lain, when he was President of the English Board of 
Trade, described in the following language: 

" 'Bear in mind, when a ship is lost the shipowner 

may make a profit, the owner may get more than 

the value of his ship; the merchant may lose noth- 



180 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



ing, but may, and very often does, get more than 
the value of the cargo back. In the same way the 
underwriter averages his losses, and on the whole 
makes a profit on the insurance of the ship out of 
his premium. 

" 'We have established a great and elaborate ma- 
chinery; we have set up a complicated system un- 
der which we have pretended to supervise every 
shipowner, good and bad alike, and under which 
we have tried to make negligence, carelessness and 
apathy impossible. But we have never yet tried to 
make it unprofitable.' 

" 'And vital self-interest ceased to stand watch over 
safety at sea. Notwithstanding improvements in ship- 
building and aids to navigation, such as could not be 
conceived of seventy-five years ago, it became neces- 
sary to provide that expensive machinery for inspec- 
tion and supervision indicated by Mr. Chamberlain, 
and yet it is notorious that safety at sea is far from 
what it ought to be and could be. It certainly can 
be improved, but not by taking away the shipowners' 
responsibility. 

" 'Employers' liability suggests at once that the 
employer is held liable for injuries that happen to 
employees. If the employer be careless as to the 
gear employed, the tools used, the fellow workmen 
employed or the superintendence furnished, elemen- 
tal conceptions of justice would hold him liable, and 
the courts would, either with or without the help from 
a jury, determine the damages done and would name 
the compensation. 

" 'Lawyers and courts, however, gradually found 
reasons why the fault was not the employer's. The 
employer was supposed to employ the best men ob- 
tainable; therefore, the fault was not with the em- 
ployer, but with the "fellow servant." The man 
injured was presumed to know the danger, and be- 
cause he accepted it there was the "assumption of 
risk." It might be proved that the workman had not 
been properly careful, which gave reasons for "con- 
tributory negligence," and then the employer was 
assumed to have obtained the most careful and skilled 
foreman or superintendent, and the foreman, and even 
the superintendent, became "a fellow servant." Thus 
the law gradually arrived at the common law de- 
fenses. As long as those defenses were in full force 
there was little likelihood of any verdict for the com- 
plainant. It largely reduced itself to an insurance 
against law suits with a premium, which could easily 
be estimated, and covered by insurance. When the 
common law defenses were swept away by legisla- 
tion, verdicts became numerous and the amounts 
varied to such extent that it became very difficult to 
estimate the proper insurance premium, and work- 
men's compensation became, for this and other rea- 
sons, more acceptable than employers' liability. 

Accident Compensation for Workmen 

"'The very name carries with it the idea that no- 
body is really at fault, that they are inevitable, that 
there is an average number of such accidents and 
that a scale can be devised for each class of such 
accidents. The number and kind having been fairly 
well ascertained and the scale provided, there was 
clear sailing for the protection and indemnity insur- 
ance company. The idea that this system could 
abolish the "ambulance-chasing lawyer," and that the 
injured man would then be free to enjoy the com- 
pensation, because there would be no lawyer to take 
the "lion's share," helped to make the thing popular. 

" 'There are, however, two kinds of "ambulance- 
chasing lawyers," and the kind representing the pro- 
tection and indemnity association is just as watchful 
and ever-present as the other kind; besides he is much 



more influential in gaining admittance to the injured, 
in obtaining hospital and other records that are often 
denied to the attorney representing the injured. Nay, 
there are even statutes which stand in his way. 

" 'Whether the system of workmen's compensation 
deserves all the praise that is heaped upon it I shall 
not attempt to discuss as long as it is applied to work- 
men on shore. The workmen on shore seem to like 
it, and they should know best; but when it is applied 
to seamen, I must enter my protest unless the seaman 
be permitted to enjoy all existing remedies at the 
same time and is then permitted to choose his remedy 
after the accident has occurred. 

" 'As long as the employer has the wherewithal to 
pay the damages and the common law defens 
not there to protect him. he has, aside from all human 
consideration, a vital financial interest that places his 
self-interest as a guardian for the workman's safety. 
Under accident compensation for workmen, the em- 
ployer pays his premium and it matters not to him 
financially how many are maimed or killed. This 
may not mean much to the workman on shore. If 
he has any sense, and he marly always has, he can, 
when he sees that the job is likely to maim him or 
kill him, take off his overalls, put on his coat and 
quit; but not so the seaman. He must obey the order 
or be put into irons, and if disobedience be persisted 
in, put on bread and water with full rations every 
fifth day until the disobedience shall cease. Since the 
full rations every fifth day sharpen his appetite, and, 
therefore, _ increase his sufferings, while it keeps him 
alive, he is not likely to remain obdurate very long; 
besides he will be sent to prison on arriving on shore. 
while in harbor he may be at once arreted and sent to 
prison. All under the laic of practically all nations. 
Some one who is unacquainted with sea life may say, 
"but that ought to be abolished," to which there is 
the ready answer that "such cannot be at sea." be- 
cause the very essence of safety is, that the individual 
seaman must be ready to die, that the vessel may be 
saved and that the others may live. So that t! 
man must obey. He cannot take olT his overalls and 
quit. It may be answered that such is the assumption 
of risk in service at sea, and that is true; but the risk- 
may be very much minimized by the skill of the 
officer, who gives the order, and of the seaman, who 
must obey. 

" 'In such cases how much is unavoidable risk and 
how much is ignorance or carelessness, or both, can 
not be ascertained except by a proper trial, and if it 
be ignorance or carelessness, or both, how can it be 
reduced, except by the vitally conscious self-interest 
of the shipowner? A seaman is hurt, and though it 
is the legal duty of the master to see that lie is given 
medical aid as quickly as possible, the man may be, 
and often is, taken not only to some port where help 
is obtainable, nay, he may be and he sometimes is 
carried out of port to sea, because there is loss to the 
vessel in delay. The man might have been saved by 
prompt medical aid; but he becomes a cripple for life, 
or he may die, leaving his dependents penniless and 
in want. This is known as "failure to treat," and is 
usually paid for in so heavy damages that it does not 
often happen. This was no accident, and yet it is to 
be compensated for by some sum, against which the 
shipowner may take out insurance. The vessel goes 
to sea in an unseaworthy condition, nay, she is some- 
times sent to sea to be lost. How will compensation 
discover and deal with that? Will there be any in- 
centive even for discovery? 

" 'The vessel has not the proper forecastle and the 
seaman becomes so sick, as a result, that he never 
recovers his proper health, or the food may be below 
the health-preserving standard in quality and amount. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



181 



These questions are matters of law. These are of- 
fenses against law. They are not accidents, unless 
some act of God has intervened since the vessel went 
to sea. The vessel goes to sea with one or more 
officers, who may be brutal and so ill treats the men 
that one or more become incapacitated for life. This 
is now actionable in a civil court, and damages may 
be, and they have lately been, awarded. Again some 
officer may be ignorant or thoughtless and may, with- 
out any necessity, send a seaman to do something 
and to do it in such manner that he is hurt and ever 
after unable to earn a living. This was the case in 
Johnson vs. Panama Steamship Company, and the 
Supreme Court of the United States sustained the 
verdict and damages given by the lower courts. How 
will accident (?) compensation deal with such cases, 
and if it be possible, how will such cases become more 
rare, when the shipowners may insure, pay a premium 
and thus cease having any responsibility in the 
matter? 

" 'These are a few of the many things that do hap- 
pen. It is true that in late years these torts have 
become more rare; but that is caused by the fact that 
the shipowner's vital self-interest has been sharpened 
by legislation and by suits, either at law or in ad- 
miralty, and that carelessness has proved costly to 
either the shipowner or the protection and indemnity 
insurance association, or to both. If self-interest is 
abolished as guardian, the old condition is sure to 
return. Prosecutions under criminal law will not pre- 
vent it, because juries that may award damages will 
not send offenders to prison except in most atrocious 
cases, and then the penalty is not really such as to 
be much of a deterrent. But aside from this, the 
really guilty party is the one who hires the incompe- 
tent or the brute, or who sends the vessel to sea in 
an unseaworthy condition. 

" 'One of the best arguments in favor of compen- 
sation on shore is that the help comes practically at 
once, while liability is at best slow. On shore and in 
harbor, as applied to harbor workers, that is true. 
The worker is at home or with friends and the com- 
mission is near and accessible; but the seaman is away 
from country, home and friends. The vessel is away 
from the commission. She may be in Asia, South 
Sea Islands, Australia or Africa, away even from 
consuls or commercial agents, and if the "care and 
cure" is abolished, the men are likely to be thrown 
on shore to be eaten by strange dogs. That such is 
no idle dream is best shown by the fact that it was 
necessary to pass laws against marooning of seamen. 
The consuls, commercial agents and masters of ves- 
sels know the present law, they know the penalty for 
failing to furnish "care and cure," and they very sel- 
dom fail in that duty. This law is in fact a compen- 
sation law. It is specific, it operates at once, and 
while the compensation is small, it is so important 
that it alone is worth, as it stands more than any 
compensation law executed by any commission sit- 
ting at home, while the vessel and the man are some 
thousands of miles away. This law comes down to 
the present time from the ' Rhodians through the 
Roman law, and it has so far never been interfered 
with in the United States, except to the extent of being 
enforced through damages for "failure to treat." In 
many other countries it has been substantially repealed. 

" 'To repeal the existing remedies and furnish as a 
substitute any kind of compensation is in reality to 
put a premium on inhumanity amounting to a per- 
mission to maroon sick and disabled seamen, and in 
many instances it will lead to loss of life. While 
there are seamen who favor such laws, it is simply a 
failure to think through the subject. No seaman or 
shipowner who takes the trouble to think carefully 



over this question will, after mature consideration, 
favor any such law. 

" 'Respectfully submitted, 

'"ANDREW FURUSETH, 
" 'President, International Seamen's 
Union of America.' 

"The result was that the Congress of the United 
States peremptorily refused to impose workmen's 
compensation upon seamen specifically for the reasons 
given in this document. 

"The struggle to impose workmen's compensation 
upon the seamen comes mainly from the experience 
with the kind of men who come to the sea without 
experience and are therefore subject to numerous in- 
juries against which the experienced seaman guards 
himself as long as the vessel or vessel's gear is in a 
seaworthy condition. 

Hours of Labor 

"In dealing with the hours of labor for seamen I 
respectfully submit that safety at sea no less than the 
health of the seaman requires regulations of the hours 
of labor, but it would be idle to seriously discuss a 
regulation of the hours of labor without at least hav- 
ing in mind the number of men needed and the ex- 
perience and skill of those men. The safety at sea 
depends more upon skill than upon numbers. The 
necessary number must of course be there, and hours 
of labor, in other words, their watches, must be so 
regulated that the skilled and experienced will be 
available when needed, and that the men will be in 
such condition that they are capable of responding. 

"The sailors, or men in the deck department, should 
be divided into three equal watches to serve success- 
ively, for the purpose of the upkeep of the ship and of 
doing the things in the sailing of the ships that are 
necessary to be done under ordinary conditions. In 
times of stress and danger the seamen always did and 
always will be compelled to continue to labor until 
they are utterly incapable of continuing any longer. 
This is dictated by the condition of lite at sea. 

"The men in the engine department should be di- 
vided into at least three equal watches to serve suc- 
cessively, and neither in the deck departmnt nor in 
the engine department should the watches be broken 
at sea except upon the imperious demand of danger. 

"The men in the steward's department which are 
unsuitable for dividing into watches, hours of labor 
might possibly be set at eight or nine hours, but so 
arranged that rest might intervene as the exigencies 
of the work may permit. 

"On behalf of the seamen of the United States I 
respectfully petition the International Labor Office to 
seriously consider the fundamentals that lie at the 
base of the present seamen's difficulties and troubles, 
and to expend no serious efforts in trying to turn the 
merchant marine into a hospital for the cure of dis- 
ease or to further destroy safety by relieving the ship- 
owners of all personal financial responsibility by 
adopting workmen's compensation as applied to the 
seamen. 

"May I not, sir, in the interest of international 
maritime commerce, in the interest of safety at sea, 
and in the interest of real seamen, urge upon you to 
submit this communication to the conference dealing 
with seamen's welfare in port and protection of sea- 
men in case of sickness, including the seamen injured 
on board ships. 

"Hoping that it will be thus submitted, and thank- 
ing you in advance, I beg to remain, 
"Most respectfully yours, 

"ANDREW FURUSETH, 
"President, International Seamen's 
Union of America." 



182 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



The meeting opened at 10 a. m. by the Secretary- 
General of the Conference, who, after greeting the 
delegates, stated that the Agenda of the present ses- 
sion consists of the four following items: 

I. Regulation of hours of work on board ship. 
II. Protection of seamen in case of sickness (in- 
cluding the treatment of seamen injured on 
board ship), i. e.: 

(a) The individual liability of the shipowner 
toward sick and injured seamen; 

(b) Sickness insurance for seamen. 

III. Promotion of seamen's welfare in ports. 

IV. Establishment by each maritime country of 
a minimum requirement of professional ca- 
pacity in the case of captains, navigating and 
engineer officers in charge of watches on board 
merchant ships. 

"C. RESOLUTIONS PRESENTED UNDER 
ARTICLES 12 (7) OF THE STANDING 
ORDERS OF THE CONFERENCE 

"In addition to the above Agenda, the Conference 
will have to consider a number of draft resolutions 
which do not relate to items on the Agenda and which 
have been forwarded to the office within the period 
provided for in Article 12, paragraph 7, of the Stand- 
ing Orders. These draft resolutions are given below. 

(1) Draft resolutions presented by Mr. Liang, Chi- 
nese Workers' Delegate. 

"I. WHEREAS, Equality of treatment of seamen 
without distinction of race or nationality is an essen- 
tial factor in the improvement of the conditions of 
life and labor throughout the world; 

"WHEREAS, Marked inequalities at present exist 
in the treatment of the seamen of certain nationalities, 
especially those from Asiatic countries, as compared 
with other seamen performing the same work in par- 
ticular in such matters as wages, hours, the protec- 
tion accorded by the laws of the country of the ship- 
owner in respect of insurance, workmen's compensa- 
tion, freedom of association, etc.; and 

"WHEREAS, The Twelfth Session of the Interna- 
tional Labor Conference adopted a resolution recall- 
ing the necessity of equal treatment of national work- 
ers and colored foreign workers, and requesting the 
Governing Body of the International Labor Office to 
consider the desirability of placing this question, if 
possible, on the Agenda of the 1931 Session; 

"The Conference requests the Governing Body to 
consider the desirability of making an inquiry into 
the present conditions of labor and treatment of 
Asiatic seamen throughout the world, and to do all 
within its power to secure equality of treatment of 
Asiatic and non-Asiatic seamen. 

"II. WHEREAS, It is essential, in order to im- 
prove their living and labor conditions and protect 
their interests, that seamen employed in territories, 
possessions or colonies of a foreign state or on vessels 
belonging to nationals of such state should be ac- 
corded freedom of association and that such freedom 
should not be unreasonably interfered with by the 
government concerned; 

"WHEREAS, Part XIII of the Treaty of Ver- 
sailles provides that the right of association for all 
lawful purposes by the employed as well as the em- 
ployers is one of the general principles for improving 
labor conditions; 

"WHEREAS, In spite of the above provision inci- 
dents of dissolving seamen's organizations and refus- 
ing permission to form seamen's unions still occur in 
certain ports; 



"The Conference requests the Governing Body of 
the International Labor Office to consider the possi- 
bility of placing on the Agenda of the next maritime 
session or the Conference the question of freedom of 
association without unreasonable interference by the 
government concerned for seamen employed in the 
territories, possessions or colonies of a foreign state 
or on vessels belonging to nationals of such state. 

(2) Draft resolutions presented by Mr. Daud, Indian 
Workers' Delegate. 

"I. WHEREAS, It is of the utmost importance 
that workers employed on inland navigable river- am! 
waterways should have the benefit of a limitation of 
the hours of work no less than seamen employed in 
maritime navigation, and whereas the recommenda- 
tion concerning the limitation of hours of work in 
inland navigation which was adopted at Genoa in 
1920 has failed to achieve adequate results; 

"The Conference requests the Governing Body of 
the International Labor Office to consider the possi- 
bility of placing the question of the limitation of the 
hours of work of inland watermen on the agenda of 
the maritime session of the Conference to be held in 
1930 with a view to the adoption of a Draft Conven- 
tion on the subject. 

"IT. The Conference requests the Governing Body 
of the International Labor Office to have an inquiry 
undertaken by the office into the conditions of life 
and labor of seamen in Asiatic countries, with special 
reference to their system of recruitment, unemploy- 
ment, housing and health, and to submit a report 
thereon to an early session of the Conference. 

"III. The Conference requests the Governing Body 
of the International Labor Office to have investiga- 
tions carried out by the office into the causes of the 
failure to apply the Draft Convention- and recom- 
mendations adopted at previous maritime sessions of 
the Conference, including the maritime conventions 
adopted in 1921. in Asiatic countries which belong 
to the organization, and to submit a report thereon 
to an early session. 

(3) Draft resolution presented by Mr. de Michelis, 
Italian Government Delegate. 

"The Conference, bearing in mind the decisions 
taken on behalf of the seafaring community and the 
measures framed at previous Sessions concerning 
workers employed in the various branches of sea, 
inland waterway and railway transport; but 

"Having regard to the importance and the expan- 
sion of air transport, which is developing into a new 
industry employing numerous categories of workers; 

"Having regard to the fact that in some countries 
workers in air transport are grouped in the same 
organizations as sea transport workers and that the 
aspirations of pilots and mechanics in aviation for 
the improvement of their condition are thus identified 
with those of seamen and engineers employed on 
board ship; and 

"Having regard to the risks to which crews in air 
transport are exposed and the desirability of regulat- 
ing internationally the working conditions and the 
protection of an occupation which as to be carried 
on in different countries; 

"Invites the Governing Body of the International 
Labor Office to consider the desirability of: 

"(a) Undertaking a study not only of the safety 
but also of the living, training and working condi- 
tions of workers in air transport with a view to 
including these questions in the Agenda of a Session 
of the International Labor Conference; and 

"(b) Appointing a Committee of experts to study 
questions affecting workers in air transport. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



183 



(4) Draft Resolution presented by Mr. Hamada, 
Japanese Workers' Delegate. 

"WHEREAS, the object of regulating hours of 
work on board ship can only be fully attained if a 
minimum wage system is established for seamen and 
rules laid down as to minimum manning scales; 

"The Conference invites the Governing Body of 
the International Labor Office to place the questions 
of: 

"(1) a minimum wage system for seamen, and 

"(2) minimum manning scales 
on the Agenda of an early Maritime Session of the 
Conference/' 

(5) Draft Resolution presented by Mr. Woo Kai 
Seng, Chinese Government Delegate. 

"WHEREAS equality of treatment of workers 
without distinction of nationality is an essential of 
social justice on which universal peace is based; and 

"WHEREAS foreign shipowners whose ships are 
employed in the territorial waters or on the inland 
waterways of China can remain beyond the reach 
of Chinese labor legislation by pleading the extra- 
territorial privileges which they enjoy as against any 
supervision by the Chinese Labor Department over 
the said ships and auxiliary vessels, and can conse- 
quently impose on Chinese seamen in their employ- 
ment much less favorable treatment than that which 
they accord to seamen of other nationalities; 

"The Conference requests the Governing Body of 
the International Labor Office to make representa- 
tions to the States Members asking them to invite 
their subjects whom it may concern to submit both 
themselves and their ships which are employed in 
the territorial waters or inland waterways of China 
to supervision by the Chinese Labor Department, 
with a view to the application of the labor legislation 
of the Chinese Government to the ships and auxiliary 
vessels as aforesaid so as to secure equitable treat- 
ment for Chinese seamen employed on them. 

(6) Draft Resolution presented by Mr. Chen, Chinese 
Employers' Delegate. 

"WHEREAS, in order to avoid disputes between 
seamen and employers, employers of the different 
countries should reciprocally respect those rights 
which a State by virtue of its sovereignty may reserve 
exclusively to its nationals; 

"WHEREAS, the development of the shipping in- 
dustry is considered to be able to improve the living 
conditions and to better the treatment of seamen; 
and 

"WHEREAS, the treatment of seamen in China 
remains different from the general standard in most 
other countries and this is due to foreign interference 
in China's right of navigation; 

"The Conference requests the Governing Body 
of the International Labor Office to urge those 
States still enjoying rights of navigation in the terri- 
torial waters and inland waterways of China to read- 
just immediately those conditions which prevent the 
development of Chinese navigation, in order to ameli- 
orate the treatment of Chinese seamen." 

The text of these draft resolutions will readily 
indicate their importance and the reason why they are 
made part of this report. 

Under the rules the subject to be acted upon in 
those meetings must be discussed twice. The first 
is to determine what seems desired or needed. When 
the points upon which agreements are reached are 
completed, they are embodied in Draft Conclusions 
according to which the office prepares a questionnaire, 



which is sent to the Member Nations, who in their 
answers indicate consent, rejection, alterations or 
substitutes. From these answers the Labor Office 
prepares a preliminary Convention or Recommenda- 
tion, which is at "the next meeting submitted for 
final action. Each item on the Agenda is submitted 
to a Commission or Committee, which reports back to 
the Conference where it is acted upon finally. In 
accordance with this system one Commission was 
organized for each item on this Agenda for the pur- 
pose of preparing the agreements forming the foun- 
dation for the questionnaires to be sent to the Nations. 
Pending the appointment of these Commissions a 
difficulty arose through a protest submitted by the 
British and others in the employers' group against 
the credentials of the British Labor group. A claim 
was made that those representing the seamen of 
Great Britain did not do so in fact, and that the 
real Seamen's Union of that country had no repre- 
sentation at all. The Committee on Credentials re- 
ported against the claim, and for the seating of the 
delegation which had been appointed by the British 
Government. The Shipowners' group left the Con- 
ference, which for a time proceeded without them. 
It was patched up, however, and the Shipowners 
later participated after the Conference had requested 
the Governing Committee to seek to prevent any 
recurrence. It was in fact admitted that the most 
influential seamen's union in Great Britain was not 
represented. 

The Commission on "Promotion of seamen's wel- 
fare in ports" was the first to report. After some 
discussion in which the several points in the report 
were explained, the report was put to a vote, which 
was taken by the showing of hands and was unani- 
mously adopted. The report reads: 

"Draft Conclusions 

"The Conference, 

"Having examined the report submitted by the 
International Labor Office on the welfare of seamen 
in port, 

"Considers that the question of the welfare of 
seamen in port could be made the subject of a Draft 
Convention or Recommendation, and 

"Invites the International Labor Office to consult 
the Governments on the following principal points: 

A 
"I. Institution in all important ports, where no 
such arrangements already exist, of an authority or 
other officially recognized organization comprising 
representatives of shipowners, seamen and the recog- 
nized institutions concerned for the following pur- 
poses: 

(1) to promote and coordinate the necessary prac- 
tical measures for the welfare of both national and 
foreign seamen, more particularly those indicated 
under (B), (C), (D), and (E); 

(2) to collect, in cooperation with the other pub- 
lic authorities concerned, all information as to the 
conditions prevailing in port and adjacent areas as 
may be necessary to enable the practical measures 
indicated above to be effectively carried out. 

"II. The desirability of the International Labor 
Office entering into contact with the Governments 
or the national committees to be set up for this pur- 



184 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



pose in order to promote collaboration between all 
the national organizations concerned. 

B 
"I. Adoption of legislative measures or regulations 
embodying among others the following measures 
account being taken of national and local conditions: 

1. Regulations of the sale of alcohol, including 
such measures as the reduction of the number of 
taverns in or near dock areas, the fixing of a closing 
time for such taverns, or such other measures as 
may be practicable for protecting seamen against the 
dangers of alcoholism. 

2. Application of the existing provisions restricting 
the sale and use of narcotics. 

Necessity of instructing seamen in the dangers 
arising from the use of narcotics. 

3. Prohibition of the employment of attendant- oi 
both sexes in public houses under a certain age. 

4. Institution of official supervision of taverns, 
lodging-houses and hotels. 

5. Supervision of persons visiting ships in order to 
prevent persons desiring to go on board with the 
intention of introducing alcoholic drinks or nar- 
cotics or for other undesirable purposes from having 
access thereto. 

6. Sufficient lighting for docks and the fencing of 
dock areas, wherever such a measure is possible, by 
fixed or movable barriers. 

7. Supervision of boatmen plying between the ships 
and the shore. 

8. Removal from the port area of loafers and per- 
sons of no definite occupation. 

"II. Adoption of measures for enforcing the regu- 
lations, for example: 

1. Organization of special police forces for the port 
and its surroundings. 

2. Improved cooperation between the consuls and 
the local authorities. 

3. Greater practical facilities for seamen to com- 
municate with their consul. 



"Adoption of measures to protect the health of 
seamen and, in particular, 

1. The prohibition of soliciting and enticing sea- 
men in the harbor area, 

2. Propaganda among seamen by national organi- 
zations, working if possible in contact with the volun- 
tary organizations referred to in Article 25 of the 
Covenant and the technical bodies with which they 
cooperate, concerning the dangers of tuberculous, 
tropical, venereal and other diseases; the nei 

for -infected persons to receive attention; and the 
available facilities for such attention. 

3. The necessity for the organization of prophy- 
laxis and of free and accessible treatment for vene- 
real diseases, as provided for by the Brussels Agree- 
ment of 1924, and the necessity of extending this 
Agreement to as many countries as possible. 

4. The admission without difficulty of seamen of 
all nationalities and all religious beliefs to public hos- 
pitals and dispensaries in ports. 

5. The extension as far as possible to foreign sea- 
men of the provisions made in the national sphere 
for protection against tuberculosis. 

D 

"Adoption of measures relating more particularly 
to accommodation for seamen: 

1. Provisions of a sufficient number of hotels for 
seamen of all nationalities satisfying all the necessary 



conditions at a reasonable price and the institution 
of the official supervision mentioned in B. I (4). 

2. Institution and development in all ports of a 
certain size of: meeting and recreation rooms (can- 
teens and rooms for games); libraries; sports organi 
zations; opportunities for excursions. 

3. Extension of facilities in connection with the 
majority of hotels, homes and other institutions for 
seamen, or through other organizations for enabling 
seamen to deposit their wages and to transmit them 
to their families from foreign ports. 

4. Steps to favor the general adoption of the sys- 
tem under which, as soon as a seaman is enrolled, 
he may allocate, if he so desires, part of his wages 
for regular remittance to his family. 

E 

"The possibility of propaganda being undertaken 
by official or voluntary bodies with a view to ensuring 
the success of the proposed measures. 

F 

1. Indication of sources from which funds neces- 
sary for giving effect to the measures contemplated 
in the foregoing parts of the Conclusions may be 
drawn. 

2. Possibility of some contribution from the funds 
of social insurance institutions. 

Resolution 

"The Conference requests the Governing Body of 
the International Labor Office to instruct the Office 
to enter into communication with the Transit Or- 
ganization of the League of Nations in order to urge 
the desirability of exempting officers and seamen 
possessing identity papers with their photographs at- 
tached duly issued by their national authorities, e. g., 
seamen's discharge books, from the requirement of 
presenting ordinary passports on disembarking in 
foreign ports." 

In reading this report one cannot avoid the opinion 
that the Commission and the Conference accepts the 
seaman as he has become as a result of the kind of 
recruiting or system of engagement now so largely 
practiced and the kind of men and boys thus ob- 
tained for service at sea, and that they were trying 
to make rules for the moral improvement of the 
inmates of a reformatory. The attempt is to guard 
the inmates from being spoiled or corrupted by the 
men and women in the ports. When we consider 
that those boys are from fifteen to eighteen years 
of age when beginning sea life, that their especially 
formative years have been in the homes and some- 
times in the schools of their respective countries, 
that they usually are from the poorest class, that 
already at the age of six they very often were sent 
out on the street to gather knowledge of the world, 
and that most of their time is on the vessel learning 
from their elders and from each other, we cannot 
fail to question both the utility and sense of such 
effort. When we consider that their elders are of 
any age, that speaking generally they are the prod- 
ucts of their surroundings, that they come from the 
lower, if not the lowest, >trata in their several coun- 
tries, that their ideas of morality and of sex relation - 
were necessarily formed before coming to the sea, 
that they are largely failures, repudiated by shore 
life, we must admit that all such efforts are futile, 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



185 



and we cannot help knowing that from such material 
very few seamen can be made even if they remained 
at sea long enough, and that such schemes are 
destructive to safety at sea and of safety to nations 
with sea coasts to defend. Galley-slaves were on the 
galley to row, not to fight, and they also were 
shackled to their places. Under the system now so 
largely obtaining, the tendency is and increasingly 
must be downward, at least in the white race, until 
the white man will refuse to become a seaman. 
Whence the officers shall come will then be, as it 
has already become, a very serious question. That 
school-ship system is a failure in this respect is 
plain to all who have really looked sufficiently into 
the question to find out the number of seamen who 
have been on school-ships, and have remained at sea. 
The next Item on the Agenda to be reported upon 
was Number IV — the minimum capacity of officers, 
on which the report was as follows: 

"Draft Conclusions 

"The Conference, 

"After examining the Report presented by the In- 
ternational Labor Office on the question of the mini- 
mum requirement of professional capacity in the case 
of captains, navigating and engineer officers in charge 
of watches on board merchant ships, 

"Invites the International Labor Office to consult 
the Governments on the following points: 

1. The possibility of adopting a Draft Convention 
specifying that possession of a certificate of profes- 
sional capacity is to be required by national legisla- 
tion for employment as: 

(a) Master or skipper; 

(b) Navigating officer in charge of a watch; 

(c) Engineer officer in charge of a watch. 

2. The determination of the scope of this Draft 
Convention on the basis of general definitions, which 
might be as follows: 

Master or skipper: any person having command or 
charge of a vessel; 

Navigating officer in charge of a watch: any per- 
son, not being a pilot, who is navigating a ship. 

Engineer officer in charge of a watch: any person 
who is running a ship's engines. 

3. Possibility of providing for minor exceptions, on 
such grounds as, for example, type of vessel and 
tonnage. 

4. Possibly, general conditions for granting certifi- 
cates which should be specified by national laws or 
regulations: 

(a) a minimum age; 

(b) a certain standard of professional experience; 

(c) the necessity of passing one or more exami- 
nations organized and supervised by the public au- 
thorities. 

5. The provision of sanctions against: 

(a) a shipowner engaging a master or officer who 
is not duly certificated, as required by the Draft 
Convention; 

(b) a master or officer making use of forged docu- 
ments to obtain employment as such. 

The determination of the character of such sanc- 
tions (penal or disciplinary). 

6. Supervision of the enforcement of the stipula- 
tions of the Draft Convention; 



The right of the authorities responsible for the 
application of laws or regulaions relating to the safety 
of navigation to detain any vessel not carrying the 
duly certificated officers required." 

After some discussion, sub-section (c) of point 1 
was, on motion offered by the Labor Group, amended 
by inserting before the word "engineer," the words 
"Chief Engineers and" so as to assure that the chiei 
engineer who does not usually stand watch shall be 
a really experienced man. Whereupon the report 
was adopted by a vote of 65 to 0; the Shipowners' 
Group refraining from voting. 

It will be noted that this report makes no sug- 
gestions with regard to age, theoretical knowledge of 
navigation or engineering, or to practical experience, 
but leaves those questions upon which safety so 
largely depends to national legislation. Why the 
Shipowners' Group should refrain from voting is, 
under the circumstances, not clear, unless we assume 
that what the Shipowners desire is to have no rules 
at all, except such as they shall provide. If, how- 
ever, the assumption be right, it is easily understood. 
They have by national legislation in nearly all coun- 
tries freed themselves from the risks arising from 
the dangers of the sea through insurance, from lia- 
bility to the traveler and shipper through laws limit- 
ing or abolishing their liability, from the duties to 
the seamen employed, imposed upon them by ancient 
laws, by getting them transferred either to the na- 
tional governments or to the seamen, from the risks 
arising from the employment of inefficient officers 
and men and from an insufficient number of seamen 
employed, through protection and indemnity insur- 
ance, which, together with the premium on so-called 
legitimate insurance and on the insurance not yet 
considered so legitimate, is placed in the overhead 
expense and recovered through increase in the freight 
and passenger rates, and also from the risks arising 
from piracy, insurrection and revolution through the 
policing of the seas and damages recoverable from 
the nations. Having accomplished this much they 
might well seek to escape from safety laws and in- 
spections. 

It is reported that Warren Hastings, during his 
trial with regard to his conduct in India, said: "Gen- 
tlemen, I am astonished at my own moderation." 
This is a humility of spirit which no student would 
accuse the shipowners of possessing, nor could the 
shipowners even think of using that expression from 
Warren Hastings with reference to their own conduct. 

That the tentative assumption of the shipowners' 
point of view, above suggested, may be right, is 
strengthened by the position which they took with 
reference to their liability to sick, injured or dead 
seamen. The shipowners say that they "feel that 
there is no compelling reason for any action to be 
taken by this Conference." 

The Draft Conclusions to which the shipowners' 
group had proposed sundry amendments reads as 
follows: 



186 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March, 1930 



"Draft Conclusions 

The Liability of the Shipowner Towards Sick or 
Injured Seamen 

"The Conference, 

"Having examined the report submitted by the 
International Labor Office on the protection of sea- 
men in case of sickness and injury, and in particular 
that part of the report which relates to 'the indi- 
vidual liability of the shipowner towards sick or 
injured seamen,' 

"Considers that the question of 'the individual lia- 
bility of the shipowner towards sick or injured sea- 
men' could be made the subject of a Draft Con- 
vention; 

"Invites the International Labor Office to consult 
the Governments on the following principal points: 

I. Scope 

1. Scope as regards ships. 

(a) Application of the shipowners' liability to all 
ships ordinarily engaged in maritime naviga- 
tion, with the exception of ships of war; 

(b) Possible exceptions in particular in the case 
of: 

(i) vessels of public authorities not engaged 

in trade; 
(ii) coastwise fishing boats; 
(iii) boats of small tonnage. 

2. Scope as regards seamen. 

(a) Application to every person employed on 
board; 

(b) Possible exceptions, in particular in the case 
of: 

(i) pilots; 
(ii) persons employed in ports in repairing, 

loading and unloading ships; 
(iii) members of the shipowner's family who 

work exclusively on his behalf and who 

live in his house. 

II. Risks Covered 

1. Nature of the risks covered, 

(a) sickness; 

(b) injury; 

(c) death. 

2. Determination of the period of protection. 

(a) beginning of the period of protection: 
beginning of the engagement; 

(b) end of the period of protection: 
expiry of the engagement. 

3. Relationship between the service and. the risks 
covered. 

Possible exception where the injury occurs other- 
wise than in the service of the ship. 

4. Risks covered and the notion of fault. 

(a) possible exception in case of injury inten- 
tionally caused by the seaman; 

(b) possible exception in case of sickness due to 
the wilful misconduct of the seaman or to 
his own act. 

III. Benefits and Liabilities of the Shipowner 
1. Assistance to sick or injured seamen, 
(a) Nature of assistance: 

(i) medical aid, supply of proper and suffi- 
cient medicines and appliances necessi- 
tated by the sickness or injury; 
(ii) maintenance: board and lodging. 



(b) Duration of assistance: Two cases are to be 
considered: 

(i) the seamen is not compulsorily insured 
against sickness or accident, or is not 
protected by workmen's compensation 
legislation: 

right to assistance at the expense of the 
shipowner: until cure, healing of the in- 
jury, certification that the sickness is 
incurable; or 
until repatriation of the seamen, or 
until the end of the voyage of the ship, or 
until the expiry of a period prescribed In- 
law; 
(ii) the seamen is compulsorily insured against 
sickness or accident or is protected by 
workmen's compensation legislation: 
right to assistance at the expense of the 

shipowner: 
until the time when the seaman is entitled 
to the medical benefits provided by sick- 
ness insurance, accident insurance, or 
workmen's compensation. 

(c) Arrangements for assistance: 

Responsibility of the shipowner or his repre- 
sentative for the arrangements for a 
ance until the time when this responsibility 
can be transferred to the consular authority 
or to another competent authority appointed 
by national law. 

(d) Defrayment of the expenses of assistance: 

(i) Expenses paid directly by the shipowner, 
who himself pays the cost of medical treat- 
ment, drugs, hospital treatment, board 
and lodging; or repayment by the ship- 
owner or his representative of the actual 
cost of assistance; or payment of the cost 
of assistance in accordance with a tariff 
prescribed by law or regulations, 
(ii ) Obligation for the shipowner or his rep- 
resentative to deposit an advance or se- 
curity with the authority which assumes 
responsibility for the organization of 
assistance, especially in the case where the 
sick or injured seaman is left behind 
abroad. 

2. Wages of the sick or injured seaman. 

Two cases are to be considered: 
(i) The seaman is not compulsorily insured against 
sickness or accident, or is not protected by 
workmen's compensation: 

right to wages at the expense of the ship- 
owner: 

until termination of service 
until cure, healing of the injury, certification 

that the sickness is incurable; or 
until repatriation of the seaman, or 
until the end of the voyage of the ship, or 
until the expiry of a period prescribed by 
law, e. g., four months, 
(ii) The seaman is compulsorily insured against 
sickness or accident, or protected by work- 
men's compensation legislation: 
right to wages at the expense of the ship- 
owner: 

until the time when the cash benefits pro- 
vided by sickness insurance, accident in- 
surance, or workmen's compensation be- 
come payable. 

3. Repatriation of the sick or injured seaman. 
(a) Right to repatriation. 



March, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



187 



(b) Place of repatriation: 

Port of engagement of the seaman, or 
Port of departure of the ship, or 
Port in the country of the seaman. 

(c) Items included in repatriation expenses: 
expenses of transport, and of board and lodg- 
ing of the seaman during the voyage. 

4. Burial expenses. 

Liability for the shipowner to meet the expenses 
of burial: 

(a) in case of death on board; 

(b) in case of death on shore, if at the time of 
his death the seaman was entitled to claim 
assistance at the shipowners' expense. 

5. Protection of the property of sick, injured or de- 
ceased seaman. 

Liability for the shipowner or his representative, 
in case of the death of a seaman on board, or 
in case the seaman is left behind: 

(a) to draw up an inventory of the seaman's ef- 
fects and an account of the wages due to him; 

(b) to deliver to the seaman, or in the event of his 
death to his heirs, his effects and wages, in- 
cluding the proceeds of the sale of objects 
which could not be kept on board, through the 
agency of the maritime or consular authority 
or some other competent authority. 

IV. Settlement of Disputes 

Provision of means for the settlement of disputes 
which shall be readily accessible, quick acting and 
inexpensive. 

Compulsion to essay conciliation in case of dispute 
between shipowner and seaman: 

(a) on the i